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Swedish Estonia Courland
First posted on February 13th 2010






In 1621 the city of Riga surrendered; Livonia, hitherto a vassall of the Kingdom of Poland, except for the southeastern region of Latgale, was annexed by Sweden. The Livonian Landtag (diet) maintained a considerable degree of autonomy.
The German minority in Livonia maintained control of the country; all the nobles spoke German (although they, abroad, may have assumed Swedish nationality, such as Axel von Fersen, who tried to save Marie Antoinette). German was the language of the city council of Riga, of the guilds, of the Lutheran Church. The vast majority of the population - Estonians and Latvians - by status were serfs.
During the Great Northern War (1699-1721), Swedish forces, although long victorious, were overextended. In 1710, the year following the disastrous defeat in the Battle of Poltava 1709, Swedish Livonia surrendered to the Russian Empire. Maintaining its autonomy, in 1712 Livonia, with the inclusion of Ösel, became Livland Gubernia.

Livonia 1621-1721

Historical Atlas : Livonia Page
List of Wars, Livonia Page







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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Articles : Livonia, from Wikipedia
Articles : Livland, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Svenska Livland, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
K.J. von Blomberg, An account of Livonia: with a relation of the rise, progress, and decay of the Marian Teutonick Order, 1701, posted on Google Books
Links, on History Category : Livonia, from Wikipedia
Kategori : Livland, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Organizations Öpetatud Eesti Selts (Learned Estonian Society)
Estonian Museum Association; Latvijas Muzeju Biedriba (in Latvian)
Eesti Genealoogia Selts (Estonian Genealogical Society); Latvian Genealogical Society; Association of the Four Baltic Noble Corporations, Livonia, Estonia, Courland, and Oesel (Baltische Ritterschaften); click Estonia, Livonia, Oesel (Estländische Ritterschaft; Livländische Ritterschaft; Oeselsche Ritterschaft)
Institut für Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen in Nordosteuropa at Universität Hamburg
Latvijas Institute
Baltische Historische Kommission, page in German
Historical Dictionary Enzyklopädie des Europäischen Ostens, in German
Timelines
Accounts of History general Uldis Balodis, Livonian History
Gustav von Bergmann, Geschichte von Livland, nach bossuetischer Art entworfen 1776, in German, posted on Google Books
Specific Periods Article : Svenska Livland, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
E. Seraphim, Geschichte Liv-, Est- und Kurlands von der "Aufsegelung" des Landes bis zur Einverleibung in das russische Reich, vol.1, 1895, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Erik Esvelt, The Swedish Empire in the Baltic Nations 1998
J. Eckardt, Livland im achtzehnten Jahrhundert : Umrisse zu einer livländischen Geschichte, 1876, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Historiography
Military Svenskt Militärhistoriskt Bibliothek
Otto Sjögren, W.A. von Schlippenbach's Army of Livland (1896) translation by Dan Schorr 2002
Det Stora Nordiska Kriget, from Svenska Krig, in Swedish
Article : Andra Polska Kriget, 1600-1629, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Article Riga Castle, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances Baltic Sea Trade, from Baltic Connections
Ethnography
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses, Estonia, Latvia, from Kirken i Norge
Jewish Virtual History Tour : Estonia, Latvia, from Jewish Virtual Library; Estonia, Latvia, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Category : Religion in Estonia, Religion in Latvia, from Wikipedia
Religion, Eastern Orthodoxy in Estonia, from Estonica
Patron Saint Index : Estonia, Patrons of Livonia
Andres Andresen, The Reconfiguration of Lutheran Church Organization in the Baltic Region from the 1520s to 1917
Anton Fahne, Livland: Ein Beitrag zur Kirchen- und Sittengeschichte , 1875, in German, posted on Internet Archive
A. Buchholtz, Geschichte der Juden in Riga bis zur Begründung der rigischen Hebräergemeinde im J. 1842, 1899, in German, posted on Internet Archive
History of Regions
Local History Tartu History Timeline, from tartu.ee (Dorpat)
Riga, History of, from vest_ang
Institutions
Culture
Biographies Baltische Biographische Lexika (Baltic Biographical Lexica), in German
J.F. von Recke, Allgemeines Schriftsteller- und Gelehrten-Lexikon der Provinzen Livland, Esthland und Kurland, vol.II : G-K, 1829, vol.III : L-R, 1831, Supplements vol.I : A-K, 1859, in German, posted on Internet Archive
J.G. Frobien, Rigasche Biographieen, (1881) 1973, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Svenskt Biografisk Handlexikon, 1906, in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg
Biografica : flottan - en matrikel över flottans officerare 1687-1721, by Bengt Nilsson, in Swedish
Others Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
F.G. von Bunge, Einleitung in die Liv-, Esth- und curländische Rechtsgeschichte und Geschichte der Rechtsquellen, 1849, in German, posted on Internet Archive
F.G. von Bunge, Geschichte des Gerichtswesens und Gerichtsverfahrens in Liv-, est- und Curland, 1874, posted on Internet Archive
A.K.H. Bergengruen, Die grosse moskowitische Ambassade von 1697 in Livland, 1892, in German, posted on Internet Archive

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Livonia
Population Figures
Image Databanks Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits Online Digital Archive, from Estonial National Archive
2402 Livonica II, from Nationell Arkiv, Sweden
Katalog des schwedischen Generalgouverneur-archivs zu Riga 1908, IA
Archival Deposits Catalogue Online Katalog des schwedischen Generalgouverneur-archivs zu Riga , 1908, posted on Internet Archive
Estonia Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
P.K. Grimsted, Archives and manuscript repositories in the USSR, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belorussia, 1981, posted on Internet Archive
Dokumentesammlung des Herder-Instituts, mainly Baltic documents
Document Collections Baltic Connections : Exhibition
Rikskansleren Axel Oxenstiernas skrifter och brefvexling vol.13 : 1635 1919, in Swedish, posted on Google Books
Individual Documents Privilege of Gustav II. Adolf for Riga 1621, from Baltic Connections
Historical Maps click here
Old City Maps, from NLE Cartography Collection
Old geographical maps from the NLE Cartography Collection
K.R. Kupffer, Baltische Landeskunde : Atlas (1911) in German, posted on Internet Archive
List of Maps of the (former Swedish) Baltic Provinces, kept in RA Stockholm, Krigsarkivet, some of them clickable; comment in Swedish
Maps, on Uldis Balodis, Livonian History
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Article : Livland, from Nordisk Familjebok 1st edition 1885, 2nd edition 1912, in Swedish
Entry : Livonia pp.271-277, Estland pp.277-279. Letten/Litland pp.279-280,, in : T.G. Smoillett, The Present State of the World, vol.1 1768, posted on Google Books; Livonia listed under chapter "Sweden"
Institutions Archives State Archives of Latvia
Musea Category : Museums in Estonia, from Wikipedia
List of Museums in Latvia, from Wikipedia
Monuments
Libraries
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Coat of Arms, Vidzeme, from International Civic Heraldry
Coins The Coinage of the Baltic Countries, by Girts Eisters
Swedish Livonia and Riga, from Medieval Coinage
Svenska besittningar och dess myntning : Livland
Search Coin Archives for Livonia
William Urban, Medieval Livonian Numismatics

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general
on Estonia, Latvia Estonian National Bibliography, from Slavic and East European Library
Eesti Rahvus Bibliograafia (Estonian National Bibliography)
National Bibliography Databases, from National Library of Latvia
Baltische Historische Kommission, Publikationen (in German)
on Livonia
on Specific Issues
Concerning Livonia
Baltic Amber Bibliography Estonia
Publikationen, from IKGN
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Eastern Central Europe National Library of Estonia : E-Library
Central and Eastern European Online Library
Virtual Library Eastern Europe, maintained in Germany, most sources in German
Online Journals full text online Livländische Geschichtsliteratur vol.2 1884, vol.4 1904, posted on Internet Archive
Baltische Monatsschrift 1859, posted on Internet Archive
Estonian Journal of Archaeology, years 2000-2006 / vols. 4-10 online
Acta Historica Tallinensia, years 2000-2006 / vols.4-10 online
Online Yearbooks full text online
. . until 1789
Hollandsche Mercurius behelsende het gedenckweerdigste in Christenryck, vol.6 : 1655, 1656, vol.7 : 1656, 1657, vol.9 : 1658, 1659, vol.12 : 1661, 1662, vol.15 : 1664, 1665, vol.16 : 1665, 1670, vol.20 : 1669, 1670, vol.24 : 1673-1674, 1674, vol.27 : 1676-1677, 1677, vol.29 : 1678, 1679, vol.30 : 1679, 1680, vol.32 : 1681, 1682, vol.33 : 1682, 1683, vol.36 : 1685, 1686, vol.39 : 1688, 1689, in Dutch, GB
The Present State of Europe, or the Political and Historical Mercuries, containing all the Publick and Private Occurrences, Civil, Ecclesiastical and Military, that are most considerable in every court, vol.1 1690, vol.2 1691, vol.3 1692, vol.4 1693, vol.5 1694, vol.6 1695, vol.7 1696, vol.8 1697, vol.9 1698, vol.10 1699, vol.12, 1701, vol.14, 1703, vol.16, 1705, vol.17, 1706, vol.18, 1707, vol.20, 1709, vol.22, 1711, GB
Europische mercurius, vol.1, 1690, vol.2, 1691, vol.3, 1692, vol.4, 1693, vol.5, 1694, vol.6, 1695, vol.7, 1696, vol.8, 1697, vol.9, 1698, vol.10, 1699, vol.11, 1700, vol.12, 1701, vol.13, 1702, vol.14, 1703, vol.15, 1704, vol.16, 1705, vol.17, 1706, vol.19, 1708, vol.20, 1709, vol.21, 1710, vol.22, 1711, vol.23, 1712, vol.24, 1713, vol.25, 1714, vol.26, 1715, vol.27, 1716, vol.28, 1717, vol.29, 1718, vol.30, 1719, vol.31, 1720, vol.32, 1721, GB
The London almanack, 1693 GB
Il Mercvrio overo Historia de'correnti tempi, 1644, 1647 (I), 1647 (II), 1652 (III), 1655 (IV.1), 1655 (IV.2), 1657 (V.1), 1657 (V.2), 1667 (VI), 1667 (VIII), 1667 (IX), 1668 (X-XI), 1672 (XII), 1674 (XIII), 1684 (XIV), in Italian, GB
Mercure historique et politique, vol.1 : Nov. 1686 - Feb. 1687 , vol.2 : March-July 1687 , vol.3 : Aug.-Dec. 1687 , vol.4 : Jan.-June 1688, vol.5 : July-Dec. 1688, vol.6 : Jan.-June 1689, vol.7 : July-Dec. 1689, vol.8 : Jan.-June 1690, vol.9 : July-Dec. 1690, vol.10 : Jan.-June 1690, vol.11 : July-Dec. 1691, vol.12 : Jan.-June 1692, vol.13 : July-Dec. 1692, vol.14 : Jan.-June 1693, vol.15 : July-Dec. 1693, vol.16 : Jan.-June 1694, vol.17 : July-Dec. 1694, vol.18 : Jan.-June 1685, vol.19 : July-Dec. 1695, vol.20 : Jan.-June 1696, vol.21 : July-Dec. 1696, vol.22 : Jan.-June 1697, vol.23 : July-Dec. 1697, vol.24 : Jan.-June 1698, vol.25 : July-Dec. 1698, vol.26 : Jan.-June 1699, vol.27 : July-Dec. 1699, vol.28 : Jan.-June 1700, vol.29 : July-Dec. 1700, vol.30 : Jan.-June 1701, vol.31 : July-Dec. 1701, vol.32 : Jan.-June 1702, vol.33 : July-Dec. 1702, vol.34 : Jan.-June 1703, vol.35 : July-Dec. 1703, vol.36 : Jan.-June 1704, vol.37 : July-Dec. 1704, vol.38 : Jan.-June 1705, vol.39 : July-Dec. 1705, vol.40 : Jan.-June 1706, vol.41 : July-Dec. 1706, vol.42 : Jan.-June 1707, vol.43 : July-Dec. 1707, vol.46 : Jan.-June 1709, vol.47 : July-Dec. 1709, vol.49 : July-Dec. 1710, vol.50 : Jan.-June 1711, vol.51 : July-Dec. 1711, vol.55 : July-Dec. 1713, vol.56 : Jan.-June 1714, vol.57 : July-Dec. 1714, vol.58 : Jan.-June 1715, vol.59 : July-Dec. 1715, vol.60 : Jan.-June 1716, vol.61 : July-Dec. 1716, vol.62 : Jan.-June 1717, vol.63 : July-Dec. 1717, vol.64 : Jan.-June 1718, vol.66 : Jan.-June 1719, in French, GB
General Accounts on Eastern Europe Kevin O'Connor, The History of the Baltic States, Westport CT : Greenwood 2003, KMLA Lib.Sign. 947.9 O18h
Reinhard Wittram, Baltische Geschichte. Die Ostseelande Livland, Estland und Kurland 1180-1918 (Baltic History. The Baltic Lands of Livonia, Estonia and Courland, 1180-1918), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft (1954) 1973, in German
on Estonia or Latvia Toivo U. Raun, Estonia and the Estonians, Stanford : Hoover Institution Press 2001 [G]
Andrejs Plakans, The Latvians, a Short History, Stanford : Hoover Institution Press 1995, 257 pp.
Specific Topics
Historical Atlas Latvijas Vestures Atlants, Riga 1998 [G]
Historical Dictionary Tojvo Miljan, Historical Dictionary of Estonia, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 2004
Andreis Plakans, Historical Dictionary of Latvia, Lanham Md : Scarecrow 2008