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Estonia Courland
First posted on February 14th 2010







In 1199 to 1237 the Brethren of the Sword (also referred to as Livonian Order) by conquest established a crusader state which was referred to as Terra Mariana in Latin. In 1237 the state was forcibly placed under the state of the Teutonic Order, but maintained its separate administrative structure. Defeat in the Battle on Lake Peipus 1242 marked the end of territorial expansion; the subjugation of the native peoples was completed by 1290. The hitherto pagan native population was forcibly converted to Christianity (Roman Catholicism).
The Terra Mariana were again divided into territory under the direct administration of the Livonian order, and in Princebishoprics (Riga, Dorpat, Ösel-Wiek and Pilten). In 1346 Estonia was acquired from Denmark.
The Reformation resulted in the disintegration of the state of the Teutonic Order. Livonia (with Courland, Estonia and Oesel) remained a unit until 1561, when it also disintegrated; the Livonian diet (now only for Livonia proper, without Courland, Oesel and Estonia) paid homage to the Grand Duke of Lithuania; Ösel and Pilten became an apanage of Duke Magnus; Estonia paid homage to the King of Sweden, Courland became Duchy, vassall of the King of Poland. Political control of the region was contested in the lengthy and devastating Livonian War 1558-1583.

Livonia 1525-1561
Livonia 1346-1525
Livonia 1199-1346
The Baltic Countries before the Crusades (-1199)

Historical Atlas : Livonia Page
List of Wars, Livonia Page

Terminology : before the conquest by the Brethren of the Sword, the territory which was to become Terra Mariana was inhabited by a number of ethnicities : Livonians, Curonians, Latvians and Estonians. The Brethren of the Sword came to be called the Knights of the Livonian Order, their state "Livonian Confederation".
Ethnic Livonians made up only a small part of the original population (living in the north of western Courland, thus even outside of what from 1561 to 1918 was referred to as Livonia / Livland). In 1918 the territory of former Terra Mariana (Courland and Livland Gubernia) were absorbed by Latvia and Estonia; Latvian and Estonian historiography emphasises that the establishment of the Duchy of Livonia in 1561 marks the establishment of a new political entity, and that for the earlier period the term "Terra Mariana" should be used. Publications of documents from the years 1199 to 1561 often have lengthy titles, for example the Liv-, Esth and Churländisches Urkundenbuch; the term "Terra Mariana" appeals because of its brevity.







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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Articles : Terra Mariana, from Wikipedia
Articles : Livländische Konföderation, from Wikipedia German edition
Links, on History Category : Livonia, from Wikipedia
Kategori : Livland, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Organizations Öpetatud Eesti Selts (Learned Estonian Society)
Baltische Historische Kommission, page in German
Estonian Museum Association; Latvijas Muzeju Biedriba (in Latvian)
Eesti Genealoogia Selts (Estonian Genealogical Society); Latvian Genealogical Society; Association of the Four Baltic Noble Corporations, Livonia, Estonia, Courland, and Oesel (Baltische Ritterschaften); click Estonia, Livonia, Oesel (Estländische Ritterschaft; Livländische Ritterschaft; Oeselsche Ritterschaft)
Institut für Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen in Nordosteuropa at Universität Hamburg
Latvijas Institute
Historical Dictionary Enzyklopädie des Europäischen Ostens, in German
Timelines Robert von Toll, Chronologie der Ordensmeister über Livland, der Erzbischöfe von Riga und der Bischöfe von Leal, 1879, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Accounts of History general Uldis Balodis, Livonian History
Gustav von Bergmann, Geschichte von Livland, nach bossuetischer Art entworfen 1776, in German, posted on Google Books
Specific Periods Articles : Terra Mariana, from Wikipedia
Articles : Livländische Konföderation, from Wikipedia German edition
E. Seraphim, Geschichte Liv-, Est- und Kurlands von der "Aufsegelung" des Landes bis zur Einverleibung in das russische Reich, vol.1, 1895, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Historiography
Military Article : Livonian Crusade, from Wikipedia
Livland, Krieg, from Enzyklopädie des Europäischen Ostens, in German
Economy & Finances Baltic Sea Trade, from Baltic Connections
William Urban, Medieval Livonian Numismatics
Ethnography
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses, Estonia, Latvia, from Kirken i Norge
Jewish Virtual History Tour : Estonia, Latvia, from Jewish Virtual Library; Estonia, Latvia, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Category : Religion in Estonia, Religion in Latvia, from Wikipedia
Religion, Eastern Orthodoxy in Estonia, from Estonica
Patron Saint Index : Estonia, Patrons of Livonia
Andres Andresen, The Reconfiguration of Lutheran Church Organization in the Baltic Region from the 1520s to 1917
Anton Fahne, Livland: Ein Beitrag zur Kirchen- und Sittengeschichte , 1875, in German, posted on Internet Archive
A. Buchholtz, Geschichte der Juden in Riga bis zur Begründung der rigischen Hebräergemeinde im J. 1842, 1899, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Paul Einhorn, Ueber die religioösen Vorstellungen der alten Völker in Liv- und Ehstland, 1857, posted on Internet Archive
Articles : Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek, Bishopric of Dorpat, Bishopric of Courland, Archbishopric of Riga, from Wikipedia
History of Regions Peter Wilhelm Baron von Buxhövenden, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Provinz Oesell, 1838, posted by Google Books
Local History Tartu History Timeline, from tartu.ee (Dorpat)
Riga, History of, from vest_ang
F.G. Bunge, Die Stadt Riga im dreizehnten und vierzehnten Jahrhundert. Geschichte, Verfassung und Rechtszustand (1878) 1968, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Article : Livonian Brothers of the Sword, from Wikipedia
Culture
Biographies Baltische Biographische Lexika (Baltic Biographical Lexica), in German
J.F. von Recke, Allgemeines Schriftsteller- und Gelehrten-Lexikon der Provinzen Livland, Esthland und Kurland, vol.II : G-K, 1829, vol.III : L-R, 1831, Supplements vol.I : A-K, 1859, in German, posted on Internet Archive
J.G. Frobien, Rigasche Biographieen, (1881) 1973, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Others Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
F.G. von Bunge, Einleitung in die Liv-, Esth- und curländische Rechtsgeschichte und Geschichte der Rechtsquellen, 1849, in German, posted on Internet Archive
F.G. von Bunge, Geschichte des Gerichtswesens und Gerichtsverfahrens in Liv-, est- und Curland, 1874, posted on Internet Archive

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Livonia
WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Lists of Bishops Articles : Liste der Erzbischöfe von Riga, Liste der Bischöfe von Kurland, Liste der Bischöfe von Ösel-Wiek, Liste der Bischöfe von Dorpat (Tartu), from Wikipedia German edition
Population Figures
Image Databanks Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits Online Digital Archive, from Estonial National Archive
Archival Deposits Catalogue Online Estonia Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
P.K. Grimsted, Archives and manuscript repositories in the USSR, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belorussia, 1981, posted on Internet Archive
Dokumentesammlung des Herder-Instituts, mainly Baltic documents
Document Collections Baltic Connections : Exhibition
F.G. von Bunge, Liv-, Est- und Kurländisches Urkundenbuch und Regesten vol.II : 1301-1367, 1855, vol.III : supplements, 1368-1393, 1857, vol.VI : supplements 1875, 2nd Series vol.1 : 1495-1500, 1900, 2nd Series vol.2 : 1501-1505, 1905, posted on Internet Archive
Monumenta Livoniae Antiqua. Sammlung von Chroniken, Berichten, Urkunden und andern schriftlichen Denkmälern und Aufsätzen, welche zur Erläterung der Geschichte Liv-, Ehst- und Kurland's dienen, vol.1 1835, vol.2 1839, vol.3 1840, vol.4 1844, vol.5 1847, posted on Internet Archive
Briefe und Urkunden zur Geschichte Livlands in den jahren 1558-1562 1865, posted on Internet Archive
Individual Documents Livländische Reimchronik 1844, posted on Internet Archive
J.G.L. Napiersky, Die Erbebücher der Stadt Riga, 1384-1579, 1888, posted on Internet Archive
Das Liber Redituum der Stadt Riga 1881, posted on Internet Archive
Salomon Henning's Lifflendische churlendische Chronica von 1554 bis 1590 ; und, Bericht in Religionssachen, 1857, posted on Internet Archive
The chronicle of Henry of Livonia trsl. by James A. Brundage, 1961, posted on Google Books
Historical Maps click here
Baltic Provinces Ethnic, 1987, from Köztes Europa
Old City Maps, from NLE Cartography Collection
Old geographical maps from the NLE Cartography Collection
K.R. Kupffer, Baltische Landeskunde : Atlas (1911) in German, posted on Internet Archive
Livland um 1270, Entstehung Livländische Städte, from EEO, text in German
Maps, on Uldis Balodis, Livonian History
Map : Medieval Livonia 1260, from Wikipedia
Institutions Archives State Archives of Latvia
Musea Category : Museums in Estonia, from Wikipedia
List of Museums in Latvia, from Wikipedia
Monuments
Libraries
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Coat of Arms, Vidzeme, from International Civic Heraldry
Coins The Coinage of the Baltic Countries, by Girts Eisters
Search Coin Archives for Livonia
Search Early Dated Coins for Livonia
William Urban, Medieval Livonian Numismatics

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Estonia, Latvia Estonian National Bibliography, from Slavic and East European Library
Eesti Rahvus Bibliograafia (Estonian National Bibliography)
National Bibliography Databases, from National Library of Latvia
Baltische Historische Kommission, Publikationen (in German)
on Livonia
on Specific Issues
Concerning Livonia
Baltic Amber Bibliography Estonia
Publikationen, from IKGN
Northern Crusades Bibliography, from Crusades Encyclopedia
Lynn Nelson, A Bibliography of the Order of St. Mary of the Teutons, from ORB
Livland, from Computatio
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Eastern Central Europe National Library of Estonia : E-Library
Central and Eastern European Online Library
Virtual Library Eastern Europe, maintained in Germany, most sources in German
Online Journals full text online Livländische Geschichtsliteratur vol.2 1884, vol.4 1904, posted on Internet Archive
Baltische Monatsschrift 1859, posted on Internet Archive
Estonian Journal of Archaeology, years 2000-2006 / vols. 4-10 online
Acta Historica Tallinensia, years 2000-2006 / vols.4-10 online
General Accounts on Eastern Europe Kevin O'Connor, The History of the Baltic States, Westport CT : Greenwood 2003, KMLA Lib.Sign. 947.9 O18h
Reinhard Wittram, Baltische Geschichte. Die Ostseelande Livland, Estland und Kurland 1180-1918 (Baltic History. The Baltic Lands of Livonia, Estonia and Courland, 1180-1918), Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft (1954) 1973, in German
on Estonia or Latvia Toivo U. Raun, Estonia and the Estonians, Stanford : Hoover Institution Press 2001 [G]
Andrejs Plakans, The Latvians, a Short History, Stanford : Hoover Institution Press 1995, 257 pp.
Specific Topics
Historical Atlas Latvijas Vestures Atlants, Riga 1998 [G]
Historical Dictionary Tojvo Miljan, Historical Dictionary of Estonia, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 2004
Andreis Plakans, Historical Dictionary of Latvia, Lanham Md : Scarecrow 2008