France 1792-1795
Intellectual Life
France 1799-1804
Intellectual Lufe
France 1795-1799
the Economy
France 1795-1799
Foreign Policy

France :
The Directory, 1795-1799 : Intellectual Life

The years between 1795 and 1799 were characterized by war against foreign enemies and a paper currency constantly losing value, a population suffering from high prices and the lack of food, the government facing the threat of bankrupcy, which it (partially) eventually declared.
The moderates had resumed power and SALONS again dominated cultural life. Coins and medals issued feature those republican values which the moderates approved of - equality, as symbolized with the Jacobin or PHRYGIAN CAP, justice as symbolized in the FASCES, progress as symbolized by the triangle of the Freemasons.
French soldiers did not carry tents, merely blankets rolled up. French bakers were aked to come up with a bread which would fit in the hole in the center of these rolled-up blankets - the BAGUETTE was created.

Timetable : France during the French Revolution and under Napoleon Bonaparte. An annotated Chronology of Civil and Military Events, by Richard Orsinger, 1997
DOCUMENTS List of Presidents of the Executive Directory, Nov. 1795 - Dec. 1799, from World Statesmen : France by Ben Cahoon, scroll down
French coins from 1796, 1797, 1798, 1799

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2001, last revised on November 9th 2004

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