France 1795-1799
Foreign Policy
France 1804-1813
Foreign Policy
France 1799-1804
Intellectual Life

The Consulate, 1799-1804 : Foreign Policy

The SECOND WAR OF THE COALITION broke out in 1799, several months before Napoleon returned to France, toppled the DIRECTORY and established the CONSULATE. France faced England, Austria and Russia. Russian forces under SUVOROV were victorious in northern Italy and Switzerland, abolishing the French satellite republics where they went. When British forces took MALTA in 1800 and placed the island under British rule - the Maltese Knights had elected Czar Paul I. Grand Master in 1797 - Czar Paul I. regarded the alliance violated and ordered his forces to return to Russia. Napoleon defeated the Austrian forces; in 1801 the PEACE OF LUNEVILLE was signed with Austria, in 1802 the PEACE OF AMIENS with Britain. In 1802, France annexed PIEMONT. The CONCORDATE signed with the pope also belongs into this series of peace treaties, although French soldiers had not been fighting papal armies. In another treaty with the Ottoman Empire, the war (on since the Egyptian invasion of 1798) was terminated.
The Peace of Amiens did not last; in 1803 French troops occupied HANNOVER (in dynastic union with England). Napoleon assumed the title of MEDIATOR of the restored SWISS FEDERATION; he began the restructuring of the map of Germany and Italy. In 1804 he seriously planned an INVASION OF ENGLAND, in which use of hot air balloons was to play a major role; however it did not work out.

In 1803 Napoleon Bonaparte sold LOUISIANA to the USA, which france had regained from Spain by the TREATY OF SAN ILDEFONSO (1800).

The Napoleon Bonaparte Internet Guide, from Univ. Doetinchem, NL
Homepage from La Fondation Napoleon Bonaparte, in French and English
Timetable : France during the French Revolution and under Napoleon Bonaparte. An annotated Chronology of Civil and Military Events, by Richard Orsinger, 1997
Timeline French Foreign Policy, Consulate and Empire, 1799-1815, from France Diplomatie
DOCUMENTS Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon crossing St. Bernard (1800/01), from CFGA
Medals issued commemmorating the (planned) invasion of England 1804, from Fortiter
Treaty of Luneville, 1801, from Napoleon Series
The Concordat, 1802, from Napoleon Series
Treaty of Amiens, 1802, from Napoleon Series
Treaty between France and Wuerttemberg, 1802, from Napoleon Series
Treaty with the House of Orange, 1802, from Napoleon Series
Treaty of San Ildefonso, 1800, from Napoleon Series
Treaty with the Ottoman Empire, 1802, from Napoleon Series
Louisiana Purchase, from Napoleon Series
Diplomatic sources on the Reorganisation of Germany, 1802, from Napoleon Series
Correspondence General Moreau to Lt. Duroc, 1804, concerning the planned invasion of England, from The Balance, 1804, posted by Napoleon Bonaparte Internet Guide
Convention between France and the USA, 30. 4. 1803, from History Buff; from Alamo de Parras
Treaty between the USA and the French Republic (Louisiana Purchase), 30. 4. 1803, from Alamo de Parras
1st Convention between the USA and the French Republic, 30. 4. 1803, from Alamo de Parras
VIDEOS Napoleon, 1955, director Sacha Guitry, bw, 123 min., unfinished. Extensive on Napoleon's early years
REFERENCE William Doyle, The Oxford History of the French Revolution, 1989, 466 pp.

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2000, last revised on November 9th 2004

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