France 1799-1804
Intellectual Life
France 1815-1830
Intellectual Life
France 1804-1813
the Economy
France 1804-1813
Foreign Policy

France 1804-1813 : Intellectual Life

Napoleon Bonaparte shaped France and French society like few other men did. The French population, for a long time to come, was to be divided in three rival camps, the monarchists, the republicans and the BONAPARTISTS.
During the Empire, a PERSONAL CULT, already beginning under the CONSULATE, was openly cultivated. Napoleon's bust was featured on medals, in the later years also on coins.
Napoleon's self-coronation and nepotism cost him admirers, for instance LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN, who crossed out the dedication of his EROICA after hearing of the self-coronation in 1804.
Napoleon had the ARC DE TRIOMPHE (1806-1836) built, in NEOCLASSICIST STYLE. At the same time a new artistic style, ROMANTICISM, defying the rationalism of the French Revolution, emerged.

The Napoleon Bonaparte Internet Guide, from Univ. Doetinchem, NL
Homepage from La Fondation Napoleon Bonaparte, in French and English
Timetable : France during the French Revolution and under Napoleon Bonaparte. An annotated Chronology of Civil and Military Events, by Richard Orsinger, 1997
Links on Napoleon Bonaparte from looksmart
Arc de Triomphe Page, from
DOCUMENTS French coins, 1st Empire 1804-1814, from Numismatique - Monnaie
French coins of 1804, 1805, 1806, 1808, 1809, 1810, 1811, 1812, 1813, from Napoleonic Medals

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2001, last revised on November 9th 2004

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