France 1815-1830
Intellectual Life
France 1848-1870
Intellectual Life
France 1830-1848
the Economy
France 1830-1848
Foreign Policy

France 1830-1848 : Intellectual Life

Writer VICTOR HUGO published NOTRE DAME DE PARIS (the hunchback story) in 1831. ALEXANDRE DUMAS SR. (1802-1870) wrote THE COUNT OF MONTE CHRISTO and the THREE MUSCETIERS (both 1844-1845). Another celebrated author of the time was HONORE DE BALZAC (1799-1850). EUGENE DELACROIX was the leading painter of his time, also focussing on historical topics. In an age when censorship was still a powerful political instrument, historical topics provided artists with a means to indirectly express criticism of present socio-political ills.
The DOCTRINES OF SAINT-SIMON were published in 1829, an early communist theory; the followers were called SAINT-SIMONISTS. In 1833, ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE published Du Systeme Penitentaire aux Etats-Unis et de Son Application en France, in 1835-1840 De la Democratie (Democracy in America), looking for constitutional models applicable for France as the philosophes of the 19th century did.
France, especially Paris, continued to attract emigre artists from countries where political oppression was much more rigid.

Biography of Victor Hugo, from Books and Writers
Biography of Alexandre Dumas Sr., from Books and Writers
Saint Simon and Saint-Simonism, from Catholic Encyclopedia
Biography of Honore de Balzac, from Books and Writers
Biography of Alexis de Tocqueville, by Mike Noble
DOCUMENTS H Saint-Simon, Memoire sur la science de l'homme, from Marxism in Context
Claude-Henri de Saint-Simon, De l'organisation sociale, from Droit Constutionnel, in French

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2001, last revised on November 9th 2004

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