France 1848-1870
Intellectual Life
France 1890-1914
Intellectual Life
France 1870-1890
the Economy
France 1870-1890
Foreign Policy

France 1870-1890 : Intellectual Life

EMILE ZOLA (1840-1902) published NANA, the life story of a Paris prostitute, in 1880, GERMINAL, the story of a family of coal miners in the Borinage in 1885. Focussing on social problems of the time, he is regarded the founder of the NATURALIST movement in literature. Contemporary writers included ANATOLE FRANCE (1844-1924), short story writer GUY DE MAUPASSANT (1850-1893). JULES VERNE (1828-1905, 20,000 Leagues under the Sea, In 80 Days around the World, From the Earth to the Moon (1864), Journey to the Center of the Earth) created the genre of science fiction.
Paris by now had established herself the world capital of the arts; painters EDGAR DEGAS, PAUL CEZANNE, sculptor AUGUSTE RODIN practised their trades. Foreign painters, such as Dutchman VINCENT VAN GOGH moved to France. IMPRESSIONISM experienced its zenith in van Gogh's works; the new style of EXPRESSIONISM came up (PAUL GAUGUIN).
GEORGES BIZET (1838-1875) composed Carmen (1875); German-born JACQUES OFFENBACH (1819-1880) created the Can Can.
For the 1889 Paris World Exhibition, architect GUSTAVE EIFFEL constructed the EIFFEL TOWER; for the centennial of the United States, he also made the STATUE OF LIBERTY, a French present to the United States.

French chemist Louis Pasteur established Bacteriology and found cures for both Anthrax (1881) and Rabies (1885).

Links : 19th-Century French Literature ( A Globe-Gate Research Library)
Biography of Emile Zola, from Books and Writers
Biography of Anatole France, from Books and Writers
Biography of Guy de Maupassant, from Books and Writers
Timeline Louis Pasteur, from Institut L. Pasteur
Biography of George Bizet, from Classical Music Pages
Biography of Jacques Offenbach, from La Vie
Biography of Jules Verne, from Books and Writers
DOCUMENTS Paintings of Edgar Degas, from CGFA
Paintings of Paul Cezanne, from CGFA
Paintings by Paul Gauguin, from CGFA
REFERENCE Jean-Marie Mayeur and Madeleine Reberioux, The Third Republic from its Origins to the Great War 1871-1914, (Fr. Or. 1973, Eng. Trsl. 1984), Cambridge UP 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 944.081 M468t

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2001, last revised on March 30th 2007

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