France 1890-1914
Intellectual Life
France 1918-1929
Intellectual Life
World War I
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France in WW I
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France in World War I : Intellectual Life

During the war, CENSORSHIP was much more strict than in times of peace. Voices critical of the war were quickly denounced as unpatriotic. Writer ROMAIN ROLLAND, a pacifist of conviction, spent the war years in Switzerland; in 1915 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. Neutral Switzerland, enriched by emigres, became the birthplace of an artistic movement, which, rejecting the war as monstrous, would influence the world of painting in the later war years and the immediate post-war period - DADAISM.
Exotic dancer MATA HARI (Dutch, born in the Dutch East Indies) had the privilege of travelling from country to country. Under contract by the French secret service, she was arrested by the French, accused of spying for Germany and shot (1917).

DOCUMENTS Images from Chronik 2000 Bilddatenbank : Mata Hari's Arrest, Oct. 15th 1917
Bulletin de Lille 1916, posted by Gutenberg Library Online, in French
REFERENCE Roger Price, A Concise History of France, Cambridge Concise Histories, 1993, pp.209-218
Philippe Bernard and Henri Dubief, The Decline of the Third Republic 1914-1938, (Fr. Or. 1975, Eng. Trsl. 1985) Cambridge UP 1993, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 944.0814 B518d
Article : France, in : New International Year Book 1914 pp.261-272, 1916 pp.236-247, 1918 pp.222-232 [G]
Romain Rolland, Clerambault (1917), English translation posted online by Gutenberg Library Online

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2001, last revised on October 16th 2007

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