France 1914-1918
Intellectual Life
France 1929-1939
Intellectual Life
France 1918-1929
the Economy
France 1918-1929
Foreign Policy

France 1918-1929 : Intellectual Life

In 1920, JEAN D'ARC was sanctified; a symbolic act, as French propaganda in World War I had called on the spirit of Jean d'Arc to help the French populace endure the hardship of the war.
Although the French economy had suffered severely from the war, and many former exile artists now had returned to their newly independent countries in eastern central Europe, Paris continued to be a major European cultural center; Paris nightlife (FOLIES BERGERES etc.) contributed considerably to the expression "the GOLDEN TWENTIES". Here in Paris, US American dancer JOSEPHINE BAKER made her career.
Writer ANDRE GIDE (1869-1951) was influential, although his major work had been published before the war. Many in France's intellectual community tended toward communism, among them Andre Gide, historian MARC BLOCH (1886-1944) and (Spanish painter, residing in Paris) PABLO PICASSO.
In the early 1920es, DADAIST literature was published in France (TRISTAN TZARA, LOUIS ARAGON et al.) Both Dadaism and Cubism, however, soon were replaced by a new style, SURREALISM (ANDRE BRETON et al.; Picasso turned from Cubism to Surrealism). Surrealist artists studied psychological literature (Sigmund Freud and others).

The 24 HOURS OF LE MANS car race was established as an annual event in 1923. In 1925 the French national championship in tennis, staged since 1891, was turned into an (annual) international competition, held to honour World War I ace ROLAND GARROS.

Biography of Josephine Baker, from the Josephine Baker Estate
Biography of Andre Gide, from Books and Writers
Biography of Pablo Picasso, from showgate
Definition of Dadaism, from Dada Online
History of Surrealism, by Monique
La Creation de 24 heures, from Le Mans 24 hours
History of Roland Garros, from BBC Sport
REFERENCE Roger Price, A Concise History of France, Cambridge Concise Histories, 1993, pp.218-231
Philippe Bernard and Henri Dubief, The Decline of the Third Republic 1914-1938, (Fr. Or. 1975, Eng. Trsl. 1985) Cambridge UP 1993, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 944.0814 B518d
Article : France, in : New International Year Book 1919 pp.253-271, 1920 pp.241-259, 1921 pp.242-259, 1923 pp.254-265, 1925 pp.252-259, 1928 pp.270-276 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2001, last revised on March 30th 2007

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