Maria Theresia, Joseph II.
Era Metternich

Austria, 1792-1815

In 1789, revolution not only erupted in France, but also in Brussels, the capital of the Austrian Netherlands. The administration in Vienna responded by dispatching troops which suppressed the Belgian revolution and soon joined in an allied campaign to suppress the revolution in France reestablish the ancien regime; King Louis XVI. was married to Marie Antoinette, a daughter of Maria Theresia and sister of Emperor Joseph II. The War Austria was engaged in, with the Ottoman Empire, was concluded on the basis of the status quo ante (TREATY OF SISTOVA, 1791).
Joseph died in 1790; his successor Leopold in 1792. The Austrian troops were defeated in the canonade at Valmy, and French revolutionary forces occupied the Austrian Netherlands. Austria did not participate in the 2nd Polish Partition of 1793, but did claim its share (WESTERN GALICIA) in the 3rd Polish Partition of 1795.
The war with Napoleon continued in southern Germany and Italy; in 1797 French general Napoleon Bonaparte, after being victorious, dictated the TREATY OF CAMPO FORMIO in which Austria formally ceded the Austrian Netherlands to France; Austria was compensated by receiving the REPUBLIC OF VENICE with DALMATIA.
Peace lasted only briefly; Napoleon seemed to be invincible. He dissolved the Holy Roman Empire 1803/06; from 1804 onward Emperor Franz called himself EMPEROR OF AUSTRIA. In 1805, Austria gained the PRINCEBISHOPRIC OF SALZBURG.
Defeated by Napoleon in the BATTLE OF AUSTERLITZ in 1805, Austria had to cede Venice to the Kingdom of Italy, Dalmatia to France, Tyrol and Vorarlberg to Bavaria.
In 1809, Emperor Franz I. called on the Germans to rise against Napoleon and defeated Napoleon in the BATTLE OF ASPERN; weeks later it was the Austrians to suffer defeat in the BATTLE OF WAGRAM. Austria had to cede WESTERN GALICIA (the territory gained in the 3rd Polish Partition) to the Duchy of Warsaw, stretches of Carinthia, Crain and Croatia to France, Tarnopol to Russia. In addition, Austria had to agree to a marriage between Napoleon and Marie Louise of Habsburg. The peace conditions were humiliating.
The Tyrolians, under the leadership of ANDREAS HOFER, had risen against unpopular Bavarian rule. After months of successful resistance, Hofer was captured by Italian troops and executed in Verona; Bavaria had to cede the Trent region to Italy in 1810.
Austrian units served on Napoleon's side in the Russian campaign; after his Russian army had disintegrated, Austria switched sides. In 1813 and 1815 Austrian troops campaigned in Italy. The VIENNA CONGRESS, presided over by Austria's chancellor (since 1809) KLEMENS VON METTERNICH would decide over Europe's post-Napoleonic order.

Unlike Prussia, Austria was extremely cautious regarding the introduction of political reforms. In 1811 the OeBGB (Austrian Civil Law Code) was introduced.

List of Emperors of the Empire / Austria, 1789-1815
Links lead to Biographies from aeiou
Joseph II.
Leopold II.
Franz II., Holy Roman
Franz I., of Austria

Chronology Franz I., from Coins of Austria
The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, from Catholic Encyclopedia
Andreas Hofer Biography : inkeeper, rebel, lord, martyr, from Panorama Innsbruck, illustrated; another biography from Catholic Encyclopedia; from aeiou, illustrated;
DOCUMENTS Coins of Austria 1792-1835 (Franz I.), from Coins of Austria
List of Austrian Emperors, chancellors etc. from World Statesmen : Austria by Ben Cahoon
Map of Central Europe / Austrian Lands 1801, of 1810, 1815. from Freeman's Historical Geography (1903), posted by Perry Castaneda Library, Univ. of Texas, Map Coll.
Napoleonic Medals : First Austrian Campaign, Second Austrian Campaign, Imperial Wedding, from Fortiter
The Empire of Austria, from

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2000, last revised on November 12th 2004

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