1867-1893 World War I

Austria, 1893-1914 : Domestic Policy

In 1893 the dispute over the language of instruction at the grammar school in Celje (then Styria, now Slovenia) brought about the fall of the Taaffe administration as well as Austrian constitutional government. The Germans of all Cisleithania sympathized with the demands of the Germans of Celje that German should remain the exclusive language of instruction at the school in question, the Slovenians, supported by the Slavs throughout Cisleithania, insisted upon the introduction of Slovenian.
The consequence was that the government gave up of the idea of searching for parliamentary majorities in the case of individual issues, instead ruling via a network of agents, and in the process alienating both the German and the Slavic camps. In 1897 chancellor BADENI decreed that Bohemian state officials had to speak both Germans and Czech - all better educated Czechs qualified, but almost none of the German Bohemians. The decree infuriated the Germans, while the Czechs regarded it as merely a first step. Riots ensued, which Badeni was unable to suppress; he resigned, the decree was cancelled, the Germans were still angry, the Czechs disappointed about a half-hearted measure.
Governing became increasingly difficult, and chancellor ERNST VON KOERBER made use of emergency regulations as stipulated by the constitution of 1867; the Reichsrat now had lost the limited authority it had. Originally intended as a temporary measure, they came to be generally used - the Koerber System.
In 1906 the Austro-Hungarian AUSGLEICH (compromise) was renewed. In 1907, an attempt to reintroduce the democratic element was undertaken. For the first time, delegates of the Reichsrat were elected in direct election. Yet the measure did not work miracles; the various ethnic-political groups stuck to their policies of stubborn insistence in their demands, incongruous with those of other groups, and in the goal of political constitutions for the most part incongruous with the present Austro-Hungarian monarchy.

Noblemen dominated the Austria's cabinets into World War I. The national minorities (Czechs etc.) and their political leaders grew increasingly dissatisfied with the political system and began to look for political solutions outside of the framework of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy.

List of Emperors of Austria, 1867-1914
Links lead to Biographies from aeiou
1848-1916 Franz Joseph I.

Austria, Prime Ministers, 1867-1914
Links lead to Biographies from aeiou
Alfred August Prince zu Windisch-Graetz
Erich Count Kielmansegg
Kasimir Felix Count von Badeni
Franz Count von Thun und Hohenstein
Manfred Count von Clary und Aldringen
Ernst von Koerber
Paul Baron Gautsch von Frankenthurn
Konrad Prince von Hohenlohe-Schillingsfuerst
Max Wladimir Baron von Beck
Richard Baron von Bienerth-Schmerling
Paul Baron Gautsch von Frankenthurn
Karl Count von Stuergkh

The Ghosts of Mayerling, The death of Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria-Hungary (1858-1889), from eurohistory
Elisabeth of Wittelsbach (Empress of Austria, Queen of Hungary), from Roses de Baviere
Chronology Austria under Franz Joseph, from Coins of Austria 1657-1918
Turning Points in the Development of Parliamentarism in Austria : The Development of the Franchise; From the Monarchy to the Republic (1905-); from the Austrian Parliament
Towards the Dual Monarchy and Constitutional Government, from Austrian Parliament
Vom Einigungsparteitag bis zur Ausrufung der ersten Republik, from SPOe, Geschichte, in German, chronology 1888-1918
Christian Socialist Party, from aeiou
DOCUMENTS Lists of Austrian Emperors, Chancellors, from World Statesmen : Austria by Ben Cahoon
Images from Chronik 2000 Bilddatenbank : Bertha von Suttner
Photo : women demonstrate for women's right to vote, Vienna 1913, from AustroDIR
News from Austria, in "The Great Round World and What is Going on in it", Vol.1 No.49, October 1897, posted by Gutenberg Library Online
REFERENCE National Awakening in the Habsburg Lands (pp.778-785); Mass Politics and Nationalism : Austria-Hungary, 1867-1914 (pp.950-953) in : John Merriman, A History of Modern Europe, NY : W.W. Norton 1996
The Years of Confusion : From Taaffe to Badeni, 1893-1897 (pp.169-184); Hungary after 1867 : Koloman Tisza and the Magyar Gentry (pp.185-195); Democratic Pretence : The Indian Summer of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1897-1908, (pp.196-213); Solution by Violence, 1908-1914 (pp.214-232), from : A.J.P. Taylor, The Habsburg Monarchy, 1809-1918, Chicago : UP (1948) 1976
Article Austria-Hungary, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1913 pp. 953-966 (on events of 1912) [G]
Article Austria-Hungary, in : Statesman's Year Book 1895 pp.333-374, 1898 pp.333-375 [G]
Article Austria-Hungary - Austria, in : Statesman's Year Book 1901 pp.379-408, 428-432, 1905 pp.408-441, 461-468, 1910 pp.593-608 [G]
Article Austria-Hungary, in : The International Year Book 1898 pp.69-74, 1899 pp.88-93, 1900 pp.91-98, 1907 pp.71-77, 1908 pp.62-68, 1909 pp.65-71, 1913 pp.78-85, 1914 pp.76-83 [G]
Algernon Bastard, The Gourmet's Guide to Europe (1903), posted by Gutenberg Library Online, chapter XI pp.196-207 on Austria and Hungary

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First posted in 2000, last revised on October 19th 2007

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