1848-1849 1867-1893

The Bohemian Lands in 1849-1867

During the 1848 Revolution the nationalism of Bohemia's (and Moravia's) two ethnicities, the Czechs and the Germans, which so far had had little cobflict, pursued similar aims and had cooperated, entered on divergent paths. Bohemia's German patriots strove for the country's integration in a larger German nation state (the Paulskirche GROSSDEUTSCHLAND concept), while the Czechs regarded the lands of the Bohemian crown an essentially Slavic (Czech land).
In the wake of the suppression of the revolutions of 1848, a new period of Viennese patronization of Bohemian politics set in. In 1848 the Viennese ministry of education decreed that elementary school education in Bohemia and Moravia should be conducted in the locally prevalent language, thus German or Czech according to the local population majority. In 1866/1868 the segregation of high schools by language was decreed, further emphasizing the country's division into rival ethnicities. Prague University continued bilingually, though the far majority of classes was held in German.
The OCTOBER DIPLOMA of 1860 and the FEBRUARY PATENT of 1861 provided the constitutional basis for political organizations; the party dominating in Bohemia was F.L. RIEGER's OLD CZECH PARTY; it boycotted the Vienna Reichstag between 1863 and 1879.
Bohemia, Moravia and Austrian Silesia were strongly affected by the ongoing industrialization, the most industrialized part of the entire Austro-Hungarian Empire.
In 1862 the DEUTSCHES KASINO was built, soon becoming the center of cultural life of the city's German community.

In 1850, the OLMUETZ PUNCTATION - an agreement between Austria and Prussia - was signed in Olomouc, Moravia; it resulted in Prussia conceding Austria's continued leadership in the German Federation.
When the AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WARM/B> broke out 1866, Bohemia as usual provided the scenery for the fighting. The decisive BATTLE OF SADOWA (in German : Königgrätz) resulted in a Prussian victory; in the subsequent Treaty of Nikolsburg, Austria left the German Federation.

Article Sokol, from Wikipedia
Gallery (ed.), Geschichte Verstehen, Die Entwicklung der Deutsch-Tschechischen Beziehungen in den Böhmischen Ländern 1848-1948, in German
REFERENCE Derek Sayer, The Coasts of Bohemia, A Czech History, Princeton : Univ. Press 1998
A.J.P. Taylor, The Habsburg Monarchy, 1809-1918, Univ. of Chicago Press 1983

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted in 2000, last revised on April 2nd 2006

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