The Kingdom of Hannover, 1815-1866

In 1813/1815 Hannover's independence was reestablished. EAST FRISIA, BENTHEIM, LINGEN, HILDESHEIM were annexed to Hannover, and the Electorate was elevated into a kingdom. The Dynastic Union with Britain continued until 1837. Then King ERNST AUGUST (1837-1851) took up residence in Hannover's HERRENHAUSEN PALACE.
Meanwhile, Hannover, to a large degree administrated by a German administration, had given herself a LIBERAL CONSTITUTION (1833, replacing the constitution of 1819). King Ernst August cancelled the constitution; liberal professors of the University of Göttingen, outspoken liberals, were expelled from the country (the GÖTTINGEN SEVEN; they were greeted as heroes where they went). Among them were the BROTHERS GRIMM (publishers of a collection of German fairytales, and of a dictionary of the German language, and Historian FRIEDRICH CHRISTOPH DAHLMANN, later a representative at the Paulskirche Assembly (1848-1849). Mathematician KARL FRIEDRICH GAUSS (1771-1859) taught at the university. In 1840 a more conservative constitution was adopted.
In 1841, HEINRICH HOFFMANN of Fallersleben (in the Kgd, of Hannover) wrote the lyrics to the Deutschlandlied (Song of the Germans), the national anthem of democratic Germany. German patriotism was as manifest in Hannover as elsewhere in Germany. In 1848/1849, Hannoverians were among the representatives in the Frankfurt PAULSKIRCHE ASSEMBLY. Hannover again adopted a liberal constitution (1848).
Hannover suspected Prussia of aiming an the annexation of Hannover (as it had done in 1805) and long hesitated to join the ZOLLVEREIN, dominated by Prussia; it joined in 1854. When war broke out between Austria and Prussia in 1866, Hannover sided with Austria; after the latter's defeat, Hannover was annexed into Prussia.

Article Hanover, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1910 edition
Schloss Herrenhausen, from Homepage der Welfen, in German
Biography of the Grimm brothers, from World's Greatest Classic Books Feature
Biography of Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann, from Cethegus, in German
Die Göttinger Sieben, from Michael Bornkessels Seite, an extensive biography of F.C. Dahlmann; in German
The Kingdom of Hanover, detailed website by Lutz König
Two Countries - One Origin, Ways of Lower Saxonian America Immigrants, posted by Univ. Hannover
DOCUMENTS Treaty with Hanover of Commerce and Navigation; June 10, 1846., from Avalon Project
Declaration of Accession of His Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Oldenburg, Under the Twelfth Article of the Treaty with Hanover. March 10, 1847, from Avalon Project
Flags of the Electorate/Kingdom of Hannover (Braunschweig-Lüneburg), from FOTW, some dating before 1800, scroll down
List of Dukes/Kings, from World Rulers by Ben Cahoon, scroll down to Hanover
Stamps of Hannover, from Stamps Catalogue
Hannover : Patent die allgemeine Staendeverfassung betreffend, Dec. 7th 1819 (Patent concerning the Estates General), from verfassungen.de, in German
Hannover : Grundgesetz (basic law), 1833, from verfassungen.de, in German
Hannover : Landesverfassungsgesetz (Constitution), 1840, from verfassungen.de, in German
Gesetz beteffend die Vereinigung des Kgr. Hannover mit der Preussischen Monarchie, 1866 (Law concerning the Unification of the Kingdom of Hannover with the Prussian Monarchy), from verfassungen.de, in German
Acte du Congres de Vienne du 9 juin 1815 : Hanovre, Oldenbourg, Prusse, Hesse, from Histoire Empire
REFERENCE Territorien-Ploetz : Geschichte der Deutschen Länder, Vol.1, Würzburg 1964, pp.369-371

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on April 23rd 2002, last revised on November 12th 2004

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