Hessen-Darmstadt, 1815-1871

The VIENNA CONGRESS of 1815 confirmed the Grand Duchy of Hessen-Darmstadt, which had to cede the Duchy of Westphalia (formerly of Cologne) to Prussia. In return it gained the province of RHEINHESSEN, with the city of Mainz (1816). In 1820 a CONSTITUTION was adopted. Hessen-Darmstadt and Prussia formed the PRUSSIAN-HESSIAN ZOLLVEREIN in 1828, which in 1834 would be renamed into the DEUTSCHER ZOLLVEREIN. In 1838 the vocational school (Hoehere Gewerbeschule) was established, which in 1868 was elevated to the DARMSTADT POLYTECHNIC. In 1846 Darmstadt was connected to the growing railway network.
In 1835 writer and social critic GEORG BUECHNER ("Peace to the hovels! Death to the palaces!") avoided arrest by fleeing to Strassburg (Alsace). In 1848 Duke Ludwig III. proclaimed freedom of the press and of assembly. In 1866, Hessen-Darmstadt sided with Austria and was lucky not to be annexed into Prussia, a fate which befell her neighbours Nassau and Hessen-Kassel. In 1871, the Grand Duke of Hessen-Darmstadt was among the German princes who elected Wilhelm I.of Prussia German Kaiser. Hessen-Darmstadt retained much political autonomy as one of the KAISERREICH's federal states.
In 1827 a new bishopric of Mainz was founded; bishop KETTELER (1850-1877) devoted much attention to the situation of the working class.

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Hessia (-Kassel). Short info about Hessia, from Franken
Article Hesse, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1910 edition
Vom "populus Hassiorum" zu "Greater Hesse", from Hesseninformationen in German
Geschichte in Stichworten, from Darmstadt Homepage, in German
Article Wilhelm Emmanual Baron von Ketteler, from Catholic Encyclopedia
Bischof Ketteler, from Kath. Bezirksamt Hochtaunus, in German
Biography of Georg Buechner, by Hugh Rank
A Short History Of Darmstadt, by Uwe Beilborn
List of Grand Dukes, from World Statesmen
Hessen-Darmstadt : Verfassungs-Urkunde vom 17. Dezember 1820 (Constitution of 1820), from verfassungen.de, also from Archivio delle Costituzione (both in German); in Italian translation from Archivio delle Costituzione
Acte du Congres de Vienne du 9 juin 1815 : Hanovre, Oldenbourg, Prusse, Hesse, from Histoire Empire

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on April 23rd 2002, last revised on January 15th 2007

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