Economic History
First posted on June 16th 2008

Demographic History of Hessen

Note : this page is conceived telegram-style and selective (lists of wars deemed destructive, lists of epidemic diseases, years of famine etc.)
The data given below refer to Hessen in her borders since 1946

Aging Society
Deportation & Genocide
Ethnic Minorities : Roma (Gypsies), Turks
Catholics, Jews, Muslims
Metropolis Strasbourg
Epidemic, Pandemic Diseases
Labour Migration : Immigration, Emigration
Political Refugees : Emigrants, Immigrants
Rural Population
Population Figures
Wartime Destruction : Battleground Hessen

Aging Society
Due to a decrease in the birth rate and increasing life expectancy, since the 1960es the average age of the Alsace-Lorraine citizen has gradually increased.

Deportation & Genocide
1241 Pogrom against Jews in Frankfurt
1349 Pogrom against Jews in Frankfurt
1624 Pogrom against Jews in Frankfurt (Fettmilch Rebellion)
1914-1918 Prisoners of War held in the region
1939-1945 Forced Labour held in the region
1940-1944 Jews, Gypsies from Hessen deported; many fell victim to the Holocaust

Ethnic Minorities : Sinti and Roma (Gypsies)
Present in the region from the 15th century. In 1940-1944 exposed to deportation and genocide.

Ethnic Minorities : Turks
Most came into the country after 1961, as 'guest workers'.

Religious Minorities : Catholics
Philip the Magnanimous, Landgraf of Hessen, introduced the Protestant Reformation in 1525; Waldeck c.1530, Nassau 1534, Frankfurt in 1533, Hanau-Lichtenberg in 1570. Fulda, Limburg emerged as centers of the Counterreformation in Hessen. Frankfurt, because of her status as immediate city, had to tolerate a Catholic community.

Religious Minorities : Jews
Since the middle ages, Jewish communities are recorded in a number of Hessian cities. The Jewish community of Frankfurt was among the most important in all of Germany. Until emancipation in the early 19th century, the Jews repeatedly were exposed to pogroms. In 1939-1945 exposed to deportation and annihilation (Holocaust). Today, Frankfurt's Jewish community is one of the largest in Germany.

Religious Minorities : Muslims
Most came into the country after 1961. The majority of them are Turks.

Metropolis Frankfurt
Frankfurt, as seat of a famous university and of the European Central Bank, has attracted scholars and bankers from all over Europe and beyond, giving the city a cosmopolitan character.

Epidemic, Pandemic Diseases
1348-1349 Black Plague
1356 Plague in Hersfeld
1612 Plague in Stockhausen
1624-1625 Plague in Hessen
1634-1638 Plague in Hessen
1761-1762 'Heated Disease' spread by soldiers in Stockhausen
1777 Smallpox in Stockhausen
1814 Cholera
1918 Spanish Influenza

c. 850 Great Famine
1636-1638 Great Famine caused by 30 Years War
1816-1817 Great Famine
1845-1847 Famine caused by Potato Blight
1914-1918 Food Rationing during World War I
1940-1944 Food Rationing during World War II
1944-1947 Post-War Food Crisis

Labour Migration : Immigration 1949-1989 East Germans
1961- Turks, Yugoslavs, Greeks, Spaniards, Italians

Labour Migration : Emigration
18th-19th C. to Hungary (Banat), Russian Empire (Ukraine, Volga Region, Bessarabia)
1776-1783 - Hessian soldiers took up residence in U.S. or Canada
1824 - to Brasil
1845- Emigration to the United States

Political Refugees : Emigrants
1685 Quakers, to Pennsylvania
1933-1939 Jews, Communists, Democrats

Political Refugees : Immigrants (in part temporary)
1584-1648 Walloon, Flemish Calvinists
1681-1690 Immigration of Huguenots, Waldensians.
1945-1948 Arrival of Refugees from Estern Eiurope
1949-1989 Arrival of Refugees from Eastern Germany (numbers declining in 1961)
1956 Hungarians
1968 Czechs and Slovaks
1983- Sri Lankan Tamils
1985-1999 Yugoslavs (Croats, Bosnians, Serbs, Kosovo-Albanians atc.)

Rural Population
Peasants long were serfs. Serfdom gradually abolished in a process lasting from the early 18th to the early 19th century. Fate of peasants greatly dependent on the region where they lived (fertile valleys of Rhine, Main; Wetterau, poor soil in Rhön, on the Vogelsberg, Taunus) and on the state of peace or war. Hessen's countryside suffered serious devastation during the Thirty Years War. In the late 18th century rulers pursued the policy of 'population', resettlement. Begin or emigration of rural population in the later 18th century. With the liberation of the serfs and with Industrialization came a stronger migration from village into city, strongest in the years 1848-1918.

Population Figures
4.511 milliion in 1953, 6.068 million in 2001.

Frankfurt surrounded with a wall in 838, 1245 immediate city. Fulda 1114, Hersfeld 1170, Gelnhausen 1170, Wetzlar 1180, Friedberg c.1180, Seligenstadt city c.1188, Kassel 1189, Limburg 1214, Oppenheim 1225, Waldeck 1232, Münzenberg 1245, Giessen 1248, Idstein 1287, Marburg 13th C., Wiesbaden 13th C., Hanau 1303, Heppenheim 1318, Bensheim 1320, Darmstadt 1330, Rüsselsheim 1437.
Karlshafen established 1699, Arolsen 1719, Offenbach 18th C., Rüdesheim 1818
Strong urbanization (centers Frankfurt, Offenbach, Hanau, to a lesser extent Wiesbaden, Darmstadt, Kassel, Giessen) since the mid 19th century

Wartime Destruction : Battlefield Hessen
1353-1355 Feud between Counts of Dietz and Merenberg
1389 Frankfurt Feud against Ritter von Kronberg
1465 -1471 Great Fulda Feud
1469 Hessian Fraternal War (Hessischer Bruderkrieg)
1504 Bavarian War of Succession
1518 Feud between Franz von Sickingen and Landgraf Heinrich von Hessen
1525 German Peasants' War
1546-1547 Schmalkaldic War
1612 Fettmilch Rebellion in Frankfurt
1618-1648 Thirty Years War
1689-1697 War of the Grand Alliance
1701-1714 War of Spanish Succession
1741-1748 War of Austrian Succession
1756-1763 Seven Years War
1792-1994 War of the First Coalition
1807 French Invasion
1813-1815 War of Liberation
1830 Peasant Revolt in Niedergründau (Gelnhausen)
1848-1849 German Revolution
1866 Seven Weeks War
1914-1918 World War I
1918-1919 German Revolution
1923 French Occupation of Frankfurt
1940-1945 World War II

Literatur zur Hessischen Auswanderung, from GenWiki
Articles Arolsen : Geschichte, Geschichte der Stadt Bensheim, Geschichte der Stadt Darmstadt, Geschichte von Frankfurt am Main, Friedberg : Geschichte, Geschichte der Stadt Fulda, Geschichte der Stadt Gelnhausen, Geschichte der Stadt Giessen, Hanau : Geschichte, Geschichte der Stadt Heppenheim, Geschichte der Stadt Bad Hersfeld, Idstein : Geschichte, Karlshafen : Geschichte, Limburg an der Lahn : Geschichte, Marburg : Geschichte, Münzenberg : Geschichte, Offenbach am Main : Geschichte, Oppenheim : Geschichte, Rüdesheim am Rhein : Geschichte, Rüsselsheim : Geschichte, Seligenstadt : Geschichte, Waldeck am Edersee : Geschichte, Geschichte der Stadt Wetzlar, Geschichte der Stadt Wiesbaden, from Wikipedia German edition
Articles Pennsilfaanisch-deitsche_Geschicht - Zeittafel, from Wikipedia, Pennsylvania German edition
Niedergründauer Zeittafel, from Niedergründau
Bockenheim Zeittafel, from Alt-Frankfurt
Chronologische Zeittafel, from Bad
Zeittafel zur Geschichte von Schneppenhausen, from Heimatverein Schneppenhausen
Zeittafel Richen, from CDU Richen
Zeittafel der Stadt Bad Arolsen, from Stadtportal Bad Arolsen
Zeittafel zur Ortsgeschichte, from Borken-Arnsbach
Zeittafel zur Berstädter Geschichte, by Eugen Riess
Zeittafel, from Schlos Romrod
Zeittafel, from Flecken Kirberg
Zeittafel, from CPH Hanau
Zeittafel von Stockhausen, by H.J. Döll
Historische Zeittafel für Lampertheim und seine Stadtteile, by Hubert Simon
The Virtual Jewish History Tour : Frankfurt, by David Shyovitz
DOCUMENTS Germany, Historical Demographical Data of the Administrative Divisions Since 1950, from Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer
REFERENCE B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics 1750-1988 [G]
Anton Schindling and Walter Ziegler (ed.), Die Territorien des Reichs im Zeitalter der Konfessionalisierung. Land und Konfession 1500-1650, Vol.4 : Mittleres Deutschland, Münster : Aschendorff 1992

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted om June 16th 2008

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