Pomerania as described in Historic Encyclopedias

Brockhaus 1809-1811, Pierer 1857-1865, Meyer 1885-1892, Nordisk Familje-Bok 1904-1926

Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811

Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811, Article : Pommern
Pomerania, which used to be divided in Swedish and Prussian Pomerania, of which the former, the Swedish one, only consisted of the territories of Barth, Gutzkau and Rügen, had an area of 66 square miles and a population of 116,000, was also affected by the general political shake-up. In the year 1806 Swedish Pomerania was integrated in Sweden. Because of the unlucky war with France, in 1807 Swedish Pomerania perpetually was separated from Sweden. At present, its future is uncertain. source in German, posted by Zeno

Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon 1809-1811, Article : Das Herzogthum Pommern
The Duchy of Pomerania, in the Upper Saxonian Circle, which borders in the east on Prussia, in the south on Poland, Neumark and Uckermark, in the west on Mecklenburg and in the north on the Baltic Sea, by nature (the Oder) is divided into Hither and Further Pomerania, politically into Swedish and Prussian Pomerania. The Duchy of Pomerania is of low elevation, and plain. For the most part it is fertile, and it has an area of 508 1/4 square miles.
source in German, posted by Zeno

Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, Article : Pommern
Pomerania, province of the Prussian state, formed of Prussian Further Pomerania and Swedish Hither Pomerania, which became Prussian in 1815, the districts Dramburg and Schiefelbein completely, of parts of district Arnswalde of the Neumark and of a few West Prussian municipalities. It borders on the Baltic Sea, West Prussia, Brandenburg and Mecklenburg, 576.72 square miles. Pomerania is a large plain; only on the island of Rügen, especially on Jasmund Peninsula, it has some degree of a mountainous character; in several other regions isolated hills (Gollenberg, Revekuhl c. 300 feet); along the coast of Further Pomerania dunes. The sandy soil is rather fertile, and in some areas, especially on Rügen and in Hither Pomerania, very productive; almost 1/2 of the land is farmland, 1/13 meadows, 1/6 forest etc. The Baltic Sea in the north has formed a torn-ip coast in the western half of the province, is shallow and permits larger ships to approach it only on a few locations; it creates a few islands only in Hither Pomerania (Rügen, Germany's largest island, Usedom and Wollin), and forms three inlets, the Rügen Bodden (Neues Tief), the Pror Wyk and Tromp Wyk. Stettin Haff, the Leba, Garde, Vintzig, Vitte, Buckow, Jasmund, Camp, Eineberg Lakes are beach lakes. Further there is a large number of inland lakes, of which Kummerow, Neuwarp, Plön, Dammer and Madüe Lakes are the largest. All of the rivers flow in the direction of the Baltic Sea; the main river, the Oder, divides the province in Hither and Further Pomerania. Tributaries on the left : Weise, Ucker and Peene, on the right : Thue, Plöne and Ihla; coastal rivers are the Leba, Lupow, Stolpe, Wipper, Persante, Rega; into the Netze feed the Drage and Kudow; into inland lakes the Barth and Ryk. Products : livestock (especially geese), fish (especially herring and eels), grain (especially rye), frax, timber, fruit, hemp, tobacco, hop, vegetables, fodder plants, legums, bog iron, turf, salt, amber. The 1,328,380 inhabitants are Germans, a small remnant Kassubians. The industry is less than in the other German provinces of the Prussian state; most important the textile, cloth and leather production, shipbuilding and distilleries. In 1855 there were 11 paper factories, 5 tanneries, 189 distilleries, 16 ironworks, 15 glass factories, about 300 steam engines. See trade is namely conducted through Stettin, but also through Swinemünde, Stralsund, Greisfwald, Kolberg, Anklam etc. Inland trade is conducted by shipping on the Oder and her tributaries (partially by steamships) and by the railroads Berlin-Stettin, Stettin-Greifswald and Stettin-Kolberg-Köslin. Public institutions of science and education : Greifswald University, 6 gymnasia (Stettin, Stargard, Neustettin, Köslin, Stralsund, Greifswald), 4 seminaries, 3 country teacher seminaries (Stettin, Köslin, Greifswald), the school for midwives in Stettin, 2 navigation schools in Stettin and Greifswald, the Society for Pomeranian History and Antiquity in Stettin. In the old days Prussian Pomerania was divided in Further and Hither Pomerania, and Swedish Pomerania consisted of island and principality of Rügen and a part of Hither Pomerania to which the Stralsund Territory, the Principaliy of Barth, the County of Gützow and the Barony of Wolgast, 66 square miles. In evern older times even Pommerellen belonged to it. Pomerania has provincial estates who as a federation represent Old Hither Pomerania, Mew Hither Pomerania, Rügen and Further Pomerania and consist of 49 members, 25 nobles, 16 representatives of the cities, 8 of the estate owners and farmers. The estates assemble in Stettin. The province is divided in 3 governmental districts (Regierungsbezirke) : Stettin, Köslin and Stralsund. Their respective governments are placed under a superior presidium in Stettin.
History Further Pomerania (Pommern-Stetin) .. Under such sad conditions Bogislav XIV. did, and with him the main line of the Pomeranian dynasty ended. Without any dispute the inheritance fell to he House of Brandenburg, but the Swedes which held the land occupied, regarded the Elector of Brandenburg as an ally of the Emperor and thus an enemy, and proceeded to turn the occupation into a permanent one. Elector Georg Wilhelm made only hapless attempts to stop them. When Elector Friedrich Wilhelm came to power, he signed a truce with Sweden and tried to gain by the way of negotiations what was impossible to gain by the force of arms, but he found no support from the sides of Poland, Austria and France; it seemed everybody was prepared to leave Pomerania in the possession of the Swedes, and in the Peace of Westphalia 1648 the Elector was forced to cede to Sweden all of Hither Pomerania with Rügen, and of Further Pomerania Stettin, Garz, Damm, Golnow, the Frisches Haff and the Oder branches Swine and Divenow. He was compensated by the Stifts Magdeburg, Halberstadt and Kammin. Friedrich Wilhelm still did not enjoy the peaceful posession of his land, he had to cede more land and permit the Swedes to collect customs on his borders before they agreed to evacuate his part of Pomerania. Several attempts by the Great Elector to acquire Pomerania (1658-1660, 1675-1679) failed, as Brandenburg was abandoned by her allies, and on each occasion had to hand over her acquisitions. When in the Great Northern War Charles XII.'s power was broken at Poltava, and Denmark and Augustus the Strong had renewed war against him, and Charles XII. abolished the state of neutrality of Swedish Pomerania (which had been advantageous), King Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia had it occupied and later declared war on Sweden; he conquered Greifswald, Anklam, Wolgast and Rügen. In the Peace of Stockholm 1720 Brandenburg received Pomerania south of the Peene, with Stettin, Usedom and Wollin, the cities of Damm and Golnow and the Oder branches Swine and Divenow. He paid 2 million Reichsthaler compensation and took over 600,000 Reichsthaler of the Pomeranian debt. Sweden only held on to the so-called Swedish Pomerania, between Mecklenburg, Baltic Sea and the Peene. In vain Sweden, in the Seven Years' War, attempted to regain her loss, in 1762 it had to conclude the Treaty of Hamburg without having achieved the aggrandization of her German possession. The political conditions in Pomerania remained the same until the foundation of the Confederation of the Rhine, on the occasion of which Gustavus IV. Adolphus declared his possession as separated from the German Empire and fully integrated into Sweden. In the Franco-Prussian War 1806-1807, Pomerania made headlines because of the heroic defense of Kolberg against the French and because of the raids of Schill. In consequence of a Franco-Swedish dispute the French occupied Swedish Pomerania until after the deposition of Gustavus Adolphus IV. When, after Napoleon having been toppled, the map of Europe was newly arranged, Sweden ceded her part of Pomerania to Denmark in exchange for Norway; Denmark ceded formerly Swedish Pomerania to Prussia in return for the Duchy of Lauenburg (ceded to Prussia by Hannover) and the sum of 2,100,000 Taler. Since, all of Pomerania again belongs to Prussia.
See Gadebusch, Schwedisch-Pommersche Staaskunde, Greifswald 1787-1789, 2 vols., Brüggemann, Beschreibung des gegenwärtigen Zustandes der Herzögthümer Vorder- und Hinterpommern, Stettin 1779-1781, 2 vols., Brüggemann, Beiträge zur Beschreibung der preussischen Herzogthümer Vorder- und Hinterpommern, Stetin 1801, 2 vols., Wustrack, Historisch-geographisch-statistische Beschreibung des preussischen Herzogthums Vor- und Hinterpommern, Berlin 1793-1795, 2 vols., Micrälius, Pommersche Chronica, Stettin 1640 (2nd ed. 1723), I. Bugenhagen, Pomerania, Greifswald 1728, Kantzow, Pomerania, ed. by Kosegarten, Stetin 1816f., 2 vols., by W. Böhmer, Stettin 1835, Geschichte des Herzogthums Pommern, Berlin 1819, 3 vols., F.W. Barthold, Geschichte von Rügen und Pommern, Hamburg 1839ff, Kannegiesser, Bekehrungsgeschichte der Pommern zum Christenthum, Greifawald 1824, Scriptores varii de originis Pomeranicis, wih comments by M. Rango, Kolberg 1684, M. Rango, Pomerania Diplomatica, Frankfurt/Oder 1704, C. Schöttgen, Altes und Neues Pommerland, Stargard 1721-1727, 5 vols., I.K. Dähnert, Sammlung Pommerscher und Rügischer Landesurkunden, Leipzig 1750, 3 vols., I.K. Dähnert, Pommersche Bibliothek, Leipzig 1750-1755, 5 vols., Kosegarten, Pommersche und Rügische Geschichtsdenkmäler, Greifswald 1834, Kosegarten, Hasselbach and Medem, Codex Pomeraniae Diplomaticus , Greifswald 1843ff.

source in German, posted by Zeno

Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1885-1892, Article : Pommern
Pomerania, Prussian province, used to be a duchy, borders in the west on Mecklenburg, in the south on Brandenburg, in the east on West Prussia, in the north on the Baltic Sea; it has an area of 30,110 square km (546.86 square miles). Pomerania belongs to the lowest elevated parts of Germany; one has to distinguish between the proper coastal plain and the Pomeranian ridge. The border between both roughly is formed by the line Demmin-Pasewalk-Gollnow. To the west of the Oder on the Randow Plate the lovely hill landscape near Frauendorf (Vogelsang, 130 m) stands out; along the sources of the Rega, Persante, Drage and Küddow the Pomeranian Lake District with the Ratzenberg (211 m) in the district of Dramburg, further east, at the sources of the Grabow, Wipper etc. the East Pomeranian Plate. Here are to be mentioned the Steinberg (234 m) on Lake Papenzin in district Schlawe, the Burgwall near Falkenhagen (239 m) and the Schimmritzberg (256 m) near Plattenheim in the district of Bütow, further to the north the Pietzschker Berg (183) in the district of Stolp and the Dombrowaberg (210 m) on the Leba valley. On the other side of the coastal plain a few groups of hills rise, so the Stubbenkammer on Rügen (Königsstuhl 133 m), near Köslin the Gollenberg (144 m), near Schmolsin the Revekol (115 m) and others. The province's main river, the Oder, forms many arms and near Stettin Damm Lake and the Pommersches Haff, which is connected with the Baltic Sea by three arms, the Peene, Swine and Dievenow. To the Oder system further belong the Ihna, Ucker and Peene; all three partially navigable. Among the numerous coastal rivers in Hither Pomerania some are navigable (Recknitz, Rykgraben); the ones in Further Pomerania (Rega, Persante, Wipper, Stolpe, Lupow, Leba) and the rivers flowing south toward the Netze (Küddow, Drage) instead only raftable. The Baltic Sea at the coast forms several bays, so near Swinemünde the Pomeranian Bay, others near Rügen (see there). Canals worthy to mention are not found in the province, but it is rich in inland lakes. Beach lakes are Lake Leba, Garde, Vietzke, Vitter, Bukow, Jamund and Kamp. Inland Lakes : Lake Kummerow (on the Peene), Lake Damm, Plöne and Madüe. The ridge is rich in lakes, of which here only Lake Wothscwien, Enzig, Grosse Lübbe, Dratzig, Pielburg, Vilm and Papenzin are mentioned. The coast of Further Pomerania on its entire length (427 km) is lined by sandy hills or dunes, the shape of which is often changed by storms.
Af the entire area 55.3 % are farmlands and gardens, 10.2 % meadows, 9.2 % pastorage, 19.8 % forests. The largest concentrations of farmland are found in Regierungsbezirk Stralsund and in the lowland (with the exception of District Ukermünde), further in the fertile coastal stretch between Kolberg and Stolp. The climate is mildest in the environs of Stettin and on Rügen, rougher in the coastal landscape of Further Pomrania. The average annual temperature in Stettin is 8.4 degrees Celsius, in Putbus 7.6 degrees, in Lauenburg 7.2 degrees, in Köslin 7.1 degrees. Annual precipitation in Köslin is 65 cm, in Regenwalde 62, in Stettin and Putbus only 54 cm.
The population in 1885 was 1,505,675 (among them 1,465,477 Protestants, 22,390 Catholics, 4371 other Christians and 13,291 Jews). Among Protestant sects in Further Pomerania primarily Old Lutherans, Irvingians, Baptists are found. The Catholics mostly live in the larger cities, and on the border to West Prussia, where they speak a Polish dialect, while the few proper Kashubians at Lake Leba and Lake Garde (still 300) belong to the Protestant church. Otherwise people use the German language. The inhabitants' main occupations are agriculture, livestock keeping and the traditional trades; in the coastal cities trade, navigation and shipbuilding. As in Mecklenburg, large estates dominate most conditions in the country. If one regards the size of 100 ha as separating large estates from small properties, 55.4 % of the land belongs to large estates, more than in any other Prussian province, while farmers (10-100 ha per farm) only own 31.2 % of the total farmland, i.e. less than in any other province. Wheat is grown for export in the fertile regions of Hither Pomerania and in Weizacker near Pyritz; elsewhere rye and the potato are the main crops; namely on the large estates the latter are used for distillery. Barley and oats cover the provincial consumption. Horticulture and fruit cultivation thrive in the environs of Stettin (Stettin apples), also in Regierungsbezirk Stralsund. Excellent meadows are found in he Oder valley and along the Peene. Among the trading and factory plants are to be mentioned : flax in the coastal plain, especially on the Rega, Persante and Wipper, sugar beets, near Stettin and between Oder and Rega, tobacco on the Brandenburg border west of the Oder, hop near Pölitz. The most extended forests are found in Ukermünde disrict on the Haff, and on the ridge; coniferous trees dominate, but there are also beautiful foliferous forests. The livestock count of 1883 counted 188,982 horses, 502,829 head of cattle, 2,550,502 sheep, 444,525 hogs and 68,226 goats. Horse breeding is supported by the stud farm at Labes. Poultry breeding is of scale, especially in Further Pomerania (geese), important also fishery. Among mineral products, only turf is of importance; further there are chalk, marl, amber, sulphurous pebbles, bog iron, lignite etc. The saline springs at Kolberg and Greifswald are exclusively used for healing purposes; among the others only those at Polzin deserve being mentioned. Industry is of importance only in and around Stettin, where large machine factories, shipyards, chemical and sugar factories, brick factories etc. are found. Except for similar factories, the province has several large paper, tobacco etc. factories, and in the forest districts of Further Pomerania cellulose and glass factories. Of great importance is trade, especially on the sea. The main seat of Pomeranian sea trade is Stettin with its port at Swinemünde; but Stralsund, Greifswald, Wolgast, Anklam, Kolberg, Stolp etc. are also engaged in it. At the beginning of 1886 Pomerania had 743 seagoing ships of 145,473 tons, of which the most belonged to Stettin, Stralsund and Barth. Inland trade is conducted on the Oder and a few other rivers, and by several railroads, almost exclusively state-owned (administrated by the railroad directories in Berlin and Bromberg), among which the railroad Berlin-Stettin-Danzig is the most important one. Other lines connect Stettin with Stralsund, Wangerin with Konitz, Posen with the coastal towns of Further Pomerania, Berlin with Stralsund, Stargard with Posen etc. Educational institutions : Greifswald University, 19 gymnasia, 2 progymnasia, 5 real gymnasia, 4 real progymnasia, 2 agricultural schools, 7 teacher seminaries, 1 military school (Anklam), several vocational and navigation schools, 3 institutions for the deaf-mute, 2 for the blind etc. The province is divided in 3 governmental districts (Regierungsbezirke), Stettin, Köslin and Stralsund, with 13, 12 and 5 districts each. The administration of justice is served by the province's supreme court in Stettin, 5 country courts at Greifswald, Köslin, Stargard, Stettin and Stolp. Militarily Pomerania belongs to the 2nd army corps. The province sends 14 delegates to the German Reichstag, 26 to the Prussian House of Delegates. The traditional division of Pomerania into Hither and Further Pomerania, divided by the Oder, is still much in use. Hither Pomerania again is subdivided in Old and New Hither Pomerania by the Peene. The later part, Regierungsbezirk Stralsund, is also called Swedish Pomerania, because it was Swedish territory until 1815. Pomerania's coat of arms is a golden-plated read eagle in a silver field; the provincial colours are blue and white.
History .. While the right of succession of the House of Brandenburg in Pomerania, according to the concluded treaties of succession, was uncontested, the Swedes still gave no indication of willingness to evacuate it. In the negotiations at Osnabrück the Great Elector Friedrich Wilhelm insisted on his claims, but found himself coerced - while being compensated by the Stifts Halberstadt, Magdeburg and Kammin - to cede Hither Pomerania with Rügen, and of Further Pomerania Stettin, Garz, Damm, Gollnow, the Haff and the three outlets of the Oder to Sweden. A later attempt by he Great Elector to take possession of all of Pomerania (1675-1679) was blocked by France. But Charles XII. had just been defeated at Poltava when Friedrich Wilhelm I. of Prussia had Hither Pomerania occupied, in 1715 he conquered Greifswald, Anklam, Wolgast and Rügen. In the Treaty of Stockholm in 1720 he received Hither Pomerania until the Peene, Stetin, the islands Usedom and Wollin, the Haff, the cities Damm and Gollnow and the Oder outlets Dievenow and Swine. He had to pay Sweden 2 millin Thaler in compensation and take over 600,000 haler in Pomeranian debt. Sweden, which retained only the so-called Swedish Pomerania or Neuvorpommern (New Hither Pomerania) to the left of the Peene, during the Seven Years War in vain attempted to regain her lost possessions in Pomerania. Following the fall of Napoleon in 1814, Sweden ceded her part of Pomerania to Denmark in return for Norway; Denmark ceded Swedish Pomerania to Prussia in return for the Duchy of Lauenburg and a sum of 2,600,000 Thaler. Prussia paid a further 3,500,000 Thaler to Sweden.
See : Kantzow, Pomeriana (a chronicle of Pomerania in lower German dialect, ed. by Kosegarten, Greifswald 1819, 2 vols.; von Böhmer, Stettin 1835); Sell, Geschichte des Herzogtums Pommern (until 1648, Berlin 1819-1820, 3 vols.); Barthold, Geschichte von Rügen und Pommern (Hamburg 1839-45, 5 vols.); Fock, Rügensch-pommernsche Geschichten aus sieben Jahrhunderten (Leipzig 1861-72, 6 vols.); Bohlen, Die Erwerbung Pommerns durch die Hohenzollern (Berl. 1865); Berghaus, Landbuch des Herzogtums Pommern (Anklam and Wriezen 1862-76, 9 vols.); Hasselbach and Kosegarten, Codex Pomeraniae diplomaticus (Greifswald 1862, vol.1); Klempin, Pommersches Urkundenbuch (Stettin 1868-88, vols. 1-3); further Baltische Studien, edited since 1832 by the Gesellschaft für pommersche Geschichte und Altertumskunde; Petrich, Pommersche Lebens- und Landesbilder (Hamburg 1880-1884, 2 vols.); v. d. Dollen, Streifz?ge durch Pommern (Anklam 1884, 12 issues); Gemeinde-Lexikon f?r die Provinz Pommern (ed. by königl. Statistischen Büreau, Berlin 1888); Knoop, Volkssagen, Aberglauben etc. aus dem östlichen Hinterpommern (Posen 1885); Jahn, Volkssagen aus P. und Rügen (Stett. 1885).

source in German, posted by Retro-Bibliothek

Nordisk Familje-Bok 1904-1926, Article : Pommern (1915)
Pomerania, one of Prussia's northernmost provinces, borders in the north on the Baltic Sea, in the west on Meckllenburg, in the south on Brandenburg and in the east on West Prussia. Area 30,131 square km, the Stettiner Haff and the other coastal waters not calculated. 1,716,921 inhabitants (1910), of whom 95.4 % Protestants, 3.3 % Catholics and 0.5 % Jews. Pomerania, next to East Prussia, is the least densely populated province of Prussia, with only 57 inhabitants per square km. 57.3 % live in rural districts. Only 4 cities have more than 10,000 inhabitants, the largest is Stettin with 236,113 inhabitants (1910). The population is German with he exception of 25,718 persons, the mother language of whom is Polish, as well as a few hundred Kashubians living on Lake Leba and Lake Garde. The Oder and Stetiner Haff divide Pomerania in Further Pomerania in the east and Hither Pomerania in the west. The area near Mecklenburg is called Neuvorpommern (New Hither Pomerania) and consists of a wide valley which is traversed by Recknitz (flowing northward) and Trebel (flowing southward). Hither and Further Pomerania differ in regard to the way their coasts were formed. The latter has a straight coast without capes and without islands off the coast. The coast consists of an almost uninterrupted line of dunes from Dievenow to Hela Peninsula in West Prussia, and behind it are located beach lakes which are separated from the sea, such as Lake Leba, Garde, Vietzke, Vite, Buckow, Jamund, Kamo, Eiersberg. The coast of Hither Pomerania also has dunes, for instance on Darss and Zingst, but on its entire length it is surrounded by islands : Wollin, Usedom, Ruden, Greifswalder Oie, Rügen, Hiddensee, Zingst and Darss. Behind them inlets extend deep into the land (called Haff, Bodden or Sund). Usedom and Wollin form the northern limit of the Stettiner Haff (798 square km), as do the three mouths of the Oder : Peene, Swine and Dievenow. By shape Hither Pomerania is a low plain with individual hills which raise rarely to 100 m (the highest point is the Vogelsang near Stettin, 131 m); by contrast Jasmund on Rügen rises to 161 m. Further Pomerania is a shield-shaped ridge, part of the Baltic Sea Plate, and reaches its highest elevations near the border to West Prussia (Schimmritzberg 256 m, Steinberg 234 m, Dombrowaberg 210 m). It descends toward the Netze valley. A number of small lakes, none of which reaches 20 square km, except for the isolated Madii (36 square km) which belongs to the Oder river system. The others, by the means of small rivers, feed into the Baltic Sea. The largest are Rega, Persante, Wipper, Stolpe and Leba. Hither Pomerania has much fewer lakes, the largest being Kummerower (27 square km), which sends water toward he see via the Peene. Other rivers are the border river Recknitz, the Ucker and the Oder, of which only the lowest part belongs to Pomerania. The land is rich in swamps (in all 3,071 square km). In regard to geological formation, for the most part Pomerania is a diluvial formation, alluvial sediment disregarded, which is found here and there, as well as swamps, dunic sand, mud etc. That the diluvium is lying on a foundation of solid rock is obvious, but at no place this has been confirmed by deep drilling down to the original mountain, to Silurian or Devonian layers. The existence of the many saline springs, however, is regarded as proof for the existence of Dyas. The Jurassic reaches the surface near Dievenow and Kolberg. Chalk formation appear on Rügen (at Jasmund, Arkona) and are even found on the mainland, and are calculated to be 600 m below the Diluvian. The latter is a product of the ice age and contains sandy hills of various kinds, sand ridges - on Rügen called "Schwedenschanze" - which are rich in erratic blocks.
Climate : the winters are milder (-1 to 2 degrees Celsius) on he coast than in the interior (-3 to 4 degrees Celsius). On the other hand, the summers are cooler on the coast (16 to 17 degrees) than in the interior (17 to 18 degrees). The annual average temperature is 8.2 degrees Celsius in Stettin, 17.1 degrees in Lauenburg. The precipitation is 668 mm annually in Köslin, in Stettin and Putbus only 519 and 562 mm.
Sources of Income About 55 % is used as farmland or orchards. 10.3 % meadows, 6.2 % pastorage, 20 % forest. The larger part of the land belongs to large estates, mostly fideicommissions and donations. In the past a kind of crofters has woerked the land, the so-called Katenleute, but this social group has must been decimated by emigration; they must be replaced by seasonal workers (Poles, Vlachs, Croats), who go home in November or December, a great inconvenuience tio the care of the estate. According to the census of 1907 45 % of the population lived of agriculture and fishery, 27.6 % worked in industry and mining, 11.6 % in trade and transportation. Grain, potatos, sugar beets, rapeseed, tobacco and hop are the most important agricultural products. The cultivation of fruit and vegetables is little developed. - The livestock census counted in 1912 242,300 horses and donkeys, 831,400 head of cattle, 807,000 sheep (more than any other Prussian province) and 1.2 million hogs. - Even forestry is an important source of income, as are fish. Of minerals only chalk is found, but in the past iron ore was mined. Industry is most important in and around of Stettin, where factories of various kinds and shipyards are found. else at other locations are found tobacco and paper factories, brick and sugar factories (11 in 1910-1911, and 3 refineries), breweries (122) and distilleries (510). Trade has its center in Stettin, and at other coastal cities, such as Stralsund and Swinemünde, it is conducted on a large scale. In 1912 Pomerania;s merchant fleet was calculated at 326 vessels (of which 158 steam vessels) with 97,182 register tons. The total length of wide-gauge railroads in 1912 was 2,262 km of which 1,476 km were runk lines (none narrow-gauge). Educational institutions : Greifswald University, 20 gymnasia, 1 progymnasium, 2 realprogymnasia, 5 real schools or higher real schools, 13 preparatory institutions, 8 seminaries, 5 higher girls' schools, 3 institutions for the deaf-mute and one for the blind, 1 military school (Anklam), 2 agricultural school, several vocational schools and one navigation school. In administrative respect Pomerania is divided in three governmental districts (Regierungsbezirke); Stettin with 14, Köslin with 13, and Stralsund with 6 districts. The province sends 26 delegates to Prussia's Second Chamber, 14 to the German Reichstag. Often a Prussian prince is appointed governor of the province. The seat of the provincial government is Stettin. The province's supreme court has its seat in Stettin; further there are 5 country courts, 59 district courts and 2 chambers of commerce. The Protestant Church of Pomerania is administrated by a consistory in Stettin. The country's Catholics are administrated by the Diocese of Breslau. Militarily, Pomerania belongs to the 2nd Army Corps, except for the 5 easternmost districts, which belong to the 17th Army Corps. Pomerania's coat of arms is a red eagle in a silver field.
History .. In 1621 Bogislav became Duke of Pomerania-Settin. In 1625 he also inherited Pomerania-Wolgast, as the male line of he House of Wolgast became extinct. With Bogislav's death on March 10th 1637 the male line of Pomerania's old princely dynasty ended. Under his rule, Pomerania had become a battleground in the 30 Years War. Stralsund, under siege by Imperial troops, in June 1628 concluded an alliance with Gustavus Adolphus, who thus found a foothold in Pomerania. Duke Bogislav and the King of Sweden entered into an "eternal" alliance on July 10th 1630. By the end of the year the Swedes had completed the occupation of the country, and Gustavus Adolphus in all practicality was master of the country. Gustavus Adolphus did recognize Brandenburg's claim of succession, but added the condition that Elector Georg Wilhelm had to break with the Emperor. With respect to the forthcoming vacancy on the throne, Pomerania's estates in 1634 passed a governmental constitution which charged a directory of eight men with an interim administration. As Brandenburg in 1638 succeeded in being enfiefed with the Duchy of Pomerania by the Emperor, the directory was ordered to dissolve. The order had to be followed, and Pomerania fell into the state of anarchy. In this situation Sweden had to take charge. It was organized in a wider military way. (Liljeström since 1636 had been the soul of Pomerania's administration, and much is to be credited to him). From 1641 on the the Consilium Status in Stettin regulated business, until the peace granted the Swedish administration legal status. The Peace of Osnabrück 1648 granted Brandenburg Further Pomerania without Stettin and a stretch of land along the Oder (Amt Damm and Gollnow) as well as the island of Wollin. These areas, as well as all of Hither Pomerania with the islands of Usedom and Rügen, were granted to Sweden as an inheritable fief to be granted by the Emperor. The Stettin Recess of 1653 ended the border dispute with Brandenburg. The border with Mecklenburg, according to a regulation from 1591, followed the Trebel and Recknitz. In all the Swedish part contained an area of about 200 square miles. Pomerania's history under Swedish rule for long is a history of some war or famine. Already in the years 1657 to 1659 did the Poles, Austrians and Brandenburgers raid the country. In the severe war years 1675-1679 the Danes and Brandenburgers agreed that Denmark should get Rügen, the latter Pomerania proper, and this seemed to be implemented. But boh had to give up their claims, Denmark in Lund 1679, Brandenburg in Saint Germain in the same year. Brandenburg gained only the small stretch of land on the east of the Oder with Gollnow as a pawn for a sum (which was paid in 1693). The first years of the Great Northern War left Pomerania untouched. But when the negotiations of the Emperor and the maritime powers regarding neutrality failed because of Charles XII.'s unwillingness to make concessions, the storm also hit it. In August 1711 Danish, Russian and Polish bands crossed the border. M. Stenbock could only provide temporary calm. In 1713 Prussia first appeared as an ambiguous mediator (Tractates of Sequestation, June and October 1713), then as open enemy. For an entire year (Nov. 1714 - Dec.1715), Charles XII. led the defense of Stralsund, but finally had to retreat. Rügen and Hither Pomerania north of the Peene became Danish booty, the remainder was occupied by Prussia. In the Peace of Frederiksborg 1720, Danmark had to cede back its share, while Prussia held on to its conquest in the Peace of Stockholm 1720, in which Sweden ceded all of Further Pomerania, which it gained in 1648, with Hither Pomerania south of the Pene, Usedom and Wollin. The remnant of Sweden's Pomeranian province, so-called Swedish Pomerania, made up 70 square miles. The attempt to regain the lost territory in the so-called Pomeranian War 1757-1762 failed. Gustav Adolph IV.'s participation in the war against Napoleon 1805-1807 resulted in the French occupation of Pomerania 1807-1810. In the Peace of Kiel on January 14th 1814 Sweden ceded Pomerania to Denmark in compensation for Norway. Pomerania's fate was decided by Prussia's traties with Denmark June 4th and with Sweden June 7th 1815; Prussia gained Swedish Pomerania, but ceded Lauenburg to Denmark and paid 2.6 million Thaler to Denmark and 3.5 million Thaler was indemnity to Sweden. The newly acquired land was annexed into the province of Pomerania as Neuvorpommern (New Hither Pomerania).
Constitution and Administration under Swedish Rule In the country there was a strong privileged nobility and a numerous class of serfs, which still at the end of the 18th century made up 2/3 of the territory's population. The noble estates were allocated in "districts", the royal domains, which by the end of Swedish rule made up at least 1/4 of the territory, separately in "Amt". Pomerania's relation to the Swedish crown depended on the negotiations between the Pomeranian diet and the Swedish government, which following the Peace of Westphalia were conducted again and again. Long fruitless, these negotiations resulted in the constitution of July 17th 1663, formulated in the royal recess of April 10th 1669. Only after this , Pomerania's estates swore allegiance to the Swedish crown. The government of the country, in the name of the Swedish king, was exercised by the Landesregierung (territorial government), which consisted of a governor general, always a member of the Swedish Council of the Realm (Rigsrad), as its president, and 5 government counsellors, among them the president of the territorial court (between 1678 and 1772 the office was vacant), the chancellor and the captain of Stettin Castle, the supreme inspector of royal offices. In very imortant cases the territorial estates (Landstände) should decide (nobility, representatives of the cities, and, until the 1690es, the clergy). In the estates the nobiliy is represented by one delegate per district, who had been given instructions by the district noblemen assembly. The estate of the cities consisted of one empowered delegate per city (most notably Stralsund). An Erbmarschall (marshall by inheritance) was the speaker. A third important element in he Landtag (diet) were the 10 (later 5) councilmen, who were appointed by the govvernment after being proposed by the diet. They formed the territory's council, mediated between Pomerania and the Swedish government, and guarded the constitution. The diet, which under the Pomeranian dukes enjoyed a wide authority, counld not maintain decisive authority, but the constiturion of 1663 gave Pomerania's estates the veto right in Swedish policy as far as it concerned Pomerania. The estates had unlimited right of petition and, by the privileges of Frederick I., the right to participate in legislation and taxation. They were even granted that their consent was to be asked if domains were to be split or reduced (i.e. returned into crown property). They requested reduction on several occasions. But when it finally was implemented, it was unrequested. Charles XI. declared that the diet had nothing to do with he matter. The Pomeranian nobility talked about appealing to the Emperor instead of the reduction judges, but then they accepted the inevitable, especially as the Reduction Office in Pomerania, in Gustav Adolph de la Gardie, had a very humane head. The work was energetically implemented from 1692, and was, in its main parts, completed by 1694, as a lot had been undertaken under Charles X. Gustavus. Later, when Sweden was given kings of less power and authority, the desire of the diet to resist the crown's directives increased. The means earlier hinted at to, against decrees of the Swedish government, do directly adress the Swedish authorities, became the tool most used. It became the cornerstone in constitutional theory which was defended with great energy. In the year 1799 two such appellations were made, before in the last hour the Swedish government succeeded in convincing a few territorial counsellors to withdraw them. The jurisdiction in Pomerania suffered from confusion, as there was no law book. The valid law consisted of a collection of various legal norms. The Swedish administration at least brought order into the court system. The lower courts appealed to the territorial court in Greifswald since 1655 (moved to Wolgast 1665-1680); here justice was administered according to the court ordinnance of 1672, the work of the noble friend of the country where he had taken up residence, David Mevius. Spiritual cases were decided by the consistory in Greifswald. The highest instance was he supreme court for Sweden's German possessions, the High tribunal in Wismar (established in 1653). In economic aspect, Pomerania was not a gain for Sweden. Only during the excellent administration of Prince Hessenstein (1776-1791) did the country produce a surplus (the total revenue in 1782 was 250,000 Rigsdaler). Mostly the country required a subsidy from Sweden (for instance for the fortification of Stralsund, and for the country's defense in general). The largest source of revenue was the customs in foreign trade. The accise (tax on alcoholic spirits and the grinding of grain) in 1672 was replaced by a personal tax, the Quartalsteuer. During the 30 Years War the contributions had become permnent, and in the 18th century they had been altered into an ordinary tax on land, the Hufensteuer. Charles XI. centralized the financial administration, in the Royal Chamber 1684, and placed it under the State Contor in Stockholm. Pomerania's population at the end of the 18th century numbered about 100,000 (89,000 in 1766, 113,000 in 1802), of whom about 1/4 lived on Rügen.
By a royal letter of June 26th 1806 Pomerania's old constitution was abolished, and instead the Swedish constitutions of 1772 and 1789 as well as the law of 1734 were declared valid (to take effect after September 1st 1808). he reason for this coup d'etat was that the Pomeranian estates, again, against the king's ban, had made use of the appeal to the courts against royal decrees (the well-known decree of April 30th 1806 concerning a Pomeranian militia). In connection with the new organization Gustav Adolph made the atempt to introduce departmental administration. Even the Swedish ecclesiastical constitution was introduced. The country was divided in 4 districts (Härad / Amt), each of which was divided in parishes. In matters only concerning Pomerania and Rügen the diet should convene. Such a diet, composed by estate according to the model of the Swedish Riksdag, assembled in Greifswald from August 4-18 1806, accepted the king's assurance and paid homage to him with reference to the Swedish constitution; further it took upon themselves the guarantee, requested by the king, of the chamber's debts. In connection with he coup d'etat were introduced or at least attempted a number of social reforms. The most important was the abolition of serfdom by a decree of June 4th 1806. It was further intended to implement enclosures in Pomerania, in regard to which a decree was issued.
See : sources on Pomerania's history are mainly collected in Dahnert, Sammlungpommerscher und rügenscher Landesurkunden, Klempin-Prümers Pommersches Urkundenbuch (1877-1881), Sonnenschmidt, Sammlung der für Neuvorpommern ergangenen Gesätze 1802-1817 (2 vols. 1844-1847), Barthold, Geschichte von Pommern und Rügen (until the Swedish conquest, 1839-1845), Gadebusch, Grundriss der ommerschen Geschichte 1778, Pommersche Sammlungen 1783 and Schwedisch-Pommersche Staatskunde 1786, Rühs, Pommersche Denkwürdigkeiten 1802-1803, Odhner, Om Wesfaliska fredskongressen och grundläggningen af den Svenska väldet i Tyskland 1875, O. Malmström, Bidrag till Svenska Pommerns historia, I 1630-1653, II 1653-1660, 1892-1894, G.H. von Essen, Alienationer och reduktioner i.f.d. Svenska Pommern 1900, Wehrmann, Geschichte von Pommern 2 vols. 1904-1906, L. Dalgren, Sverige och Pommern 1792-1806, 1914

source in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg


This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on March 5th 2009

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