1807-1815 1848-1849






Prussia, 1815-1847

Administration . Foreign Policy . Domestic Policy . The Economy . Demography . Cultural History



Administration . King Friedrich Wilhelm III. ruled from 1797 until 1840, succeeded by Friedrich Wilhelm IV. (1840-1861). The office of Chief Minister was held by Karl August von Hardenberg 1810-1822, Otto Karl Friedrich von Voss 1822-1823, Karl Friedrich Heinrich von Wylich und Lottum 1823-1841, Ludwig Gustav von Thiele 1841-1848.

Foreign Policy . At the Vienna Congress, Prussia was expanded, gained the Provinces of Posen, (Prussian) Saxony, Westphalia and the Rhine Province. Most of Prussia (except for the provinces of Posen, East and West Prussia) joined the German Federation, a loose organization of several dozen of states under Austrian leadership. Prussia was one of the powers forming the Pentarchy (together with Austria, the United Kingdom, France and Russia) and, at the time of the Vienna Congress, was a close ally of Russia. Prussia joined the Holy Alliance.
Determining factors in Prussia's foreign policy were her continued rivalry with Austria, regarded Prussia's potential enemy, her alliance with Russia (thus support of Russia's suppression of the revolution in Congress Poland 1830-1831; confirmation of the Russian alliance in 1835), her commitment to the suppression of liberalism (the Carlsbad Decrees of 1819 etc.).
At the Vienna Congress, Austria had given up on her territorial possessions in the west of the former Holy Roman Empire (Austrian Netherlands, Vorderösterreich), while Prussia had expanded her presence in the west (Rhine Province, Westphalia, Neuchatel). This resulted in Austria focussing on the government of her multiethnic territorial complex on Germany's margin while Prussia became more involved. Austria held the presidency of the German Federation, Prussia took the lead.
Germany's smaller and medium-size states split in two camps, those which became close allies, even satellites of Prussia (for instance Braunschweig, Oldenburg etc., and those, which, fearing Prussia's desire to expand, hoped in protection from Austria, for instance Saxony (saved from being completely annexed by Prussia, at the Vienna Congress, by Metternich).
Germany being split up in 39 states, some of which had only several thousand inhabitants, provided an obstacle for economic development, this being the time of the Industrial Revolution. On May 26th 1818 Prussia established the Prussian Customs Union, which by 1828 was joined by Anhalt, Schwarzburg Sondershausen and Hessen-Darmstadt.
The necessity of a German customs union was recognized throughout Germany; yet many of the medium-size German states were reluctant to enter such an organization lead by Prussia, fearing to begin a process that might lead to the loss of independence. So, competing organizations, the Central German Customs Union (1832) and the Bavaro-Württembergian Customs Union (1833) were founded. In 1834, the three customs unions merged forming the Deutscher Zollverein (German Customs Union). With the exception of the Hanseatic cities, (Danish) Schleswig-Holstein, Hannover (joined 1854) and the Austrian parts, the German states were joined in it; the Prussian provinces of Posen, West and East Prussia - despite not being part of the German Federation, were part of the Zollverein. Within this organization, Prussia made up more than 70 % of the territory as well as the population; her dominating role could not be denied.
The Holy Alliance emphasized common interests of the European Powers, foremost Russia, Austria and Prussia, in the suppression of revolutionary (liberal, nationalistic) tendencies. While the United Kingdom left the Holy Alliance in 1822 and France in 1830, Austria, Russia and Prussia remained committed; as late as 1846 the three collectively acted against the Republic of Cracow, a center of nationalistic Polish agitation; they agreed on the city being annexed by Austria. Within the Holy Alliance, Prussia was rather passive, the only intervention it participated in being Cracow in 1846. When revolution erupted in Brussels in 1830 and Russia, due to the Polish Rebellion, was unable to act, Prussia remained passive and agreed to the creation of the Kingdom of Belgium (1830-1839), the neutrality of which Prussia, among other countries, guaranteed.
Our modern view of Prussia is that of a military power which strove for expansion by conquest, feared by her neighbours. This image fits for the period under Frederick the Great, the War of Liberation 1813-1815 and the years under Bismarck (1862-1871). However, in the 1830es the perception in Germany and abroad was rather that of a Prussian/German weakness. In 1840, France's parliament openly discussed the annexion of the left bank of the Rhine (most of which was Prussian territory, part of the Rhine Province). While this discussion caused a vehement rejection on the side of German patriots - on this occasion, the Deutschlandlied (Song of the Germans; current national anthem) and the Wacht am Rhein (Guard on the Rhine, of 'Casablanca' fame) were written - the event does not even feature in most accounts on Prussian history. The French parliament, in 1840, obviously did not regard the Prussian army a major obstacle.
While the Holy Alliance was regarded an instrument of dynastic policy (and a tool of temporary usefulness, of predominantly domestic importance), the German Federation an institution based on tradition rather than practical necessity, the Zollverein resulted in visible progress based on mutual benefit; the creation of the Zollverein proved an irreversible act.
Prussia, in 1815, had gained/regained territories with a Catholic majority (Posen, West Prussia, the Rhine Province, large parts of Westphalia). In 1821 a concordate was signed with the pope, allowing for the creation/reorganization of Catholic dioceses in accordance with political borders.

Question of a Constitution The reforms by Stein (1807-1808) and Hardenberg (1810ff.) have implied the establishment of a diet for the Prussian state; the General Act of the Vienna Congress (1815) stipulated the establishment of written constitutions (one of the main points of which was expected to be a representative assembly), and leading Prussian statesmen such as Hardenberg, Wilhelm von Humboldt and others were committed to establish such a diet. Yet the tone of liberal and nationalistic publications / political demands, the appearance of men such as Ernst Moritz Arndt, Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, Joseph Görres caused King Friedrich Wilhelm III. and a number of persons in the Prussian administration to become sceptical, among them Hardenberg. The emergence of a group of conspirators among the Burschenschaften and the assassination of August von Kotzebue, then in Russia's service resulted in the Carlsbad Decrees (1819) which obliged the signatory powers to the implementation of reactionary measures. The project of a written liberal constitution, of a state-wide diet, in the 1820es failed not because a majority was against it, but because proponents of a constitution turned against each other (Humboldt vs. Hardenberg 1819). Hardenberg died in 1822; his successors did not pick up the project of a representative assembly; Prussia joined the reactionary powers by discontinuing work on the constitution project and by implementing the Carlsbad Decrees.
Under Friedrich Wilhelm IV. an assembly of representatives of the 8 provincial diets was convened in Berlin in 1842, which the King regarded a concession to public opinion, which the latter regarded as insufficient, as it lacked competence and a foundation of the latter in a constitution. Only in 1847, in reaction to public pressure, a united provincial diet (Vereinigter Landtag was assembled in Brandenburg.

Integration of the New Provinces In 1815, Prussia regained Posen, gained the provinces of Prussian Saxony, Westphalia and the Rhine Province. With these provinces came a strong Catholic population element; the population of the new territories was unaccustomed to the 'Prussian spirit', to militarism, to the Prussian ethos of thriftyness, responsibility, obedience. The reforms introduced by Stein and Hardenberg were introduced in the new provinces; the provinces were given provincial constitutions and a certain degree of autonomy. Posen, until 1848, enjoyed a special status, a state within a state. Politically, the Rhineland was a center of liberalism, disaffection with reactionary policies here stronger than elsewhere in Prussia. Prussian relations with the Catholic church, despite the concordate of 1821, were poor; mixed-confessional marriages were a matter of dispute (Cologne Bishops' Conflict, 1836-1838, in the course of which Clemens August von Droste Vischering, Archbishop of Cologne, was deposed). When the French parliament in 1840 discussed the annexation of the left bank of the Rhine, they may have speculated on the sympathies by Rhinelanders disaffected by the Prussian administration.

Liberalism, Patriotism and Reaction Accounts of German history in the first half of the 19th century have been written by historians who either identified themselves with the liberals and nationalists of that period, then a suppressed opposition, or who have accepted the historical facts created by these movements in the later half of the century. The nationalist and liberal agitation of the early 19th century has labelled the Prussian administration of that period as reactionary, and this characterization has found the way into most history books.
Hans Joachum Schoeps (1966) stresses that while Prussia lacked a liberal constitution and a state-wide representative assembly, the Beamtentum (corps of state servants; the larger part of which non-nobles) was moderately liberal and continued to administrate in the spirit of the reforms implemented by Stein and Hardenberg; that Prussia, by a number of historical coincidences, stumbled into taking a reactionary course while liberal legislation and regulation, at least in a number of areas, went on (a liberalism which emphasized the responsibility of the state to regulate society and economy).
The Carlsbad Decrees were implemented; Wilhelm von Humboldt resigned, a more restrictive censorship was introduced, Ernst Moritz Arndt was forbidden to continue lectures at university, Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, the father of the German gymnastic movement, sentenced to incarceration, clubs, including gymnastic clubs, forbidden. With the accession of Friedrich Wilhelm IV. to the throne, a number of liberals were recalled into the government. The ban on gymnastics was lifted in 1842, gymnastics even included in the school curriculum.
A number of Prussian subjects, among them poet Heinrich Heine and philosopher Karl Marx (both Rhinelanders) found the environment in Prussia too restrictive, and went into exile.

Political Implications of Socio-Economic Developments After 1815, the nobility used their influence to water down the legislation liberating the serfs, with some success; holders of full farmsteads had to pay for their liberty by ceding part of their land; cottagers were to remain a workforce available to the noble estate owners. The absolution of the feudal dues (by compensation payment) took several years; peasants received full freedom in the course of several decades.
The western provinces, Prussian Saxony, the Berlin area and Upper Silesia were the first regions to industrialize. Raliway construction facilitated accelerated industrialization as well as increased mobility; a rapid urbanization set in. The Zollverein (German Customs Union) contributed further to an economic boom; on the other hand, large segments of the population lived in poverty, entire occupational groups which used to have a decent outcome were forced into poverty. The weavers of Lower Silesia, in 1844, were so desparate that they took up arms, destroyed machinery they blamed for their lot, and waited for the military to arrive and shoot them.
The Prussian state administration spent little consideration on the newly emerging working class. Booming industrial towns lacked infrastructure such as high schools and universities - in Prussia, institutions of higher education were run by the state.

Economic Geography The Prussian Kingdom in her borders of 1815 was composed of economically diverse regions. The provinces of Brandenburg, Pomerania, West and East Prussia and Posen were predominantly agrarian, and here the estates of noble families dominated. Silesia, Prussian Saxony, Westphalia and the Rhine Province had strong agricultural sectors (but especially in the Rhineland and Westphalia, large estates owned by noblemen were much less significant). Here, other industries such as textile industry (eastern Westphalia; Lower Silesia; Barmen-Elberfeld in the Rhine Province), coal mining (Saar / Rhine Province, Ruhr valley / Westphalia, Upper Silesia), a steel and metal industry ( Rhine Province, Westphalia) added to the economic picture. The ongoing Industrial Revolution affected the western provinces earlier and stronger than those of the east.
Brandenburg-Prussia, in economic terms, had been backward, neither having major centers of trade nor major industries, importing techniques and technologies rather than developing these. In 1815, with the comparatively wealthy, diverse and developed Rhine Province, a more advanced region was integrated into the Prussian state. The city of Cologne had a Chamber of Commerce, dating back into the period of French administration. Elsewhere in Prussia, such institutions had to be founded later (Potsdam/ Berlin as late as 1898/1902). Only in 1848 an ordinnance was decreed which called for the establishment of Chambers of Commerce in all major cities of Prussia.

The Zollverein In 1818 Prussia abolished internal customs barriers, establishing the Prussian Customs Union. Until 1828, a number of smaller German states joined; in 1834 several customs unions were merged to form the Zollverein (German Customs Union) which abolished customs barriers between member countries, standardized the currencies, facilitated the construction of railway lines. The Zollverein provided a historical role model for economic development through the means of cooperation of states.

The Economy during the Industrial Revolution In 1817 steamboats connected Berlin and Potsdam. In 1826 Berlin was provided with street lighting based on gas. With the beginning of the railway construction boom in the 1830es industrial production and urbanization took off. The establishment of a railroad network in Belgium provided merchants and businesses in the Rhine Province to circumvent the Dutch Rhine toll at Lobith; railway construction greatly increased the demand for coal and steel. The industrial centers attracted workers from near and far; boomtowns mushroomed in the Ruhr Valley, but also the cities of Berlin, Kön, Breslau grew strongly.
The Industrial Revolution also negatively affected entire trades, such as the weavers of Lower Silesia, who experienced salary cuts which were insufficient to finance their daily expenses; in 1844, in desparation, they destroyed machinery they blamed for their misery, until the military put an end to this. In 1845, c. 2000 construction workers employed on the comstruction of the railway connecting Cologne and Minden (Rhine Prov./Westphalia) entered a strike.

State and Church The Prussian administration entered into a conflict with the Catholic church over the issue of mixed-confessional marriages; the resistance of Archbishop of Cologne Clemens August von Droste Vischering against state policy in this matter (1836ff) resulted in his deposition by the Prussian authorities in 1838.
King Friedrich Wilhelm III. (advised by his court preacher Ludwig Ernst Borowski) strove to unify Prussia's Lutheran and Reformed (Calvinist) churches. The project was announced in 1817, on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of the begin of the Lutheran Reformation, and a number of regulations were passed, which, approved by the king, alienated traditional Lutherans. When, in 1837, a number of Lurheran priests, reluctant to accept this policy, were dismissed (the military was used to enforce this policy), several thousand of Old Lutherans chose to emigrate.
Friedrich Wilhelm III. died in 1840. His successor, Friedrich Wilhelm IV. (1840-1858) interpreted being "King by the Grace of God" that God would provide the person upon which he bestowed hid grace with a superior gift of understanding. He lived in the delusion of integrating both the Anglican and Catholic Church into the Uniate Church established by his father. An attempt to integrate the Anglican and Prussian Uniate Church was made with the establishment of the protestant diocesis in Jerusalem (1841).
An attempt was made to reconcile the Catholic community as well. In 1842, construction of Cologne Cathedral (interrupted in the 15th century) was resumed.
Both Friedrich Wilhelm III. and Friedrich Wilhelm IV. regarded the Geist der Aufklärung (spirit of the Enlightenment) as essentially atheistic and dangerous and regarded religion as the tool by which to contain revolution.
Friedrich Wilhelm III. died in 1840. His successor, Friedrich Wilhelm IV. (1840-1858) interpreted being "King by the Grace of God" that God would provide the person upon which he bestowed hid grace with a superior gift of understanding. He lived in the delusion of integrating both the Anglican and Catholic Church into the Uniate Church established by his father. An attempt to integrate the Anglican and Prussian Uniate Church was made with the establishment of the protestant diocesis in Jerusalem (1841).

Spree Athen Architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel (Neue Wache 1817-1818, Schauspielhaus 1821, Altes Museum 1824-1828; in Classicist style) contributed to turning Berlin into Spree Athen, a nickname the Berliners gave to their city.
At the Friedrich-Wilhelm-University in Berlin (present Humboldt Univ.), historian Leopold von Ranke, law historian Friedrich Carl von Savigny, chemist Justus von Liebig, philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, theologian Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher and philologist Philipp August Boeckh taught in the 1820es, turning her into Germany's foremost university.
On the other hand, Ernst Moritz Arndt was forbidden to lecture; Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, the 'father of the gymnastic movement', sentenced to incarceration. Prussian students at the University of Jena (outside of Prussian territory, and the origin of the Burschenschaft movement) were ordered to leave that university. Wilhelm von Humboldt resigned in protest.
In 1840, Friedrich Wilhelm III. died and was succeeded by Friedrich Wilhelm IV.; Arndt and Jahn were exonerated, the a civilian type of the Order Pour le Merite created, the Grimm Brothers named members of the Berlin Academy (they were among the Göttingen seven). King Friedrich Wilhelm regarded these measures as acts of grace; they were not intended to be concessions to liberalism.

Intellectual Opposition and Exile While philosopher Hegel developed a positive philosophical definition of the state and her responsibility, conveniently omitting the question of representation, a number of intellectuals were not willing to make concessions and paid the price.
As the state administration, censorship and secret police dealt with political dissent, Prussia's newspapers were, when reporting about Prussian domestic affairs, uncritical. Newspapers of the 1840es would extensively deal with foreign affairs, predominantly parliamentary debates in the United Kingdom and France, only a minor part of the coverage would deal with Prussia. Karl Marx, editor of the Neue Rheinische Zeitung, was unwilling to play by these rules; he then went into exile (Paris, London).
For Germany's liberals and patriots, Ernst Moritz Arndt and Friedrich Ludwig Jahn were heroes, victims of state suppression; their exoneration, the honour bestowed by the Prussian Academy on the Grimm brothers was briefly confused for a shift toward liberal policy. When this turned out not to be the case, liberal opposition to the state redoubled. The practice of physical exercise in public had been banned as subversive in 1819, a ban which only was lifted in 1842; that year P.E. was introduced in Prusia's curricula.
Decades of the suppression of a liberal public opinion resulted in a radicalization of intellectual opposition; poet Heinrich Heine, living in French exile, was sarcastic in his judgment of the Prussian state and a fervent German patriot. Karl Marx was sarcastic in his view of Prussia's economic structure (as well as that of other countries) and developed a utopian model of a communist society.

Liberals and patriots got organized in various ways, university students and professors in the Burschenschaften (students fraternities), young men of every branch of society in the gymnastic movement. The latter, founded by Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, emphasized egalitarianism, both were explicitly liberal and inspirited by German nationalism. Events such as the Wartburg Festival (1817) and Hambach Festival (1832), explicitly political, provoked the authorities into action. In the wake of the Carlsbad Decrees, they were suppressed; a measure which was of only temporary success. When the ban on Vereine (clubs and societies) was lifted, they would mushroom to become a central part of German social life; they have their root in the gymnastic movement.






EXTERNAL
FILES
Articles Frederick William III. of Prussia, Frederick William IV. of Prussia, Prime Minister of Prussia, Karl August von Hardenberg, Karl Friedrich Heinrich von Wylich und Lottum, Clemens August von Droste Vischering, Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, Leopold von Ranke, Friedrich David Ernst Schleiermacher, Heinrich Heine, Karl Marx, Wartburg Festival, Hambach Festival, Carlsbad Decrees, Friedrich Karl von Savigny, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Philipp August Böckh, Justus von Liebig, Old Lutherans, Prussian Union (Evangelical Christian Church), Neue Rheinische Zeitung, Karl Friedrich Schinkel, from Wikipedia
Friedrich Wilhelm III., from Preussen.de, in German; from SPSG, in German, illustrated; from Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, posted by Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, in German, Gothic font
Karl August von Hardenberg, from Columbia Encyclopedia; from EB 1911, scroll down
Clemens August von Droste Vischering, from Catholic Encyclopedia
Der Hungeraufstand der Schlesischen Weber 1844, from Preussen Chronik
Carlsbad Decrees, from EB 1911
Die evangelisch-lutherische Kirche (Alt-Lutheraner) in Pommern (The Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Pomerania (Old Lutherans)), posted by Dieter Wallschläger, in German
Article Evangelisch-Lutherische (Altlutherische) Kirche in Preussen (Evangelical-Lutheran (Old Lutheran) Church in Prussia), from Wikipedia, in German
Timeline Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, from Jahn Museum
Article Samuel Gobat, from EB 1911; from ITAC; from BBKL, in German
Thile, Ludwig Gustav von, from Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, posted by Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, in German, Gothic font
Karl Friedrich Heinrich Graf von Wylich und Lottum, from Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, posted by Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, in German, Gothic font
Geschichte der IHK Köln, from IHK Köln
Der Hungeraufstand der Schlesischen Weber 1844, from Preussen Chronik
DOCUMENTS Rulers of Prussia, from World Statesmen by Ben Cahoon
General Gazetteer 1823 : Prussia
Medal : Saarlouis reunited with Prussia, from Blackwatch
Medal 1821 monument honouring campaigns of 1813-1815 Berlin, from Blackwatch
The Morganatic Marriage of Friedrich-Wilhelm III of Prussia (1824), from Heraldica, text in German
Verordnung wegen verbesserter Einrichtung der Provinzial-Behorden vom 30. April 1815 (Law on the introduction of improved provincial administration), from verfassungen.de, in German
Verordnung uber die zu bildende Reprasentation des Volkes vom 22. Mai 1815 (Decree concerning the popular representation to be formed), from verfassungen.de, in German
Verordnung wegen der Einführung des Staatsrats vom 20. Marz 1817 (Decree concerning the establishment of a State Council), from verfassungen.de, in German
Verordnung wegen der kunftigen Behandlung des gesamten Staatsschuldenwesens vom 17. Januar 1820 (Regulation for the future treatment of state debts), from verfassungen.de, in German
Allgemeines Gesetz wegen Anordnung der Provinzialstande vom 5. Juni 1823 (General Law for the organization of the Provincial Estates), from debts), from verfassungen.de, in German
Carlsbad Resolutions, from Hanover Historical Texts Project
Patent calling for the Vereinter Landtag to assemble, 1847, from Verfassungen.de, in German
Zollvereinigungsvertrag 1833, from Verfassungen.de, in German
Documents on the treatment of Cracow 1846, posted by psm-data, scroll down
Documents on the Establishment of the Kingdom of Belgium 1830/1839, posted by psm-data
Convention between Prussia and Russia, relative to Warsaw. (Vienna.) March 30th 1815, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Treaty between Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Saxony. (Vienna.) May 18th 1815, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Declaration between Prussia and Saxony. House of Schönburg. (Vienna.) May 18th 1815, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Convention between Hannover and Prussia. (Vienna.) May 29th 1815, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Convention between Nassau and Prussia. (Vienna.) May 31st 1815, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Convention between Prussia and Sachsen-Weimar. (Vienna.) June 1st 1815, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Treaty between Denmark and Prussia, Pomerania, Lauenburg, &c. (Vienna.), June 4th 1815, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Convention between Austria, Prussia, &c. Westphalia, &c. (Vienna.), June 10th 1815, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Convention between Prussia and Sachsen-Weimar. (Paris.), Sept. 22nd 1815, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Treaty between Hannover and Prussia. Lauenburg, &c. (Paris.), Sept. 23rd 1815, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Holy Alliance between Austria, Prussia, and Russia. (Paris.) Sept. 26th 1815, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Treaty between Prussia and Hessen-Cassel. (Cassel.) Oct.16th 1815, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Treaty of Alliance between Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia. Peace of Europe. (Paris.) Nov. 20th 1815, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Protocol between Prussia and Hessen-Cassel. Territorial. (Fulda.) Feb. 5th 1816, from from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Convention between Prussia, Hessen-Cassel, and Hesse-Rothenburg (Cassel.) March 4th 1816, from from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Treaty between Prussia and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen. (Berlin.) June 15th 1816, from from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Treaty between Prussia and Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. (Berlin.) June 19th 1816, from from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Boundary Treaty between the Netherlands and Prussia. (Aix-la-Chapelle.) June 26th 1816, from from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Treaty between Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Hessen-Darmstadt. Westphalia, &c. (Frankfort.), June 30th 1816 from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Convention between Austria and Prussia, Department of the Saar. (Worms.), July 1st 1816, from from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Treaty between Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Prussia. Department of the Saar. (Frankfort.), Sept. 18th 1816, from from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Treaty between the Netherlands and Prussia. (Cleves.) Oct. 7th 1816, from from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Treaty between the Netherlands and Prussia. (Frankfort.) Nov. 8th 1816, from from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Treaty between Austria, Prussia, Russia, and the Netherlands. Luxemburg, &c. (Frankfort.), March 12th 1817, from from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Convention between Hessen-Darmstadt and Prussia. Wittgenstein, &c. (Munich.), March 12th 1817, from from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Agreement between Hessen-Darmstadt and Prussia. Wittgenstein. (Giessen.), July 6th 1817, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Boundary Treaty between Prussia and Russia. (Berlin.), Nov. 11th 1817, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Protocol. 5 Powers. Union of Austria, France, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia. Maintenance of the Peace of Europe. (Aix-la-Chapelle.) Nov. 15th 1818, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Territorial Treaty between Prussia and Mecklenburg Strelitz. (Berlin.), May 21st 1819, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Boundary Convention between Prussia and Saxony. (Dresden.) Aug. 28th 1819, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Final Act between Austria, Prussia, &c. Germanic Federation. (Vienna.), May 15th 1820, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Circular of Austria, Prussia, and Russia. Conferences of Troppau. Spain, Naples, &c. (Troppau.), Dec. 8th 1820, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Declaration of Austria, Prussia, and Russia. Conferences of Laybach. Naples, &c. (Laybach.), May 12th 1821, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Convention between Austria, Prussia, &c. Elbe Navigation. (Dresden.), June 23rd 1823, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Convention between Prussia, Saxony, &c. Elbe Navigation. (Dresden.), June 23rd 1823, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Convention between Prussia, Hannover, &c. Navigation of the Weser. (Minden.), Sept. 10th 1823, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Supplementary Convention between Prussia, Hanover, &c. Navigation of the Weser. (Bremen.), Dec. 21st 1825, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Declaration between France and Prussia. District of Leyen. (Paris.) June 11th 1827, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Boundary Treaty between Hannover and Prussia. (Iburg.), Dec. 22nd 1827, from Gallica (Hertslet Vol.1)
Acte du Congres de Vienne du 9 juin 1815 : Saxe, Prusse, from Histoire Empire
Acte du Congres de Vienne du 9 juin 1815 : Hanovre, Oldenbourg, Prusse, Hesse, from Histoire Empire
REFERENCE Hans-Joachim Schoeps, Preussen, Geschichte eines Staates, Berlin : Propyläen 1966, in German [G]
Institut für Geschichte der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, ed., Deutsche Geschichte in Daten, Berlin (Ost) : Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften 1967 [G]
Harold Nicolson, The Revival of Prussia, pp.17-31 in The Congress of Vienna, a Study in Allied Unity, 1812-1822, NY : Grove (1946) 2001, 320 pp. [G]



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First posted on May 6th 2004, last revised on October 28th 2007

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