1555-1612 1716-1803

Salzburg 1612-1716

The Princebishopric of Salzburg belonged to the Bavarian Circle; being the highest representative in the circle, the Prince-Archbishop held the presidency of that circle (a formal honour). Salzburg, after the Salt War with Bavaria 1611-1612, refused to join the Catholic League, was not directly affected by the Thirty Years' War, although Salzburg troops - as part of the contingent of the Bavarian Circle - fought in most major battles. The country invested in fortifications (Germany's first garrison) and in the nucleus of a standing army of 20,000 men were made. Salzburg troops fought in the Imperial War against the Ottoman Empire 1683-1699. During the War of Spanish Succession 1701-1714 Salzburg sided with the Emperor, against Bavaria.
The court of the Princebishop at Salzburg attracted visitors such as Grand Duke Ferdinand of Tuscany 1628, Cardinal Carafa in 1664, and Emperor Leopold in 1683 (he had fled the Ottoman Turks).
In 1622 the University of Salzburg was founded, by Benedictines - in reaction to the monopolistic position the Jesuits seemed to establish in the area of education. Under Princebishop Paris Count Lodron, land was reclaimed by the drainage of bogs; he founded secondary schools, completed the construction of the Salzburg Cathedral, and modernized the fortification of the Hohensalzburg fortress.
Between 1675 and 1681 Salzburg experienced a witch hysteria; of 198 accused, 133 were executed.
In the countryside, despite the efforts of the Counterreformation, crypto-protestantism prevailed in many regions. The crypto-protestant communities were visited by Lutheran migrant preachers, and practiced bible studies. In 1684-1685 a group of 621 crypto-protestants were forced to emigrate.
In 1702 the Order of St. Rupert was established, a militant order for Salzburg's nobility; it was dissolved, her property confiscated in 1803.
During the 17th century the Princebishopric of Salzburg was conservative; the Cathedral Chapter, the Estates held on to their privileges; the Prince-Archbishops were noblemen and supported a society in which the domination of nobility was unquestioned.

Article Salzburg, from EB 1911
Ruperti Ritterorden (St. Rupert Medal), from Salzburg Coins
Erzbischof Paris Graf Lodron (1619-1653) Staatsmann zwischen Krieg und Frieden (Archbishop P.L., Statesman between War and Peace), Exhibition Dommuseum Salzburg, in German
Article Paris Count Lodron, from aeiou
Article Thun-Hohenstein, Johann Ernst Count of, from aeiou
DOCUMENTS List of Prince-Archbishops of Salzburg, from Regnal Chronologies, scroll down; from World Statesmen; scroll down for Salzburg
Flag of Salzburg, from FOTW
REFERENCE Friederike Zaisberger, Geschichte Salzburgs (History of Salzburg), Wien : Oldenbourg 1998

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on April 21st 2004, last revised on November 12th 2004

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