History of Salzburg - Historic Encyclopedia Entries



Meyer 1902-1909



Meyer's Konversationslexikon 1902-1909, Article : Salzburg (excerpts)
         Salzburg, former German Archdiocesis, was divided in the Salzburger Gau, Pinzgau, Pongau and Lungau, had an area of 9900 square km (180 square miles) with about 200,000 inhabitants. The Archbishop, simultaneously legate of the Apostolic see and since 1750 primate of Germany, was supervisor of the suffragan dioceses of Freising, Regensburg, Brixen, Gurk, Seckau and Lavant, of which he appointed the last four himself, and held seat and vote in the Reichstag; in the Imperial Princes' Council he alternated on the ecclesiastical bench in the presidency and in the directory with Austria, was convoking prince and director of the Bavarian Circle. The coat of arms was a bisected shield, on the right a black lion in a golden field, the left was pattern-welded; behind the shield the legate's cross emerged, with a cardinal's hat, at the right a sword, at the left a bishop's staff. The apostle of the land of Salzburg was Rupert, Bishop of Worms, who in 696 took up residence in Juvavum, a deserted Roman settlement. Salzburg was given a firm ecclesiastic organization by St. Boniface, who founded monasteries such as Mondsee, Chiemsee and Mattsee; on this followed at the end of the 8th century great flourishing under Bishop Arno, a born Frank and a friend of Alcuin, who in 798 was elevated by Pope Leo III. to Archbishop and Legate of the Apostolic See. At the time of the Carolingians and the Saxon Emperors the Salzburg church acquired territories in Styria and Carinthia; the counties of the Pinzgau were acquired later (1232). Under Emperor Friedrich I. Archbishop Konrad II. refused to recognize anti-Pope Paschalis III.; therefore he was banned in 1186, and his land was devastated; the following schism only was terminated in 1177 by the resignation of Adalbert III., a supporter of Alexander III. New unrest broke out in 1250 under the warlike Archbishop Philipp of Carinthia. The cathedral chapter in 1257 achieved his deposition by the pope and elected Bishop Ulrich of Seckau as his successor. The struggle between both parties only ended, when Ulrich resigned and Wladislaw, Duke of Breslau, in 1265 was appointed Archbishop by the pope. In the meantime the size of the diocesis had been decreased by Archbishop Eberhard II. (1200-1246), who established new dioceses in Chiemsee, Lavant and Seckau. Archbishop Leonhard II. (1495-1519) in 1498 expelled all Jews from the Stift, countered a conspiracy of the nobility and acquired new possessions by purchase; under him the Salzburg mining industry began to flourish, and magnificent edifices were constructed. Under his successor Matthias Lang in 1525 the peasants rose in rebellion, which could be suppressed only with the aid of the Swabian League. At this time the Reformation had found many followers in the Archstift. Matthäua and his successors tried to suppress it by force, only Johann Jakob (1560-1586) permitted the Lutherans to stay. Still their situation under the following archbishops was an oppressed one; repeatedly they were expelled from the country (see under Salzburg Exulants). A statute of 1606, decreed by Archbishop Wolfgang Dietrich (1587-1611) in agreement with the cathedral chapter, forever excluded all Bavarian and Austrian princes from the chapter. As Austria strove for the acquisition of not only Bavaria, but also of this country, already in the peace treaty of 1797 the prospect of it was discussed. Under Archbishop Hieronymus, Prince of Colleredo, the Stift, the richest in southern Germany, was secularised in 1802, transformed into a secular principality ruled by an elector; in the Treaty of Paris that year, together with Eichstätt, Berchtesgaden and a part of Passau, given to the Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinand, as compensationfor Tuscany which he had ceded. In the Treaty of Pressburg 1805 Salzburg came to Austria, while the Prince-Elector was given Würzburg, and while Eichstätt and Passau fell to Bavaria. In the Treaty of Vienna 1809 Salzburg was placed at the disposal of Napoleon, who ceded it to Bavaria in 1810. After the Treaty of Paris 1814 it fell back to Austria, with the exception of a part of the left bank of the Salzach, which together with Berchtesgaden remained with Bavaria. In 1824 in Salzburg again an archdiocesis was erected; Salzburg, under the title of a duchyt (with the exception of a few districts allocated to Tyrol) formed the Salzach Circle of the Land above the Enns [= Oberösterreich / Upper Austria], until in 1849 it was elevated to a separate crownland.
source in German, posted by Zeno







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First posted on March 14th 2009

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