1648-1737 1815-1871

Württemberg 1737-1815

In 1738 JOSEPH SÜSS OPPENHEIMER was executed in what was an act of revenge of the LANDSTÄNDE (estates) against the absolutist administration under Duke Karl Alexander (who died in 1737). In 1744 Karl Alexander's son KARL EUGEN ascended to the throne, which he occupied almost 50 years, a period characterized by the Duke's lavish lifestyle.
In 1752, Württemberg signed a subsidy treaty with France. During the Seven Years War, taxes were collected without the approval of the estates. When lawyer Johann Justus Moser protested, he was arrested and incarcerated without trial, held for 5 years (1759-1764). Only in the Erbvergleich of 1770, regular relations between Duke and Estates were restored. Karl Eugen founded the military academy in Ludwigsburg (in Solitude Palace; moved to Stuttgart in 1775), which in 1781 was elevated to a UNIVERSITY by Emperor Joseph II.; FRIEDRICH SCHILLER was among her students. The duke had a number of palaces constructed around Stuttgart.

On the eve of the French Revolution (1789), W. had c. 620,000 inhabitants.
In 1795 Württemberg lost her territories on the left bank of the Rhine (MONTBELIARD). The Duke, after siding with Austria in the early stages of the French Revolution, in 1802 signed a peace treaty with France. At the REICHSDEPUTATIONSHAUPTSCHLUSS in 1803, Württemberg was rewarded by large territorial acquisitions, mostly Catholic areas to the south and a number of hitherto free imperial cities. The Duchy was elevated to an ELECTORATE. In 1805 further territories (Vorderösterreich) were acquired from Austria in the TREATY OF PRESSBURG; the Duke-Elector assumed the tiltle of KING (Dec. 30th 1805). In 1806 Württemberg joined the Confederation of the Rhine and acquired more territories.
In 1813 Württemberg joined the Allies against France; the Vienna Congress of 1813 recognized the status of Kingdom and the territorial integrity of Württemberg.

Geschichte von Ludwigsburg, from ludwigsburg.de
Article Kingdom of Württemberg, from Catholic Encyclopedia
Grafen und Herzoege von Württemberg, from Schlossgarten.de, in German, illustrated
Das Schloss Solitude, from lexikon.freenet.de, in German
DOCUMENTS General Pardon for Deserters, W. 1758, from Documents on German History
List of Dukes, Kings of Württemberg, from World Statesmen by Ben Cahoon; scroll down for W.
REFERENCE Territorien-Ploetz : Geschichte der Deutschen Länder, Vol.1, Würzburg 1964, pp.307-309
Coins of Württemberg, 1701-1800, in : Krause, Mishler, Standard Catalog of World Coins : Eighteenth Century 1701-1800, 2nd ed., 1997, pp.546-555
Karl Weller, Württembergische Geschichte (History of W.), Stuttgart : Werner Jäckh 1963, in German
Peter H. Wilson, Women and Imperial Politics : the Württemberg Consorts, 1674-1757, pp.221-251 in : Clarissa Campbell Orr, Queenship in Europe, 1660-1815. The Role of Consort, Cambridge : UP 2004, KMLA Lib.Sign. 940.09 076q

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted September 17th 2003, last reviewed on February 22nd 2006

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