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First posted on August 20th 2008, last revised on December 5th 2013






History of Carniola : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources



NARRATIVE
until 1918
For the history since 1992, Slovenia




until 1918
In the 9th century the territory of later Carniola belonged to the March of Carniola and the Windic March, both at first subject to the Duke of Bavaria, from 976 to the Duke of Carinthia, from 1071 to the Patriarch of Aquileja. Various noble lords held Carniola as a fief of the Patriarch of Aquileja, until in 1282 it was entrusted to Meinhard Count of Gorizia and Tyrol. In 1335 he was succeeded by Duke Albrecht of Austria; from 1335 until 1918 Carniola was to be ruled by the Habsburg Dynasty.
From the 14th to the early 17th century, an attempt to combine Carniola, Carinthia and Styria into Inner Austria was made, but the three duchies retained their autonomous privileges and institutions. The Reformation won a foothold in Carniola, but from the 1580es on a stern Counterreformation regime exterminated Protestantism in the duchy.
The District of Bled (in German : Veldes) until 1803 belonged to the Princebishopric of Brixen, the District of Skofja Loka (Bischofslack) to the Princebishopric of Freising. They were annexed into Carniola in the context of Secularization.
From 1805 to 1813 Carniola formed part of the (French) Illyrian Provinces, from 1816 to 1849 part of the (Austrian) Kingdom of Illyria. From 1849 to 1918 Carniola was a separate Austrian crownland. In the later half of the 19th century the German and Slovenian communities contested the official language of the territory, which, until the 1790es had been Latin, and since, German (although the population majority was Slovenian).
After the defeat of Austria-Hungary in World War I, the Treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye allocated Carniola to the new Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (SHS), which in 1929 was renamed into Yugoslavia. Today, Carniola forms the core of Slovenia.

Spelling varieties : Crayn, Crain, Krain, Carniola

On this page the user primarily will find references listed refering to the period prior to 1805 and from 1849 to 1918. For 1805-1815 see Illyrian Provinces, for 1815-1849 see Kingdom of Illyria, for the time since 1918 see Yugoslavia respectively Slovenia.

Historical Encyclopedias : Carniola 1857-1902








WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL SECONDARY SOURCES
Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current Article Carniola, from Wikipedia
Article Krain, from Wikipedia German edition
Herzogtum Krain, from Deutsche Schutzgebiete, in German
Historical
Links General Category : Carniola, from Wikipedia
Webzine Sloveniana
on History from Webzine Sloveniana
Krain, from GenWiki
Organizations
Historical Dictionary on Austria J.J.H. Czikann, Oesterreichische National-Encyklopädie, oder, Alphabetische Darlegung der wissenswürdigsten Eigenthümlichkeiten des österreichischen Kaiserthumes ... vol.1 : A-D, 1835, GB, vol.2 : E-H, 1835, GB, vol.3 : J-M 1835, GB, vol.4 : N-Sedria, 1836, GB, vol.5 : Seeauer-V, 1836, GB, vol.6 : W-Z, Suppl., 1837, GB, in German
on Carniola
Timelines
Accounts of History General Article Carniola : History, March of Carniola, Windic March, Duchy of Carniola, from Wikipedia
Article : Krain : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Specific Periods J.W.F. Valvasor, The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola, 1689, 4 vols., valvasor.org
J.K. Kindermann, Beiträge zur Vaterlandskunde für Innerösterreichs Einwohner vol.1, 1790, vol.2, 1790, in German, posted on Google Books
A.T. Linhart, Versuch einer Geschichte von Krain und der übrigen südlichen Slaven Oesterreichs vol.1, 1788, in German, GB
Historiography
Military Inner Austrian Peasants War, 1515, at this site
Economy Karl Rupe, Das Gottscheer Land, click : Wirtschaft, in German
Gottscheer Gewerbe : Hausiererhandel, from Gottscheer Land, in German; Fotos Gottscheer Landwirtschaft, from Gottscheer Land; Fotos Gottscheer Wirtschaft, from Gottscheer Land
Slowenien, from Bibliographie zur Geschichte und Kultur des Weines
Judith Imgrund and Christian Brünig, Industriekultur in Slowenien - ein Reisebericht (Industrial Culture in Slovenia) in German
Idrija - A Heritage of Mercury Mining and Lace Making, by Raimund Krivec
A. von Pantz, Versuch einer Beschreibung der vorzüglichsten Berg- und Hüttenwerke des Herzogthums Steyermark, 1814, in German, posted on Google Books
B.F.J. von Hermann, Beschreibung der Manipulation, durch welche in Steyermark, Kärnten und Krain der berühmte Brescianerstahl verfertigt wird, 1781, in German, postyed on Google Books
Social History
Ethnography www.gottschee.de in German
Article Gottschee County, from Wikipedia
Erich Petschauer, Das Jahrhundertbuch der Gottscheer, 19th Century; 20th Century
Karl Ruppe, Das Gottscheer Land, click : Landschaft, in German
A. Kupferschmid, Linguistisch-kultur-historische Skizzen und Bilder aus der deutschen Steiermark 1888, in German, posted on Internet Archive
K. Schober, Die Deutschen in Nieder- und Ober-Oesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Kärnthen und Krain, 1881, in German, posted on Internet Archive
A. Th. Sinclair, Gypsies in Carniola and Carinthia (1917), IA
Carniola pp.239-240 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Religion Article Diözese Gurk, Erzbistum Maribor (historical diocese of Lavant) from Wikipedia German edition
Regions Article Gottschee County, Upper Carniola, Lower Carniola, Inner Carniola, Windic March, from Wikipedia
Karl Ruppe, Das Gottscheer Land, click : Landschaft, in German
Article : Windische Mark, Weisse Mark, from Wikipedia German edition
Local History List of German Exonyms for Places in Slovenia, from Wikipedia
Articles Ljubljana : History, Bled : History, Cerknica, Idrija, Kamnik : History, Postojna, from Wikipedia
Geschichte, from Ljubljana : Geschichte, in German
Articles : Bled : Geschichte, Kamnik : Geschichte, from Wikipedia, in German
Edo Skulj, Jerebova Kronika Zupnije Skocijan pri Turjaku, Acta Ecclesiastika Sloveniae 29 2007, in Slovenian, English language abstract
Structures, Institutions Structurae : Slovenia
Article University of Ljubljana : History from Wikipedia
Culture
Biographies Notable Slovenes, from Webzine Sloveniana
Environmental History
Others F.E. Süss, Das Erdbeben von Laibach vom 14. April 1895 (1897) in German, posted on Internet Archive

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Landeshauptleute since 1245, from World Statsmen by B. Cahoon
Lists of Bishops Liste der Bischöfe von Lavant, from Wikipedia German edition
Statistical Data Population Statistics Population : Österreich : Krain 1849-1866, from HGIS
Statistical Data Economic Statistics
Documents Historical Newspapers on Austria ANNO, Austrian Newspapers Online
Online Yearbooks Staatskalender
Austria
international
Carniola Entries
Jährliches genealogisches Hand-Buch : Crain, Bischof von Laybach, Fürsten von Auersperg, Grafen von Auersperg und Gottschee 1730 pp.113, 552-554, 1732 pp.171, 471-473, 1737 p.179, 1738 pp.185, 497-499, 1741 pp.203, 136-138, 1742 pp.137-139, 1745 pp.226, 341, 137-139 1746 pp.236-237, 241-245, 137-139, 1747 pp.242-243, 246-252, 140-142, 1749 pp.267, 270-275, 140-143, in German, GB
Europäisches genealogisches Handbuch : Crain, 1756 p.10, 1766 pp.16, 1768 pp.16, 1770 pp.17, 1772 pp.15, 1774 pp.15, 1776 pp.15, 1780 pp.15, 1782 pp.15, 1784 pp.15, 1786 pp.15, 1788 p.15, 1790 p.16, 1792 p.17, 1794 p.18, 1800 p.19, in German, GB
Image Databanks Historical Postcards : Slovenia, from Postcardman, commercial site
Archival Deposits Online
Archive Deposits Indices Österreichisches Staatsarchiv
Laws Alphabetisch-chronologische Übersicht der k.k. Gesetze und Verordnungen vom Jahre 1740 bis zum Jahre 1843 ... vol.1 : A-B, 1825, vol.2 : C-D, 1825, vol.3 : E-Geisv, 1825 vol.4 : Geisv-Hypoth, 1826, vol.5 : I-Mayk 1826, vol.6 : Mech-Ott 1826, vol.7 : P-Sani, 1827, vol.8 : Sard-Standg 1827, vol.9 : Ständi-Tyr 1827, vol.10 : U-Z, 1827, vol.11 : 1821-1824, 1829, vol.12 : 1825-1829, 1833, vol.13 : 1830-1843, 1847, in German, posted on Google Books
Sr. k. k. Majestät Franz des Zweyten politische Gesetze und Verordnungen für die Oesterreichischen, Böhmischen und Galizischen Erbländer, vol.1-3 : 1792, vol.4-7 : 1794, vol.8-9 : 1796, vol.10-12 : 1797, in German, posted on Google Books
Privileges Windische Mark, Crain, pp.198-207 in vol.4 : Von Oesterreich, Steyer, Cärndten, Crain und Tyrol, ingleichen Burgund, Niederland, Schweitz, Meyland und Elsass, dann denen Chur-Fürsten und Ständen des Röischen Reiches, of J.C. Lünig (ed.), Das deutsche Reichs-Archiv, in welchem zu finden desselben Grund-Gesetze und Ordnungen... , 1710, in German, GB
I. de Luca, Iustitzcodex, vol.1 1793, vol.2 1793, vol.3 1794, vol.4 1794, vol.5 1795, search for Krain, Windische Mark; in German, GB
Historiography
Document Collections J. Chmel, Urkunden zur Geschiche von Österreich, Steiermark, Kärnten, Krain, Görz, Triest, Istrien, Tirol vol.1 : 1246-1300, 1849, IA
Ch.18 : De Scriptoribus Rerum Austriacarum cum Adnexis Provinciis, pp.497-512 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Individual Documents
Historical Maps general collections Historische Karten - Krain (Carniola) & Windische Mark, from Familia Austria
entire country, hindsight/modern Carl Wolff's Historischer Atlas, 1877, Mitteleuropa im Jahre 1250, Mitteleuropa nach seiner kirchlichen Einteilung um die Mitte des 15. Jahrhunderts, from atlassen.info by M. Witkam
Spruner/Menke, Hand-Atlas f? die Geschichte des Mittelalters und die neueren Zeit, 3rd ed. 1880, Ungarn und seiner Nebenländer vom Anfang des XIII Jahrhunderts bis zur Schlacht bei Mohacs 1526. posted on maproom
Professor G. Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas 1886, Deutschland im XIV. Jahthundert, Deutschland im XV. Jahthundert, Territorialentwickelung Österreich-Ungarns, posted on maproom
Karl Streit, Atlas Hierarchicus, 1913, Austria-Hungary, from atlassen.info by M. Witkam
entire country, contemporary Kingdom of Illyria, from Sohr-Berghaus, Handatlas, 4th edition 1847, Kärnten, Krain, Görz-Gradisca, Istrien und Triest, 6th edition 1874, 7th edition 1883, 8th edition 1892, posted by M. Witkam
detail, hindsight/modern
detail, contemporary Postojna 1911, Postojna 1929, from Discus Media
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles Carniola, Adelsberg, Laibach, from EB 1911, posted by Classic Encyclopedia
Articles Krain, Adelsberg (Postojna), Gottschee (Kocevje), Krainburg (Kranj), Laibach (Ljubljana), Rudolfswerth (Novo Mesto), Stein (Kamnik), Veldes (Bled), Zirknitz (Cerknica), from Meyers Konversationslexikon, 4th edition, 1885-1892, in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek
Religious Article : Krain, Diocese of Laibach, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914
Articles : Laibach, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Economic
Geographical Vom Herzogtum Crain, pp.158-166 in vol.3 of J. Hübner, Vollständige Geographie, 1763, in German, GB
Historical Hertzogthumb Krain, die Windische Mark, pp.1131-1133 in vol.2 part 1 of A. Desing, Auxilia Historica oder Behülff zu den Historischen und dazu erforderlichen Wissenschafften, 1741, GB
Carniola and Windesmarch, pp.59-, in : Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, vol.2, 1745, GB
Herzoginn zu Crain, pp.94-98, in F.F. von Schrötter, Abhandlung aus dem österreichischen Staatsrechte: Von den Titeln und Reichserzämtern des Durchläuchtigsten Erzhauseses Oesterreich, 1762, in German, GB
Carniola, pp.384- in : G. Sale, An universal history: from the earliest accounts to ..., Part 2, Volume 37, 1783, GB
Das Herzogthum Krain, pp.604-638 in Neue Sammlung geographisch-historisch-staatistischer Schriften, 1784, in German, GB
Geschichte des Herzogthums Krain, pp.418-448 in vol.4 of L.A. Gebhardi, Genealogische Geschichte der erblichen Reichsstände in Teutschland , 1785, in German, GB
Parliamentary Debates HRE / Germany Verhandlungen des Deutschen Reichstags 1867-1895, 1895-1918, 1918-1942
Deutsche Reichstagakten, vol.1 : 1376-1387, 1867, vol.2 : 1388-1397, 1874, vol.3 : 1397-1400, 1877, vol.4 : 1400-1401, 1882, vol.5 : 1401-1405, 1885, vol.6 : 1406-1410, 1888, vol.7 : 1410-1420, 1878, vol.8 : 1421-1426, 1883, vol.9 : 1427-1431, 1887, vol.10 : 1431-1433, 1906, vol.11 : 1433-1435, 1898, vol.12 : 1435-1437, 1901, Jüngere Reihe, vol.1 1893, vol.2 1893, posted on Internet Archive
Protokolle der deutschen Bundes-Versammlung vol.1 1817, vol.2 1817, vol.3 1817, vol.4 1817, vol.5 1818, vol.6 1818, vol.7 1819, vol.8 1819, vol.9 1820, vol.10 1820, vol.11 1821, vol.12 1821, vol.13 1822, vol.14 1822, vol.15 1823, vol.16 1824, vol.17 1825, vol.18 1826, in German, posted by Google Books
Austria Österreichische Parlamentsschriften 1848-1971 from ALEX, ONB, in German
Postal Routes etc. Etat general des postes de France 1812, 1814, in French, GB; search for Laybach etc.
K.Fr. Jahn, Post-Reise-Handbuch, 1833, in German, GB; search for Laibach
Search Bradshaw's continental railway, steam transit, and general guide 1853, 1859, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, GB, for Laibach
Travel Guides K. Baedeker, Südbaiern, Tirol und Salzburg, Ober- und Nieder-Österreich, Steiermark, Krain und Küstenland, 1878, 1886, 1888, 1892, in German, posted on Internet Archive
K. Baedeker, The eastern Alps, including the Bavarian highlands, the Tyrol, Salzkammmergut, Styria, and Carinthia 1879, 1907, 1911, posted on Internet Archive
John Murray, A handbook for travellers in southern Germany : being a guide to Bavaria, Austria, Tyrol, Salzburg, Styria, &c., the Austrian and Bavarian Alps 1844, posted on Internet Archive
Travelogues
Institutions Archives
Musea Slovene Ethnographic Museum, Ljubljana
City Museum, Ljubljana
Libraries National and University Library, Ljubljana
State Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Coat of Arms, from Wikimedia, from Hic Leones
Coins Search Coin Archives for Carniola, Krain
Search Early Dated Coins (1166-1520s) for Carniola, Krain
Herzogthum Krain, p.465 in Catalogue de la grande collection de monnaies et medailles de Mr. Leopold Welzl de Wellenheim, 1844, in German, GB

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries
Bibliographies on Austria official EBSEES (European Bibliography of Slavic and East European Studies), search for Krain, Carniola)
Österreichische Bibliografie, in German
Österreichische Historische Bibliographie, in German
on Slovenia official
on Carniola official
on Carniola publications of institutions
wider chapter C. Slowenien - Krain, from Computatio
Slowenien, from Bibliographie zur Geschichte und Kultur des Weines
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust
Digitale Texte im Seminar für Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte, Univ. Köln; many 19th century texts, mostly in German
on Austria Digitaler Lesesaal, from Österreichische Nationalbibliothek
on Slovenia Digital Library of Slovenia
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories : Austria, Slovenia
Online Journals General Directory of Open Access Journals
on Austria-Hungary see : ANNO, Austrian Newspapers Online
Österreichisches Archiv für Geschichte, Erdbeschreibung, Staatenkunde und Literatur, vol.2 1832, vol.3 1833, in German, posted on Google Books
Oesterreichische Zeitschrift für Geschichts- und Staatskunde, vol.2 1836, in German, posted by Google Books
Östreichische militärische Zeitschrift (Streffleurs militärische Zeitschrift, Neue militärische Zeitschrift ), 1811 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1812 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1818 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1819 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1820 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1821 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12 1822 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1823 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1824 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1825 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1826 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1827 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1828 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1829 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1830 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1831 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1832 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1833 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1834 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1835 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1836 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1837 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1838 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1839 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1840 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1841 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1842 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1843 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1844 1-3, 4-6, 7-9 10-12, 1845 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1846 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1847 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1848 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1849 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1863 vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, vol.4, 1868 vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, vol.4, in German, posted on Google Books
on Carniola Archiv für die Landesgeschichte des Herzogthums Krain, 1852, GB, 1854, GB
Mittheilungen des Museal-Vereins für Krain 1866, GB
General Accounts
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries