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First posted on June 2nd 2012







Before the Duchy of Silesia became part of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown
By the later 10th century, Silesia was part of Poland; Christianity was introduced around the turn of the century. In 1138, the Kingdom was partitioned in duchies, which were allocated according to the seniorate system; one of the duchies created in this context was Silesia.
During the years 1138 to 1335, further partitioning and occasionally the merger of parts of Silesia occurred. In 1241, Legnica (Liegnitz) in Silesia was the site of a battle in which Polish and German knights were crushed by a Tatar army; only the death of the Great Khan saved Silesia and perhaps Europe from further consequences.
At the time when a unified Kingdom of Poland was reestablished in the 1330s, the Silesian Duchies became fiefs of the Kingdom of Bohemia (and, as Bohemia was part of the Holy Roman Empire, a part of the latter as well).
From the 12th century onward, Silesian Dukes called German settlers into the country (who had skills lacking among the indigenous Slavic population). Ethnic Polish-Silesian and German settlements existed side by side; in Lower Silesia ethnic German settlements became dominant. Cities founded in the 13th and 14th centuries received charters which granted them Magdeburg (i.e. German) law.

Silesia a Land of the Bohemian Crown
Politically, Silesia, while it was under the Bohemian Crown 1335-1740, was fragmented; it consisted of the Duchies of Auschwitz, Bernstadt, Beuthen, Bielitz, Breslau, Brieg, Cosel, Crossen, Falkenberg, Freudental, Freystadt, Gleiwitz, Glogau, Haynau, Jägerndorf, Klein-Glogau, Leobschütz, Loslau, Löwenberg, Lüben, Münsterberg, Namslau, Oels, Ohlau, Ratibor, Rybnik, Sagan, Schweidnitz-Jauer, Sprottau, Steinau, Strehlitz, Tost, Troppau, Wohlau and Zator, and the Principalities of Neisse and Pless.
The Lands of the Bohemian Crown (Bohemia, Moravia, Lusatia and Silesia) maintained separate identities. While they shared an ethnic mix of an indigenous Slavic and an immigrant German population, Silesia had a separate diet, the Silesian Princes' Diet, presided by the Oberlandeshauptmann (supreme captain); this diet was so secure Silesia's autonomy for the coming centuries.
The Hussite movement of the early 15th century was a largely Czech (Bohemian) phenomenon; Silesian suffered from Hussite incursions 1425 and 1432-1434. When Bohemia was ruled by Hussite king Jiri z Podiebrad (1458-1471), Moravia, Silesia and Lusatia temporarily (1469-1497) came under the rule of King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary.
During the early 16th century, the Lutheran Reformation was introduced in many of Silesia's principalities. In 1618 Silesia followed Bohemia's lead, revoked its homage to the Habsburg Dynasty (who held Bohemia and its dependencies since 1526) and elected the Count Palatine of the Rhine in his place. In 1620 the Habsburgs were victorious in the Battle of the White Mountain; Habsburg rule was restored, and the Catholic Counterreformation introduced. In Silesia it was interrupted during the period of Swedish occupation (Thirty Years' War). The Counterreformation caused 200,000 Silesian Protestants to emigrate. During the Great Northern War 1700-1721, the Convention of Altranstädt 1707 contained statutes providing protection for Silesia's Protestants. A pattern emerged : the German-speaking population largely was Lutheran, the Catholic population largely had returned to Catholicism.

Silesia contested between Austria and Prussia
In 1740, Emperor Charles VI. died without a male heir. He was succeeded by his daughter Maria Theresia. King Frederick II (the Great) in Prussia, using dubious claims on the inheritance of certain Silesian duchies, declared war and had his army occupy Silesia. In 1742 and in 1745, the Habsburg Dynasty recognized Frederick's claim to most of Silesia; the Seven Years' War 1756-1763 was fought because Maria Theresia wanted to regain Silesia; the attempt failed.
As a result, Prussia was able to hold on to the larger part of Silesia, with the County of Glatz (hitherto a part of the Kingdom of Bohemia). The remainder, as Austrian Silesia, remained under the House of Habsburg.



Silesian Placenames in German, Polish, Czech and Latin The modern spellings in the language of the country to which these places presently belong are underlined. Readers are advised to expect the German spelling in many texts pertaining to Silesian history prior to 1945.
German

Auschwitz
Beuthen
Bielitz
Breslau
Brieg
Cosel
Crossen
Gleiwitz
Glogau
Grünberg
Hindenburg
Jägerndorf
Jauer
Kattowitz
Kreuzburg
Lauban
Liegnitz
Löwenberg
Neisse
Oppeln
Ratibor
Sagan
Schweidnitz
Teschen
Troppau
Waldenburg
Polish

Oświęcim
Bytom
Bielsko
Wrocław
Brzeg
Koźle
Krosno Odrzańskie
Gliwice
Głogów
Zielona Góra
Zabrze

Jawor
Katowice
Kluczbork
Lubań
Legnica
Lwówek Śląski
Nysa
Opole
Racibórz
Żagań
Świdnica
Cieszyn

Wałbrzych
Czech












Krnov











Těšín
Opava

Latin

Osvecimia
Bithomia

Vratislavia




Glogovia
Prasia Elysiorum



Katovicum

Lauba Lusatorum
Lignitium



Ratiboria


Tessinum









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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles current Article Duchy of Silesia (1138-1335), Duchies of Silesia, from Wikipedia
Article Herzogtum Schlesien, Herzogtümer in Schlesien, from Wikipedia German edition
historical F.B. Wernher, Topographia oder Prodromus Delineati Silesiae Ducatus, 1755, Univ. Wroclaw Digital Library
Links, on History Category : History of Silesia, from Wikipedia
Kategorie : Geschichte (Schlesien), from Wikipedia German edition
Kategoria : Historia Slaska, from Wikipedia Polish edition
Kategorie : Dejiny Slezska, from Wikipedia Czech edition
Kategorie : Schlesien, GenWiki, in German
Historical Dictionary Online-Lexikon zur Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen im östlichen Europa, posted by Universität Oldenburg
Portals
Organizations Bundesinstitut für Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen im östlichen Europa (BKGE)
Historische Kommission für Schlesien
Stiftung Kulturwerk Schlesien
Herder-Institut für historische Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung
Collegium Carolinum, München
Verein für Geschichte Schlesiens
Arbeitskreis ostdeutscher Familienforscher, Forschungsgruppe Schlesien
Timelines Schlesien : Geschichte, from GenWiki, in German
Accounts of History General, Modern N. Conrads, Abriss der Geschichte Schlesiens bis 1945
Stiftung Kulturwerk Schlesien, Geschichte Schlesiens
General, Historical J.G. Sternagel, Geschichte Schlesiens von den ältesten Zeiten bis zur Besitznahme desselben durch Friedrich den Grossen 1740, 1802, in German, SDL
C.A. Menzel, Geschichte von Schlesien, vol.1: Die Geschichte von den ältesten Zeiten bis 1526, 1808, in German, SDL, vol.2: Die Geschichte von 1526 bis 1740, 1808, in German, SDL
M. Morgenbesser, Geschichte Schlesiens. Ein Handbuch, 1829, in German, IA
C. Grünhagen, Geschichte Schlesiens, 1884, in German, IA
Specific Periods
Administration
Military
Economy A. Steinbeck, Geschichte des schlesischen Bergbaues, 1857, in German, GB
Böhm-Chronik, Bergbaugeschichte in Niederschlesien, hauptsächlich im Waldenburger Revier seit dem 16. Jahrhundert
E. von Czihak, Schlesische Gläser. Eine Studie über die schlesische Glasindustrie früherer Zeit, nebst einem beschreibenden Katalog der Gläsersammlung des Museums Schlesischer Altertümer zu Breslau 1891, in German, IA
Czecot : Historische Büttenpapier-Maunfaktur Opava, 17th century
Rund um CZ : Entstehung der Manufakturen
C. d'Elvert, Geschichte der Woll-, Leinen-, Baumwoll- und Seidenwaaren-, der Bier-, Branntwein, Essig- und Zuckerfabrikation und des neuesten Bergbaues in Mähren und Oesterr. Schlesien 1870, in German, GB
Social History O. Kurtz, Beiträge zur Erklärung des volkstümlichen Hexenglaubens in Schlesien 1916, in German, IA
Ethnography General
Slavic
German
Religion General J. Chrzaszcz, Kirchengeschichte Schlesiens für Schule und Haus, 1908, in German, SDL
Protestant Daten zur evangelischen Kirchengeschichte Schlesiens, von Kirchliche Stiftung evangelisches Schlesien
A.O. Meyer, Studien zur Vorgeschichte der Reformation. Aus schlesischen Quellen , 1903, in German, IA
C.F.D. Erdmann, Luther und seine Beziehungen zu Schlesien, insbesondere zu Breslau 1887, in German, IA
J.G. Worbs, Die Rechte der evangelischen Gemeinden in Schlesien an den ihnen im 17. Jahrhunderte gewaltthätig genommenen Kirchen und Kirchengütern geschichtlich dargestellt, 1825, in German, IA
Jewish M. Heitmann, H. Lordick, Zur Geschichte des Judentums in Schlesien
Bohemia, Moravia et Silesia Judaica
G. Bondy, F. Dworsky, Zur Geschichte der Juden in Böhmen, Mähren und Schlesien von 906 bis 1620, vol.1 1906, vol.2 1906, in German, IA
Catholic Article : Erzbistum Breslau : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
History of Regions Predecessors
Administrative Divisions Article : Duchy of Bernstadt, from Wikipedia
Article : Duchy of Bielsko, from Wikipedia
Article : Duchy of Brzeg, from Wikipedia
Article : Duchy of Bytom, from Wikipedia
Article : Duchy of Glogow, from Wikipedia
Article : Duchy of Glubczyce, from Wikipedia
Article : Duchy of Jawor, from Wikipedia
Article : County of Kladsko, from Wikipedia
Article : Duchy of Krnov, from Wikipedia
Article : Duchy of Legnica, from Wikipedia
Article : Duchy of Münsterberg, from Wikipedia
Article : Duchy of Nysa, from Wikipedia
Article : Duchy of Opole, from Wikipedia
Article : Duchy of Opole and Raciborz, from Wikipedia
Article : Duchy of Oswiecim, from Wikipedia
Article : Duchy of Pless, from Wikipedia
Article : Duchy of Raciborz, from Wikipedia
Article : Duchy of Siewierz, from Wikipedia
Article : Duchy of Teschen, from Wikipedia
Article : Duchy of Troppau, from Wikipedia
Article : Duchy of Zagan, from Wikipedia
Article : Duchy of Zator, from Wikipedia
Other P. Knötel, Geschichte Oberschlesiens, 1906, in German, SDL
Local History F. Gramer, Chronik der Stadt Beuthen in Ober-Schlesien, 1863, in German, SDL
Von Breslau. Dokumentirte Geschichte und Beschreibung, vol.1 1781, SDL, vol.2.1 1781, SDL, vol.2.2 1781, SDL, vol.3.1 1782, SDL, vol.3.2 1783, SDL
G. Hoffmann, Geschichte der Stadt Kattowitz, 1895, in German, SDL
W. Schirrmann, Chronik der Stadt Schweidnitz, 1909, in German, SDL
Article : Bielsko-Biala : Bielsko, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Breslau : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Brzeg : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Bytom : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Ciescyn : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Gliwice : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Jawor : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Kattowitz : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Kluczbork : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Kozle : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Krnov : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Legnica : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Luban : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Lwowek Slaski : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Opava : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Opole : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Raciborz : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Swidnica : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Walbrzych : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Zabrze : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Zagan : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Zielona Gora : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Institutions Binnenschifffahrtsmuseum Oderberg, Geschichte der Oderschifffahrt. Einblicke in die Entwicklung der Oderschifffahrt von der Vergangenheit bis in die Neuzeit
Culture J.E. Scheibel, Geschichte der seit dreihundert Jahren in Breslau befindlichen Stadtbuchdruckerey, als ein Beitrag zur allgemeinen Geschichte der Buchdruckerkunst, 1504, in German, IA
Biographies
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen
Documents Links
Historical Newspapers
Image Databanks
Archive Deposits Catalogus primus Residentiae Wartenbergensis Societatis Jesu, 1756-1775, in Latin, University of Wroclaw Digital Library
Laws
Document Surveys K. Kletke, Quellenkunde der Geschichte des preussischen Staats vol.1 1858, vol.2 1861, in German, GB
H.F. Jacobson, Geschichte der Quellen des Kirchenrechts des Preussischen Staats vol.s 1-2 1839, vol.s 2-4 1844, in German, GB
Dokumenty Slaska, Bibliografia
Cartularia Codez Diplomaticus Silesiae, 36 vols. 1857-1933, list (Verein für schlesische Geschichte)
Codex Diplomaticus Silesiae, Digital Library Wielkopolska 36 vols.
Acta publica. Verhandlungen und Correspondenzen der schlesischen Fürsten und Stände 1618 bis 1629, 8 vols. 1865-1906, list (Verein für schlesische Geschichte)
Breslauer Urkundenbuch vol.1 1870, Silesian Digital Library
Urkunden zur Geschichte des Bisthums Breslau im Mittelalter, 1845, Wroclaw Univ. Digital Library
Lehns- und Besitzurkunden Schlesiens und seiner einzelnen Fürstenthümer im Mittelalter. vol.1 1881, SDL, vol.2 1883, SDL
Tzschoppe / Stenzel, Urkundensammlung zur Geschichte des Ursprungs der Städte und der Einführung und Verbreitung Deutscher Kolonisten und Rechte in Schlesien und der Ober-Lausitz 1832, IA
Chronicles Scriptores Rerum Silesiacarum, 17 vols. 1835-1902, list (Verein für schlesische Geschichte)
SRS vol.1 1835, SDL, vol.2 1839, SDL, vol.3 1847, SDL, vol.4 1850, SDL, vol.5 1851, SDL, vol.6 1883, SDL, vol.7 1872, SDL, vol.8 1873, SDL, vol.9 1874, SDL, vol.10 1877, SDL, vol.11 1878, SDL
University Matricula Article : Universitätsmatrikel, from GenWiki, in German; links to web-editions of historic students' rolls
Rostocker Matrikelportal 1419-; search for Bremensis, Verdensis
Die Matrikel der Universit? Heidelberg 1386 - 1920 digital
Other Document Collections Dokumenty Slaska, covers period 1200-1333, Polish language website
Individual Documents
Historical Maps Responsible Institution Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie
Herder-Institut für historische Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung, Topographische Kartenwerke
collections : hindsight Category : Maps of the History of Silesia, from Wikimedia Commons
collections : contemporary Category : Old Maps of Silesia, from Wikimedia Commons
Laborator Geoinformatiky, Old Maps of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia
Historical Maps of the Czech Lands : Silesia
entire country, hindsight T. Höckmann, Historische Karte von Schlesien, 1763
Spruner / Menke, Hand-Atlas für die Geschichte des Mittelalters und der neueren Zeit, 1880 : Deutschland zur Zeit der Hohenstaufen und bis 1273, 1273-1492, 1492-1618, 1648-1742, maproom
Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886 : Deutschland um das Jahr 1000, im XV. Jahrhundert, XV. Jahrhundert, zur Zeit der Reformation, des dreissigjährigen Krieges, im XVIII. Jahrhundert, maproom
Putzger, Historischer Schul-Atlas, 1914, Ostdeutsche Kolonisation, Die schlesischen Kriege, maproom
entire country, contemporary
detail, hindsight
detail, contemporary
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General
Religious Articles Breslau, Silesia, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
Economic
Political
Geographical
Historical
Historic Tour Guides
Travelogues
Institutions Archives Lists
Archive Webpages
Musea Lists
Museum Websites Haus Schlesien, Königswinter
Oberschlesisches Landesmuseum, Ratingen
Monuments
Libraries Lists
Library Websites Haus Schlesien, Königswinter, Bibliothek
State Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins G. Dewerdeck, Silesia Numismatica, 1711, IA

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general ISBN Database
Deutsche Nationalbibliographie
on Silesia Herder-Institut, Bibliographie-Portal zur Geschichte Ostmitteleuropas
V. von Loewe, Bibliographie der schlesischen Geschichte, 1927, SDL
Ch.19 : De Scriptoribus Rerum Hungaricarum, Bohemicarum et Silesicarum, pp.512-532 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
serial publications Historische Kommission für Schlesien, Publikationen
Verein für Geschichte Schlesiens, Publikationen bis 1945, ab 1971
Stiftung Kulturwerk Schlesien, Veröffentlichungen
Stiftung Oberschlesisches Landesmuseum, Schriften
Degener Verlag, Geschichte und Genealogie einzelner Regionen : Schlesien
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek (project); Münchner Digitalisierungs-Zentrum, Digitale Bibliothek
Niedersächsische Landesbibliothek Göttingen, Digitale Bibliothek; Wolfenbütteler Digitale Bibliothek; Digitale Bibliothek Braunschweig, Center for Retrospective Digitization, Göttingen (GDZ)
Digitale Texte im Seminar für Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte, Univ. Köln; many 19th century texts, mostly in German
on Silesia Silesian Digital Library, Lower Silesian Digital Library
University of Wroclaw Digital Library
GenWiki, Digitalisierte Literatur der Schlesischen Digitalen Bibliothek, Digitalisierte Literatur der Niederschlesischen Digitalen Bibliothek
Rolf Freytag, Digitale Bücherei (on Silesian history, links to Polish digital libraries)
Online Journals full text online
contents online Schlesische Geschichtsblätter 2010-2012
Magazine Stacks : Zeitschrift des Vereins für Geschichte Schlesiens (ZVGSchlesien) 1856-1886, 1887-1905, 1906-1943
General Accounts
Specific Topics
Handbook, Yearbook entries Territorien-Ploetz : Geschichte der Deutschen Länder, Vol.1, Würzburg 1964 [G]