History by Country . A . B . C . D . E . F . G . HI . JK . L . M . N . OP . QR . S . TUV . WXYZ

GDR Austria
First posted on July 13th 2006, last revised on February 14th 2012

Files until 1989 only cover the history of West Germany (the FRG). See History of Berlin and History of East Germany, for the time prior to 1957 History of the Saarland

Germany since 1990 . FRG 1989-1990
FRG 1969-1989 . FRG 1949-1969
West Germany 1945-1948

For a general table of contents, go to History of Germany
Predecessors : Germany 1871-1945

Constituent Lands of the FRG : Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria (Bayern), Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Saxony (Sachsen), Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-Anhalt), Thuringia (Thüringen)

Historical Atlas, FRG Page, Germany Page

Students' Paper : Park, Joo Won, Management of Nuclear Power in History (2012)
Students' Paper : Woo, Na Young : A Historical Summary of Berlin's Architectural Controversy (2007)

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook Country : Germany
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Germany
Links General
on History from Virtual Library History; from Virtual Library Labour History; from Virtual Library Economic and Businss History; from Virtual Library Women's History
Zeitgeschichte Online, in German
Organizations Verband der Historiker und Historikerinnen Deutschlands; Verband der Geschichtslehrer Deutschlands e. V; Verband deutscher Archivarinnen und Archivare; Deutscher Museumsbund; Deutscher Archäologen-Verband; Arbeitskreis Militärgeschichte
Article : Deutsche Arbeitsgemeinschaft genealogischer Verbände (DAGV), from GenWiki
Deutsche Numismatische Gesellschaft; Bund Deutscher Philatelisten
Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research
Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung
Bundesstiftung zur Aufarbeitung der SED-Diktatur
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines Germany 1945-1990, Germany since 2001 , from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Accounts of History General, Modern Article History of Germany since 1945 : the Unification of East and West Germany, from Wikipedia
Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, from Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung
Specific Periods Articles : Deutschland 1945-1949, Deutsche Wiedervereinigung, from Wikipedia German edition
Articles : History of Germany 1945-1990, Reunification of Germany, History of Germany since 1990, from Wikipedia
Historiography W.J. Mommsen, The Return to the Western Tradition : German Historiography since 1945
Articles : Vergangenheitsbewältigung, Historikerstreit, from Wikipedia
Politics Links Political Resources on the Net : Germany Governments on the www : Germany; Category : Politics of Germany, from Wikipedia; Kategorie : Politik (Deutschland), from Wikipedia German edition
general Article Politics of Germany, from Wikipedia
Political Parties List of Political Parties in Germany, from Wikipedia
Articles : Christian Democratic Union : History (CDU), Christian Social Union of Bavaria (CSU), Free Democratic Party : History (FDP), History of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), The Left : History (Die Linke), Alliance 90 / The Greens : History (Die Grünen), from Wikipedia
Die Geschichte der CDU, Die Geschichte der FDP, Die Geschichte der SPD, Die Geschichte von Die Linke, Die Geschichte von Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen , from Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, in German
Geschichte, from SPD, in German
Political Movements Articles : Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Foreign Policy Articles : Westintegration, Hallstein-Doktrin, Ostpolitik, from Wikipedia German edition
Articles : Hallstein Doctrine, Ostpolitik, from Wikipedia
Articles : Deutsch-amerikanische Beziehungen, Deutsch-französische Beziehungen, Deutsch-niederländische Beziehungen, Aussenpolitik Polens : Beziehungen zu Deutschland, from Wikipedia German edition
Articles : Franco-German Relations, Germany - United Kingdom Relations, Germany - United States Relations, from Wikipedia
Military Article : Geschichte der Bundeswehr, from Wikipedia German edition
Economy & Finances general Article Economy of Germany, Economic History of Germany, Category Economic History of Germany, from Wikipedia
Global Integrity : Germany 2004, Germany 2007
Institutions Article : Bundesbank : Geschichte, Frankfurter Wertpapierb&oum;'rse, from Wikipedia German edition
Currency & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Germany
Die Geschichte der Mark (History of the Mark), from sammler.com
Article German Mark, from Wikipedia
History of German Banknotes : West Germany, from German Notes
Specific Periods German Economic "Miracle", by David Henderson; Articles : Social Market Economy (Soziale Marktwirtschaft), Wirtschaftswunder - West Germany, from Wikipedia
Harder, K. Peter, Public Policies toward Business in Post-World War II Germany. Proceedings of the Business History Conference (1972), 2d ser., 1 (Indiana University, 1973): 31-50.
McKitrick, Frederick L. Government's Economic Role : German Artisanal Corporatism in the Postwar Period. Business and Economic History 27, no. 2 (Winter 1998): 469-76.
Specific Industries Article Automobile Industry in Germany : History, from Wikipedia
The History of Coal Mining in the Ruhr Area, from Pro Bergbau; The Rise and Fall of Germany's Coal Mining Industry, from DW World
Reindl, Josef. Collusion and Competition : The Electrical Engineering Industry in the United Kingdom and West Germany between 1945 and the Late 1960s. Business and Economic History 26, no. 2 (Winter 1997): 738-50.
Fridenson, Patrick, Selling the Innovation: French and German Color TV Devices in the 1960s. Business and Economic History, 2d ser., 20 (1991): 62-68.
Gourvish, Terence R., Economics of Brewing, Theory and Practice: Concentration and Technological Change in the USA, UK, and West Germany since 1945. Business and Economic History 23, no. 1 (Fall 1994): 253-61.
Individual Companies Volkswagen History, from Histomobile; Opel History, from Histomobile; BMW History, from Histomobile; Porsche History, from Histomobile
Article BASF : History, Bayer : History, Hoechst : History, from Wikipedia
Articles Siemens : History, AEG, from Wikipedia
Tolliday, Stephen, From "Beetle Monoculture" to the "German Model" : The Transformation of Volkswagen, 1967-1991. Business and Economic History 24, no. 2 (Winter 1995): 111-32.
Social History Articles : Heimatvertriebene, Spätaussiedler, from Wikipedia German edition
Articles : Trümmerfrauen, from Wikipedia German edition
Ethnography Languages of Germany, from Ethnologue
Article Sorbs, from Wikipedia
Website of SSW, political organization representing the Danish minority in Schleswig-Holstein; Article SSW from Wikipedia
Assessment for the Turks in Germany, from Minorities at Risk
Article Gastarbeiter (literally : Guest Worker), from Wikipedia, in English
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Germany
Article : Gastarbeiter, from Wikipedia
Religion general Article History of Religion in Germany, from Wikipedia
Catholic Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Germany, from Kirken i Norge
Eckard Bieger O.S.J., Geschichte der Kirche in Deutschland
Lutheran Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland, Geschichte
Article : Bund freier evangelischer Gemeinden in bDeutschland : Ursprung und Geschichte, Bund freikirchlich-evangelischer Gemeinden : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Judaism Virtual Jewish History Tour : Germany, from Jewish Virtual Library; Germany, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Islam Article : Geschichte des Islams in Deutschland, from Wikipedia German edition
History of Regions States of Germany (Länder), Districts of Germany (Regierungsbezirke), from www.statoids.com
Local History List of Cities in Germany, from Wikipedia
Institutions History of Flight : Germany, from Flight 100; West Germany, Germany, from Airline History
History of Broadcasting in Germany, from The Broadcast Archive
Article German Television, from Wikipedia
Article History of Rail Transport in Germany, from Wikipedia
Structurae : Germany
Culture Michael Fussell, German Film. A Brief History
Article Germany at the Olympics, Category Sport in Germany, Football in Germany, from Wikipedia
Biographies Standard Works of Reference Elektronische Allgemeine / Neue Deutsche Biographie (Electronic General / New German Biography), posted by BSB, in German
Web Compilations, General Biographie Portal, a common German - Swiss - Austrian project
Articles List of Germans
Specialized Compilations Nobel Laureates by Country : Germany, from Wikipedia
BBKL (Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon, Biographic-Bibliographic Church Lexicon, in German)
Others Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Germany
Disaster History by Country : Germany, from Relief Web; Category Disasters in Germany, from Wikipedia
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies, scroll down for the Netherlands; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Bishops List of Archbishops of Bamberg, Cologne, Freiburg, München und Freising, Paderborn, from Wikipedia German edition
Lists of Ambassadors List of diplomats from the United Kingdom to Germany, from Wikipedia; Liste des ambassadeurs de France en Allemagne, from Wikipedia French edition; Lista över Sveriges ambassadörer i Berlin, from Wikipedia Swedish edition; Liste der russischen und sowjetischen Botschafter in Deutschland, Liste der schweizer Botschafter in Deutschland, Liste der Botschafter Spaniens in Deutschland, Liste der ungarischen Botschafter in Deutschland, from Wikipedia German edition
List of Russian Ambassadors to Germany, from Wikipedia Russian edition, scroll down for GDR
Article : United States Ambassador to Germany, from Wikipedia; Liste der kanadischen Gesandten in Deutschland, from Wikipedia German edition; Embajadores de Mexico en Alemania, from Acervo Historico Diplomatico; Liste der Gesandtschaftsleitungen von El Salvador in Deutschland; Liste der guatemaltekischen Gesandten in Deutschland , Liste der honduranischen Gesandten in Deutschland , Liste der nicaraguanischen Gesandten in Deutschland, from Wikipedia German edition
Chinese Ambassadors to Germany, from PRC MOFA; Liste der israelischen Botschafter in Deutschland, Liste japanischer Botschafter in Deutschland, Liste der Botschafter Marokkos in D., from Wikipedia German edition
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Destatis. Statistisches Bundesamt
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Germany, from Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer
Historical Abortion Statistics : FR Germany, from Johnston's Archive
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Federal Reserve (U.S.) : Foreign Exchange Rates, Historic
Historical Dollar-to-Marks Currency Conversion Page
Inflation Rates Historical Inflation Rates, from Index Mundi, since 2000
Global Rates : Inflatie Duitsland, graph has data since 1955
Inflation rates FRG 1951-2007, from Wikipedia German edition, figure
Election Results Article : Elections in Germany 1949-, from Wikipedia; Liste wichtiger Wahltermine und Wahlperioden in Deutschland, from Wikipedia German edition
Election Results, from Psephos; from IFES Election Guide; from Electoral Geography 2.0
Elections and Electoral Systems : Germany
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazette Flare : Union List of Official Gazettes : Germany (F.R.)
Article : Bundesanzeiger, from Wikipedia German edition
Bundesanzeiger, Erweiterte Suche 2002-
Article : Bundesgesetzblatt (Deutschland), from Wikipedia German edition
Bundesgesetzblatt, Archiv 1949-2012
Hemerotheques Wikipedia : List of Online Newspaper Archives : Germany
Digitale Historische Tageszeitungen, from GenWiki
Entire Newspapers, Magazines Der Spiegel, Archiv, 1947-2010, in German
Die Zeit, Archiv, 1946-, in German
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Archiv, 1900-, in German, registration required
Historical Newspaper Articles
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Online Yearbooks
Germany Entries
Newsreels Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Propaganda Films George C. Marshall Motion Pictures
Films on History/Society Germany Film Archives linked by National Film Preservation Board (U.S.)
Filmarchives Online (Europe-wide); Deutsches Filminstitut; Deutsches Filmmuseum; Deutsche Kinemathek
Article : Cinema of Germany, from Wikipedia; Historical Movies in Chronological Order : XIII.5 : Post-War Germany
Germany, from Cinema of the World
List of German Films, from Wikipedia; Germany Film, from IMDb
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Bundesarchiv, Digital Picture Archives
Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz
Deutsches Historisches Museum, Bildarchiv
Deutsche Fotothek
Systematic Collections
Images : German Collectible Cards, from germancards.com, cards featuring popular topics, with advertisements on the back side; from the 1900es to 1950es, online catalogue
Images : Abbildungen zur Deutschen Geschichte, posted by S. Jacob, German language website
Virtuelles Bildarchiv, at present images to the history of Baden-Württemberg, Brandenburg available
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Germany
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Passport, from World Passports, scroll down
Airline Timetable Images : Germany
Archival Deposits Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken (Mofa, NL ; enter "Duitsland" in field : "Lijst samenstellen op land of regio", 38 entries; sources posted in Dutch language
Constitutions, Laws Deutscher Bundestag, Grundgesetz (as of 2010)
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by the Germany, from ILO, 77 docs. since 1919
Bundesministerium der Justiz, Gesetze, alphabetisch sortiert, in German
Internet Law Library : Germany
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections Australian Treaty Series : Bilateral Treaties - Germany
Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken (Mofa, NL; enter "Duitsland" in field : "Lijst samenstellen op land of regio", 38 entries; sources posted in Dutch language
Germany, Federal Republic, pp.286-303 in vol.8 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1971, GB
Document Surveys British Library, Social Sciences Collection Guides, German Government Documents
Document Collections European History Primary Sources : Germany
Documents on German History, from psm-data, many in German and English translation
Documents on German History from Eurodocs, merely a collection of links; from Dokumentarchiv, mostly legal documents, all in German only; Documents on German History in translation, from Univ. Newcastle, mostly on 18th century; Historische Quellen, posted by the Louise Schröder Gymnasium, in German
Quellen zur Deutschen Geschichte (Sources on G. History; presently 14), posted by S. Jacob, in German
Truth Commissions : Germany, from United States Institute of Peace
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO National Map Agencies : Austria, Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie (BKG), Frankfurt
collections : hindsight WHKMLA Historical Atlas, FRG page
Germany 1378-2003, IEG Maps
Economic Unification of Germany, 1828-1901, IEG Maps
Railways in Germany 1835-1885 IEG Maps
(Navigable) Waterways in Germany 1850-1989, IEG Maps
Germany 1806-1999, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
collections : old maps Discus Media : The 1900 Collection, Maps from Yesteryear, Germany
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for Germany
Germany Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old Maps of Germany, Wikimedia Commons
Herder-Institut, Sammlung Topographische Kartenwerke, scroll down for Deutschland
collections : undetermined Category : Maps of the History of Germany, Wikimedia Commons
old German atlases R. Andree, Andrees Handatlas; M. Witkam (atlassen.info) posts 9 editions 1881-1937, in German
Stielers Handatlas; M. Witkam (atlassen.info) posts 1st to 7th and 10th edition (1834-1889, 1925-), in German; maproom posts 9th edition 1891
F. W. Putzgers Historischer Schul-Atlas, 1905, Leipzig, in German, maproom
Germany, hindsight Europe in the Year 1800, 1900, 2000, euratlas
Europe 1792, 1796, 1799, 1805, 1808, 1812, 1814, 1815, 1913, 1921, 1939, 1940, 1942, 1989, 1998, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Germany, Contemporary Germany 1896, 1898, 1900, 1905, 1906, 1922, 1930, 1932, 1936, 1938, 1950, 1987, Minerals 1906, Industries 1906, Industries 1922, Probert Encyclopedia
detail, hindsight
detail, contemporary
Parliamentary Debates Web-Archiv des Deutschen Bundestags 2005-2010
Institutions Archives Lists of Archives Archive in Deutschland, from Archivschule Marburg, in German; Archives in Germany, by Andreas Hanacek
Foreign Ministry Archives Services of the European Union Member States : Germany, from Consilium Europa
Archive Websites Politisches Archiv des Auswärtigen Amtes (Political Archive of the German Foreign Office) website
Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Archiv der sozialen Demokratie; Friedrich-Naumann-Stiftung, Archiv des Liberalismus; Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, Archiv f? Christlich-Demokratische Politik
Bundesbeauftragter für Stasi-Unterlagen
Musea Deutsches Historisches Museum
Haus der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Mauermuseum / Museum Haus am Checkpoint Charlie, Stasimuseum Berlin; Allied Museum Berlin
Wirtschaftswundermuseum (online, in German); Geldmuseum der Deutschen Bundesbank
Monuments Tentative List : Germany, World Heritage List, scroll down for Germany; from UNESCO World Heritage
Germany Index, from Showcaves
Article : Weg der Demokratie (Bonn), Lager Friedland (Grenzdurchgangslager), Luftbrückendenkmal, Berliner Mauer, from Wikipedia German edition
Erinnerungsstätte Luftbrücke Berlin (Fassberg)
Libraries Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, Frankfurt, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Bibliothek des deutschen Bundestages
History of the German National Library, from The European Library
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money; Geldscheine Online, German-language online catalogue of German banknotes since 1874

Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Germany survey of bibliographies Bibliographien, from TUI Darmstadt, Institut für Geschichte
bibliographic database Bibliographischer Werkzeugkasten, from HBZ, in German
general bibliographies Dahlmann-Waitz, Quellenkunde zur deutschen Geschichte, 2nd edition 1838 IA, 3rd edition 1869 GB, 6th edition 1894 IA, 7th edition 1906 IA, Supplement 1907 IA, 8th edition 1912 IA
Loewe, Bücherkunde der deutschen Geschichte. Kritischer Wegweiser durch die neuere deutsche historische Literatur, 1919, IA
pp.615-673 in D. Lewis, Historical Dictionary of Contemporary Germany, Lanham Md : Scarecrow 2007, Print : [G]
annual bibliographies Jahresberichte für deutsche Geschichte 1974- ; the years 1947-1973 gradually added); report years 1925-1938 accessible here
specialist bibliographies Bibliography Deutsche Aussenpolitik seit 1949
Bundesarchiv, DDR-Bibliographie (list of titles on GDR history acquired by the Bundesarchiv by year of acquisition, 2006-2010)
Haus der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Lektürehinweise zur deutschen Geschichte seit 1945
H. Cole, The History of Women in Germany from Medieval Times to the Present. Bibliography of English-Language Publications, Washington DC : German Historical Institute 1990 [G]
serial publications Haus der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Publikationen
Deutsches Museum (München), Publikationen
Historische Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Publikationen
Historische Kommission Berlin, Publikationen
Haus der Frauengeschichte, Publikationen
Bundesstiftung zur Aufarbeitung der SED-Diktatur, Publikationen
Kulturstiftung der deutschen Vertriebenen : Publikationen
Gesellschaft für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte : Publikationen
Stiftung für Sozialgeschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts, Bücher und Quelleneditionen
Gesellschaft für Universitäts- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Publikationen
Georg-Eckert-Institut für internationale Schulbuchforschung, Publikationen
booksellers Bundeszentrale f&uum;'r politische Bildung, Shop : Bücher
Haus der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Shop
Online Libraries general Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; e-corpus
on Germany Deutsche Nationalbibliothek; Look under Electronic Publications
Staatsbibliothek Berlin, Digitale Sammlungen
Online Journals Links DigiZeitschriften
Retrospektive Digitalisierung wissenschaftlicher Rezensionsorgane und Literaturzeitschriften des 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts aus dem deutschen Sprachraum
full text online Historische Zeitschrift 1859-2001, DigiZeitschriften
Historisches Jahrbuch 1880-2007, DigiZeitschriften
Bundeszentrale f&uurml;r politische Bildung, Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 1973, 2000-2012
Institut für Zeitgeschichte, Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 1953-2006
Vierteljahresschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte 1903-2007, DigiZeitschriften
Zeitschrift für Social- und Wirthschaftsgeschichte 1893-1900, DigiZeitschriften
Historische Gesellschaft der Deutschen Bank, Bank und Geschichte 2003-
Technikgeschichte 1933-2006, DigiZeitschriften
Militärgeschichtliches Forschungsamt Potsdam, Militärgeschichte 2009-
Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Das Archiv für Sozialgeschichte 1961-
Geschichte und Gesellschaft. Zeitschrift für Historische Sozialwissenschaft 1975-2007, DigiZeitschriften
Contents Online
Historiography Article : German Historical Thought - 1500 to Present, by M.E. Blum, pp.358-364, in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Eleanor L. Turk, The History of Germany, London : Greenwood 1999, 231 pp.; KMLA Lib.Sign. 943 T939t
Mary Fulbrook, A Concise History of Germany, Cambridge : Cambridge Univ. Press 1991, 263 pp. ; KMLA Lib.Sign. 943 F962a
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia Article Germany, vol.20 pp.39-133; KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.20
Konrad H. Jarausch, Uniting Germany - Documents and Debates, 1944-1993, Berghahn 1994, KMLA Lib.Sign. 943.087 J37u
A. James McAdams, Germany Divided. From the Wall to Reunification, Princeton UP 1994 [G]
Hagen Schulze, Germany. A New History, trsl. by Deborah Lucas Schneider, Harvard : UP 1998 [G]
Henry Ashby Turner Jr., The Two Germanies since 1945, Yale : UP 1987 [G]
Mary Fulbrook, The Divided Nation. A History of Germany 1918-1990, Oxford : UP 1991 [G]
Adrian Webb, The Longman Companion to Germany since 1945. London etc.: Longman 1998 [G]
Specific Topics A.J. Nicholls, Freedom with Responsibility. The Social Market Economy in Germany 1918-1963, Oxford : Clarendon (1994) 2000 [G]
W.R. Lee, Eve Rosenhaft (ed.), State, Social Policy and Social Change in Germany 1880-1994, Oxford : Berg (1990) 1997 [G]
Sheilagh Ogilvie, Richard Overy (ed.), Germany, A New Social and Economic History, Vol.III : since 1800, Oxford : UP 2003 [G]
Frauen in Deutschland. Auf dem Weg zur Gleichberechtigung, Informationen zur Politischen Bildung 254, 1997 [G]
Frank A. Ninkovich, Germany and the United States. The Transformation of the German Question since 1945, Boston : Twain 1988 [G]
Ferenc A. Vali, The Quest for a United Germany, Baltimore : Johns Hopkins UP 1967 [G]
M. Donald Hancock, West Germany. The Politics of Democratic Corporatism, Chatham NJ : Chatham House 1989 [G]
Ralf Dahrendorf, Society and Democracy in Germany, NY : Doubleday (1965) 1969 [G]
Historical Dictionary Tim Kirk, Cassell's Dictionary of Modern German History, London : Cassell 2002, 480 pp. [G]
Derek Lewis, Historical Dictionary of Contemporary Germany, Lanham Md.: Scarecrow 2007, 673 pp. [G]
Articles : Bavaria pp.72-74, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]

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