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First posted on January 3rd 2002, last revised on February 4th 2010

Originally bishops were only in charge of administrating spiritual-ecclesiastic matters within their respective dioceses. During the Early and High Middle Ages, monarchs (who rarely could write) depended on the services of bishops as chancellors. For such and other services the bishops were given land, initially only for the time they provided the service, but soon these fiefs became permanent holdings. The bishops thus became prince-bishops, spiritual leaders of their respective dioceses and secular leaders over their temporal lands. With the collapse of Imperial power in the 13th century, the bishops found themselves in the role of heads of state. It is important to realize that the territory of the diocese and that of the princebishopric were different.

The establishment of the Prince-Bishopric of Liege is dated for 985. The prince-bishops at that time there vassalls of the Roman Kings / Holy Roman Emperors, and as such more reliable than the notoriously scheming dukes, which explains why kings / emperors continued leaning on bishops and granting them lands. In 1220 Emperor Friedrich II. granted the bishops the right to mint coins and to found cities - hitherto an exclusive right of the king. The end of the Staufen Dynasty (1254) leaves the bishops in control in their territories; adherence to the Empire was limited to attendance of the Imperial diet (Reichstag), the formal recognition of the Emperor etc.
In the 13th to 15th centuries, the Prince-Bishops of Liege were part of a power struggle of territorial lords in the Low Countries who wanted to consolidate and extend their territories. In the 15th century the Dukes of Burgundy succeeded in "collecting" the territories of the Netherlands under their rule. While the Prince-Bishopric was not fully absorbed into the Burgundian polity, it became a Burgundian dependency. The Burgundian Dynasty (-1477/1492) was succeeded by the Habsburg Dynasty, in 1556 by the Spanish Line of the Habsburg Dynasty. As Liege since 1443 was sandwiched between Burgundian (later Habsburg) territories, the freedom of the Prince-Bishops to make independent decisions, and the freedom of the Liege Cathedral Chapter to choose a bishop were rather limited.
When Emperor Maximilian reorganized the Holy Roman Empire in 1512, the Princebishopric of Liege was allocated to the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle, and formed an enclave within the territory of the Burgundian Circle. While the Reformation made inroads into the Prince-Bishopric, the Counterreformation prevailed. With the decline of Spanish Habsburg power after the Battle of Rocroi 1643, influence over Liege was now contested by the Spanish / Austrian Habsburg on one side, the French and their Wittelsbach (Bavarian alies) on the other. From 1581 to 1688, from 1694 to 1723 and from 1744 to 1763 members of the Wittelsbach family held the Liege see (and in some cases simultaneously held several other sees). In 1672 the French army speedily and unopposed proceeded through Liege territory en route to the Dutch Republic (Dutch War of Louis XIV. 1672-1679). In the late 18th century Liege was affected by the Enlightenment and experienced its own Liege Revolution before being annexed into France in 1795.
At the Vienna Congress in 1815 the territory of the former Prince-Bishopric of Liege was allocated to the Kingdom of the United Netherlands, and within the latter, partitioned among the newly-formed provinces of Namur, Liege and Limburg. Following the secession of Belgium in 1830/1839, Limburg was partitioned into the Dutch and the Belgian province by that name.

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Country Profiles Article Bishopric of Liege, from Wikipedia (E), (F), (NL), (G)
Article Principality of Liege, from Speedy Look
La Principaute de Liege
Links, on History Categorie : Principaute de Liege, from Wikipedia French edition; Prinsbisdom Luik, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Histoire, from Tout Liege
Organizations Societe Royale le vieux Liege
Timelines Chronologie Liègoise, by Fabrice Muller
Accounts of History Encyclopedic, General Accounts Histoire de la Principaute de Liège, by Fabrice Muller (F)
Article Bishopric of Liege, from Wikipedia (E), (F), (NL), (G)
Specific Periods Article : Luikse Revolutie, from Wikipedia Dutch edition; Revolution Liegoise, from Wikipedia French edition; Liege Revolution, from Wikipedia English edition
Daniel Josiz, Liege sous la crosse d'un Wittelsbach. Contribution a l'histoire politique et diplomatique de la principaute de Liege durant les douze premieres annees du regne de Jean-Theodore de Baviere (1744-1755), diss. Liege 2007
Bruno Demoulin, La Principaute de Liege de sa Renaissance a la Revolution, GEDHS
Aperçu Historique : Le Temps des Reformes, 1505-1723, from Diocese de Liege, in French
Aperçu Historique : Les Persecutions, 1789-1795, from Diocese de Liege, in French, illustrated
Military Articles Slag bij Montenaken (1465), Slag van Othee (1408), Slag van Steps (1213), from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Articles Guerre des Awans et des Waroux, Histoire de la defense de Spa a travers les conflits armes, Bataille de Steps (1213), from Wikipedia French edition
Economy History of Siroperie Meurens, Liege
Review of P. Harsin, Etudes sur l'histoire economique de la principaute de Liege, particulierement au XVIIe siecle, Annales d'histoire economique et sociale 1929 pp.464-465
Ethnology Joep Leerssen, Medieval heteronomy, modern nationalism : Language assertion between Liege and Maastricht, 14th to 20th century, BTNG-RBHC 2004
Religion Diocese of Liege, from Catholic Hierarchy
Review of : Christine Renardy, Le monde des maitres universitaires du diocese de Liege, 1140-1350. Recherches sur sa composition et ses activites, Annales. Economies, Societes, Civilizations 1982 pp.515-516
Olivier Donneau, L'anabaptisme au Pays de Liege (1533-1593), Annuaire d'Histoire Liegeoise 32 2003 pp.5-38
Annick Delfosse, La Compagnie de Jesus a Liege. Aperçu historique, Revue Liegeoise de la Societe de Musicologie
Florence Close, Un foyer precoce de visions trinitaires ? L'abbaye benedictine de Saint-Laurent de Liege, Revue Benedictine 119 2009 pp.189-220
Benoit van den Bosche, La cathedrale gothique Saint-Lambert a Liege. Une eglise et son contexte, 2005
Andre Reblon, Histoire religieuse du diocese de Liege GEDHS
Local History H. Pirenne, Belgian Democracy : it's early history, 1915, IA
History of the City of Liege, from Trabel; from Wikipedia
History of Huy, from Wikipedia
Article Spa, from Wikipedia
Article Herstal, from Wikipedia
La Principaute de Liege. Liege et ses Bonnes Villes, by Fabrice Muller
La Petite Histoire des Defawe
Denis Morsa, Les petites villes dans la principaute de Liege a la fin du XVIIIe siecle. Premieres approches, Histoire et Mesure 1987 pp.73-92
Le Site de Fabrice Muller, on the history of the city of Liege
Tourism Office of Huy
History of Institutions
Culture Societe Royale des Sciences de Liege (1835), from Scholarly Societies
Daniel Droixhe, Une histoire des Lumieres au pays de Liege. Livre, idees, societe , Editions de l'Universite de Liege 2007
Daniel Droixhe, Le cri du public. Culture populaire, presse et chanson dialectale au pays de Liege (XVIII et XIXe siecles), 2003
Daniel Droixhe, A la recherche du Candide liegeois, Australian Journal of French Studies 37 2000 pp.127-164
Daniel Droixhe, Raynal a Liege: censure, vulgarisation, r?volutions, Studies on Voltaire 286 1991 pp.205-233
Emilie Corswarem, De la ville a l'eglise : musique et musiciens a Liege sous Ernest et Ferdinand de Baviere (1581-1650), diss. Liege 2008
Daniel Droixhe, Le Marche de la Lecture dans la Gazette de Liege a l'Epoque de Voltaire, GEDHS
Biographies Standard Works of Reference A.G. de Becdelievre-Hamal, Biographie liegeoise : ou, Pr?cis historique et chronologique de toutes les personnes qui se sont rendues celebres par leurs talens, leurs vertus ou leurs actions, dans l'ancien diocese de Liege, les duches de Limbourg et de Bouillon, le pays de Stavelot et le ville de Maestricht, depuis les temps les plus recules jusqu'a nos jours vol.1, 1836, vol.2, 1837, in French, GB
Biographies of Individuals Biography of F.Ch. de Velbrueck, from Cathedrale de Liege, in French
Others Pierre Paquet, L'escalier dans la principaute de Liege au XVIIIe siecle , Maisons d'Hier et dĄŻAujourdĄŻhui 80 1988 pp.82-93
Johan Voets, The key to the scabinal archives of Liege (1409-1797), an opportunity for new perspectives in the history of Liege 2009

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen List of bishops and Prince-Bishops of Liege, from Wikipedia
List of Princebishops, from Regnal Chronologies and from World Statesmen by Ben Cahoon; click for Liege; also from Cathedrale de Liege
Liste des Évêques de Lieè:ge, by Fabrice Muller
Population Figures
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten (Newspapers), from Belgica
Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers], scroll down for Belgium
Liege : Citations (Extracts from newspapers or old books)
Liege Entries
J.Ch. Poncelin de la Roche Tilhac, Etat des Cours de l'Europe et des Provinces de France pour l'annee ... vol.1 MDCCCLXXXIV 1783 pp.360-364, vol.2 MDCCCLXXXV, 1785, pp.348-349, in French, GB
Jährliches genealogisches Hand-Buch : Bischof von L&uumkl;ttich 1730 pp.192-195 1732 pp.155-157, 1737 pp.161-163, 1738 pp.164-167, 1741 pp.178-180, 1742 pp.175-177, 1745 pp.199-202 1746 pp.209-212, 1747 pp.214-217, 1749 pp.234-237, in German, GB
Europäisches genealogisches Handbuch : Bischof zu Lüttich, 1756 pp.193-195, 1766 pp.222-224, 1768 pp.226-228, 1770 pp.235-237, 1772 pp.232-234, 1774 pp.233-235, 1776 pp.233-235, 1780 pp.242-244, 1782 pp.244-246, 1784 pp.248-250, 1786 pp.253-254, 1788 pp.245-246, 1790 pp.249-251, 1792 pp.246-247, 1794 pp.253-255, 1800 pp.281-283, in German, GB
Neues genealogisches Reichs- und Staats-Handbuch : Lüttich 1770 pp.148-150, 1771 pp.153-154, 1772 pp.154-155, 1774 pp.159-160, 1783 pp.128-129, 1784 pp.135-136, in German, GB
Genealogisches Reichs- und Staats-Handbuch : Lüttich 1799 p.193, 1800 p.76, 1801 pp.76-77, in German, GB
Image Databanks Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
VIOE Beeldbank (Vlaams Instituut voor het Onroerend Erfgoed); site in Dutch; use terms Provincie Luik, Provincie Namen)
Exhibition Catalogues A. Benard, Exposition de l'art ancien au Pays de Liege: Catalogue general, 1905, IA
Laws Coutumes du pays de Li?e vol.1 1870, in French, GB
Liege pp.126-127 in C. Berroyer, Biblioth?ue des coutumes, 1699 (bibliography of law codes), in French, GB
Archival Deposits online Andre Deblon, Archives de l'Eveche de Liege (online inventory)
Archives : Fonds Georges de Froidcourt, GEDHS, online inventory
Inventaire analytique des chartes de la Collegiale de Saint-Pierre a Liege , 1906, in French, posted on Internet Archive
Archival Deposits catalogue online Universite de Liege, Bibliotheque, Catalogue des manuscrits 1875, posted on Internet Archive
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections Liege, pp.49-51 in vol.1 of Table des trait? entre la France et les puissances ?rang?es, depuis la paix de Westphalie jusqu'?nos jours, 1802, in French, GB
Document Collections Joseph Hansen, Rheinische Akten zur Geschichte des Jesuitenordens, 1542-1582, 1896, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Ch.17 : De Scriptoribus Historiae Germanicae, Generalis, Archiepiscopatuum, Episcopatuum, Abbatiarum et Monasteriorum, pp.441-497 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Codex diplomaticus lossensis, ou Recueil et analyse de chartes servant de preuves ?l'histoire de l'ancien comt?de Looz, 1849, GB
Lüttich, pp.285-291 in W. Wattenbach, Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen im Mittelalter bis zur Mitte des dreizehnten Jahrhunderts 1858, in German, GB
Individual Documents Memoire du legat Onufrius sur les affaires de Liege (1468), 1885, posted on Internet Archive
Lettre d'vn marchand de Liege a vn sien correspondant de Paris : avec l'instrvction secrette du cardinal Mazarin pour Zongo Ondedei retournant a Paris 1651, in French, posted on Internet Archive
E. Poncelet (ed.), Le livre des fiefs de l'eglise de Liege sous Adolphe de La Marck, 1898, posted on Internet Archive
Heksenproces te Millen in 1573, posted on Dutch as Writing Language in the Maas-Rhine Area
Historical Maps Map : Die Geistlichen Staaten im Zeitalter der Reformation (The Ecclesiastic States in the Era of Reformation), posted by Prof. Schmid, Univ. Regensburg
Map, Northern Part, Southern Part, by Thomas Höckmann
Diocese and Princebishopric 1559, from History of the Territory of Belgium
Diocese of Liege (Ortelius 1584), from Cartographica Neerlandica
City Panoramas 1750, from Historic Maps, Lüttich (Liege)
Liège dans la Cartographie Ancienne (I : city), (II : principality), Historical Map of the Principality, posted by Fabrice Muller
Map featuring the Princebishopric of Liege in 1792, from Gardiner's Atlas of English History, 1892; another map : De Zuidelijke Nederlanden en Luik (= Liege) in de 18e eeuw, from Muzeum voor Vaderlandse Geschiedenis, a sketch rather than a map
Encyclopedia Entries
Article Lüttich, Spaa, Huy, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek
Article Liege, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1910 edition
Article Liege (Capital), Liege (Province), Huy, Spa, Herstal, Verviers, from EB 1911
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Lüttich, posted by DTBSWS
J. Chr. Nelckenbrecher, Taschenbuch eines Banquiers und Kaufmanns enthaltend eine Erklärung aller ein- und ausländischen Münzen ..., Berlin : Wever 1769, in German, entries Lüttich und Maastricht, posted by DTBSWS
Article Lüttich, das Stift, from Zedlers Universallexikon (1730es), posted by Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, in German, 18th century font
Liege, pp.146-147, in vol.2 of S. Ricard, Traite general du commerce, 1781, in French, GB
Liege et Pays-Bas Autrichiens, p.405 in J.R. Ruelle, Operations des Changes des principales places de l'Europe, 1774, in French, GB
Documents Parliamentary Debates Web-Archiv des Deutschen Bundestags 2005-2010
Staten Generaal Digitaal (Dutch Parliament, 1900-1994)
Hansard (British Parliament)
Verhandlungen des Deutschen Reichstags 1867-1895, 1895-1918, 1918-1942
Deutsche Reichstagakten, vol.1 : 1376-1387, 1867, vol.2 : 1388-1397, 1874, vol.3 : 1397-1400, 1877, vol.4 : 1400-1401, 1882, vol.5 : 1401-1405, 1885, vol.6 : 1406-1410, 1888, vol.7 : 1410-1420, 1878, vol.8 : 1421-1426, 1883, vol.9 : 1427-1431, 1887, vol.10 : 1431-1433, 1906, vol.11 : 1433-1435, 1898, vol.12 : 1435-1437, 1901, Jüngere Reihe, vol.1 1893, vol.2 1893, posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Archives Archives de l'Etat a Liege, in French
State Archives Eupen, Huy, Liege, from Archives in Belgium
Institutions Musea Museums in Liege, from Trabel
State Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag of Liege Province, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
Coat of Arms of the Principality, by Fabrice Muller
Coat of Arms of the individual prince-bishops, from Heraldique Europeenne, French-language site
Coins, Banknotes Search Coin Archives for Liege, Lüttich

Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
on Belgium. Bibliography on Belgian History, from Nouvelle Histoire; almost exclusively French language titles; not a single title in Flemish. detailed
Bibliography : Holdings on Belgian Studies of British Library
Belgian Bibliography, from the Royal Library at Brussels, in Dutch, in French
Suggesties voor Verhandelingen (suggestions for doctoral theses), from KADOC, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, in Dutch
ODIS, Onderzoekssteunpunt Databank Intermediaire Structuren Vlaanderen 19e -20e eeuw (Research support databank intermediary structures Flanders, 19th-20th century); rich source of information
Belgien, from Computatio
on Liege. University of Liege, ORBi - Open Repository Bibliography; Theses et E-Prints
Books by Fabrice Mller, in French
Belgien : Lüttich, from Publications et travaux historiques de L. Polain, professeur de litterature française et d'histoire a Liege, conservateur des archives de la province., Bibliotheque de l'Ecole des Chartes 1848 pp.272-274
Daniel Droixhe, Guide bibliographique pour l'histoire de la principaute de Liege au 18e siecle : La vie intellectuelle, Annuaire d'Histoire Liegeoise 1996 pp.88-127
Daniel Droixhe, Publications
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Belgium Belgica, Digital Library of the Kingdom of Belgium
E-Thesis, Licentiaatsverhandelingen on-line (doctoral theses online; Belgian, on history only, in Dutch)
University of Liege, ORBi - Open Repository Bibliography; Theses et E-Prints
Online Journals Bulletin de la Societe et d'histoire du diocese de Liege, 1881, 1882, 1883, 1889, 1891, 1895, 1902, 1903, 1906 1907, 1908, in French, posted on Internet Archive
Bulletin d'Institut Archeologiqie Liegois, 1865, 1872, 1874, 1880, 1894, 1906, 1907, 1908, in French, posted on Internet Archive
General Accounts Jean Lejeune, La Principaute de Liege (The Principality of Liege), Liege : Le Grand Liege 1948, in French, illustrated, 218 pp. [G]
Coin Catalogues Coins of Liege 1601-1700, in Krause, Mishler, Standard Catalog of World Coins : Seventeenth Century 1601-1700, 2nd ed., 2000, pp.983-987
Coins of Liege, 1701-1800, in : Krause, Mishler, Standard Catalog of World Coins : Eighteenth Century 1701-1800, 2nd ed., 1997, pp.101-104

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