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Niedersachsen Hessen
First posted on January 3rd 2008, last revised on May 30th 2012








The Land Nordrhein-Westfalen (in short NRW) was formed in 1946 by merging the Prussian Province of Westfalen (Westphalia) with parts of the Rheinprovinz (Rhine Province); in 1947 the Land Lippe was annexed.
Prussia (with Westfalen and Rheinprovinz) and Lippe from 1871 to 1945 formed part of unified Germany. From 1945 to 1949 NRW was under British occupation. During the Industrialization, the region along the Ruhr, because of its coal deposits, developed from a largely agricultural region into Germany's largest industrial agglomeration (the Ruhr Area). In 1949, NRW joined the newly established Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). NRW, with about 17 million inhabitants, is Germany's largest "Bundesland".

During the Holy Roman Empire (dissolved 1806), the territory of present-day NRW was divided into a multitude of ecclesiastical and secular states and statelets. The larger entities included the Princearchbishopric of Cologne (with Vest Recklinghausen and the Duchy of Westfalen), the Princebishoprics of Münster, Paderborn, Minden, part of the Princearchbishopric of Trier and of the Princebishopric of Osnabrück, the Abbeys of Kornelimünster, Essen, Werden, Corvey, Elten, the Duchies of Jülich, Berg, Kleve, part of the Duchy of Nassau, of the Duchy of Geldern (Gelre) and of the Duchy of Luxemburg, the Counties of Mark, Ravensberg, Moers, Lippe, Tecklenburg, Wittgenstein, Limburg, part of the County of Lingen, the free imperial cities of Cologne, Aachen and Dortmund, and a number of smaller territories.

Historical Atlas Nordrhein-Westfalen, Prussia : Rheinprovinz
Demographic History : NRW


Students' Paper : Roh, Yong Ho, The Rise of the Ruhr Area, Germany's Industrial Heartland, in the 19th Century (2007)







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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles modern Article North Rhine-Westphalia, from Wikipedia
Article Nordrhein-Westfalen, from Wikipedia German edition
historical
Links General
on History Category : North Rhine-Westphalia, from Wikipedia
Kategorie : Geschichte Nordrhein-Westfalens, from Wikipedia German Edition
Organizations Historische Kommission für Westfalen
Historischer Verein für den Niederrhein
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines
Accounts of History General, Modern Article North Rhine-Westphalia : History, from Wikipedia
Article Geschichte des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, from Wikipedia German edition
Article Nordrhein-Westfalen : Geschichte, from GenWiki
General, Historical
Specific Periods
Politics
Military
Economy & Finances Article : Nordrhein-Westfalen : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Company History : Hochtief AG, Peek & Cloppenburg KG, Deutz AG, Bayer AG, RWE, Thyssen Krupp AG, Stinnes AG, RAG AG, from Funding Universe
Social History
Ethnography
Religion Articles Nordrhein-Westfalen : Religion, Evangelische Kirche von Westfalen, Evangelische Kirche im Rheinland, Lippische Landeskirche, Erzbistum Paderborn, Bistum Aachen, Erzbistum Köln, Bistum Essen, Bistum Münster, from Wikipedia German edition
History of Regions see Westfalen, Rheinprovinz, Lippe
Articles Rheingau : History, from Wikipedia
Articles Grafschaft Mark, Vest Recklinghausen, Hochstift Münster, Grafschaft Lingen, Grafschaft Tecklenburg, Grafschaft Rietberg, Herrschaft Rheda, Bistum Minden, Grafschaft Ravensberg, Land Lippe, Fürstbistum Paderborn, Herzogtum Westfalen, Sayn-Wittgenstein, Siegerland : Politische Geschichte, Herzogtum Berg, Grafschaft Limburg, Stift Essen, Stift Werden, Herzogtum Kleve, Kurköln, Herzogtum Jülich, Herzogtum Geldern, Grafschaft Moers, Österreichisch-Geldern, Geschichte des Ruhrgebiets, from Wikipedia German edition
Local History Dortmund, a Story of Change, by Kunzmann/Tata
Wikipedia articles : Altena : History, Arnsberg : History, Bielefeld : History, Bochum : History, Dortmund : History, Gelsenkirchen : History, Hamm : History, Herford : History Lippstadt : History Lüdenscheid : History, Münster : History Olpe : History, Soest : History, Witten : History, Lippstadt : History, Detmold, Aachen : History, Bonn : History, History of Cologne (Köln), Duisburg : History, Düsseldorf, Essen : History, Kleve : History, History of Koblenz, Krefeld : History, Trier : History, Wuppertal : History (= Elberfeld, Barmen)
Wikipedia German edition articles : Geschichte der Stadt Bochum, Geschichte der Stadt Dortmund Geschichte Hagens, Herford : Geschichte, Iserlohn : Geschichte, Minden : Geschichte, Paderborn : Geschichte, Geschichte der Stadt Witten, Detmold : Geschichte, Lemgo : Geschichte, Lippstadt : Geschichte
History of Essen, from Euro Travelling
History of Essen, from Life in Essen; History of Duisburg, from Duisburg am Rhein
Institutions Structurae : North Rhine-Westphalia
Culture
Biographies
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen List of Prime Ministers, from World Statesmen (Ben Cahoon)
Population Figures Germany, Historical Demographical Data of the Administrative Divisions Since 1950, from Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer
Election Results
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques
Image Databanks
Archival Deposits
Constitutions, Laws Verfassungen in Nordrhein-Westfalen (Constitutions in NRW), from Verfassungen.de, in German
Document Surveys
Document Collections
Historical Maps responsible institutions Topographical Information Management Northrhine-Westphalia
Geobasis Datenportal Nordrhein-Westfalen
collections WHKMLA Historical Atlas, NRW Page
NRW, hindsight Erläuterungen zum Geschichtlichen Atlas der Rheinprovinz - Die Karte von 1789 (1898), GenWiki
T. Höckmann, Northrhine-Westphalia at the end of the 18th century - interactive map
Landesverband Rheinland, Die Rheinprovinz : Regierungsbezirke
NRW, contemporary Provinz Westfalen Ludorff 1900 (administrative), Wikipedia
Provinz Westfalen 1905, Wikipedia
Rheinprovinz, Meyers 1885/1892, RetroBibliothek
Rhineland 1906, 1972, Probert Encyclopedia
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
see under Rheinprovinz, Westfalen, Lippe
Parliamentary Debates
Institutions Archives Archive NRW
Archive in NRW, by A. Hanacek, in German
Musea
Monuments
Libraries
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag of NRW, from FOTW

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
Deutsche Nationalbibliographie
on NRW Nordrhein-Westfälische Bibliografie
NRW, from Bibscout
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek (project); Digitale Bibliothek der Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin; Münchner Digitalisierungs-Zentrum, Digitale Bibliothek
on NRW Digitale Texte im Seminar für Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte, Univ. Köln; many 19th century texts on the Rh., mostly in German
Online Journals full text online
Table of Contents
Online
General Accounts Gustav Engel, Politische Geschichte Westfalens (Political History of W.), Köln : Grote 1968 [G]
Specific Topics
Handbook / Encyclopedia Entries Territorien-Ploetz : Geschichte der Deutschen Länder, Vol.1, Würzburg 1964, in German [G]