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First posted on July 4th 2006, last revised on February 7th 2011

Successors : FRG, GDR, Berlin
Regions separated from Germany in 1918-1920 respectively in 1945 : Posen, West Prussia, Nordschleswig, Memelland, Allenstein-Marienwerder, Danzig, Ost-Oberschlesien, Eupen-Malmedy, Saargebiet. Alsace-Lorraine; Saarland

Nazi Germany 1943-1945 . Occupied Territories . The Holocaust
Nazi Germany 1939-1943
Nazi Germany 1933-1939
Weimar Republic 1929-1933
Weimar Republic 1923-1928
Weimar Republic 1919-1923
Germany 1918-1919
Germany 1914-1918
Germany 1890-1914
Germany 1871-1890

An Imaginary Nation State : Germany 1806-1871

Predecessors : The Holy Roman Empire (-1806), Confederation of the Rhine 1807-1813, German Federation 1815-1866, Zollverein 1828-1870, Northern German Federation 1867-1871
Anhalt, Baden, Bavaria, Braunschweig, Bremen, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Grand Duchy of Hessen, Lippe, Lübeck (untril 1937), Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Oldenburg, Prussia, Reuss Elder Line (until 1919), Reuss Younger Line (until 1919), Sachsen-Altenburg (until 1919), Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha (until 1919), Sachsen-Meiningen (until 1919), Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (until 1919), Saxony, Schaumburg-Lippe, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (until 1919), Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (until 1919), Thüringen (since 1919), Waldeck (until 1929), Württemberg

Historical Atlas, Germany Page
List of Wars, Germany Page

Students' Paper : Jung, Changwoo, A Comparison of the Mining and Metallurgic Industry in Germany, Japan, Russia, the U.S, and Chile 1850-1950 (2011)
Students' Paper : Ryu, Seung Hyun, A Utopian Concept Becoming Political Reality: Richard Nikolaus Graf Coudenove Kalergi and the Paneuropa Movement from 1920 to 1950 (2011)
Students' Paper : Cho, Namje : The Berlin Olympics of 1936 in a Political Context (2008)
Students' Paper : Lee, Joo Hyung : The French Occupation of the Rhineland, 1919-1930 (2008)
Students' Paper : Lee, Joo Hyung : Alsace-Lorraine 1871-1945 (2007)
Students' Paper : Woo, Na Young : A Historical Summary of Berlin's Architectural Controversy (2007)
Students' Paper : Roh, Yong Ho : The Rise of the Ruhr Area, Germany's Industrial Heartland in the 19th Century (2007)
Students' Paper : Koo, Hyemin : Evolution of Film Propaganda Throughout World War II (on the U.S., the U.K., the U.S.S.R., Germany and Italy; 2006)
Students' Paper : Hong, Sang Bin : How Ideology Influenced History Textbooks in Nazi Germany and the German Democratic Republic (2005)
Students' Paper : Kwak, Suk Chun : Development, Deployment and Impact of Airborne Infantry during World War II (on the U.S.S.R., Germany, the U.K. and the U.S.; 2005)

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles German Empire, German Reich, Weimar Republic, Nazi Germany, from Wikipedia
Articles Germany, from EB 1911
Article Deutschland, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Article Deutschland, from Brockhaus Konversationslexikon 1894-1896, in German
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Germany
Links General
on History Virtual Library : History : German History, from Univ. Erlangen
Virtual Library Labour History : Germany
Category : History of Germany, from Wikipedia
Zeitgeschichte Online, in German
Organizations Verband der Historiker und Historikerinnen Deutschlands; Verband der Geschichtslehrer Deutschlands e. V, from Euroclio; Verband deutscher Archivarinnen und Archivare; Deutscher Museumsbund; Deutscher Archäologen-Verband; Arbeitskreis Militärgeschichte
Article : Deutsche Arbeitsgemeinschaft genealogischer Verbände (DAGV), from GenWiki
Deutsche Numismatische Gesellschaft; Bund Deutscher Philatelisten
Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research
Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines Timelines, Germany 1821-1916, Germany 1917-1938, Germany 1939-1944 , from timelines.ws
Accounts of History General, Modern
General, Historical
Specific Periods C. Strupp, Observing a Dictatorship : American Consular Reporting on Germany, 1933-1941
Politics Category Political Parties of the Second Reich
Category Political Parties in Weimar Germany
Article Weimar Paramilitary Groups
Military see here
Christian Ingrao, Chronological Index : General Chronology of Nazi Violence, from Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Germany
Articles Economic History of Germany, German Mark, The 1920s German Inflation, World War I Reparations, from Wikipedia
Category Economic History of Germany, from Wikipedia
Die Geschichte der Mark (History of the Mark), from sammler.com
The German Wool and Cotton Industry 16th to 20th Century, by Dietrich Ebeling et al.
N.H. Dimsdale, N. Horsewood and A. van Riel, Umemployment and Real Wages in Weimar Germany (2004)
Dampfmaschinen und Lokomotiven. Ihre Entwicklung, ihr Einsatz und erhaltene Objekte (Steam Engines and Locomotives. Their Development, Usage, and Preserved Objects), by Albert Gieseler, in German
Feldman, Gerald D. Thunder from Arosa: Karl Kimmich and the Reconstruction of the Stollwerck Company. Business and Economic History 26, no. 2 (Winter 1997): 686-95.
Giannetti, Renato, and Mauro Lombardi. Behavioral Rules in R&D Strategies: German and Dutch Electrical Equipment Enterprises between the Wars. Business and Economic History 24, no. 1 (Fall 1995): 206-17.
Glaser-Schmidt, Elisabeth. Foreign Trade Strategies of I.G. Farben after World War I. Business and Economic History 23, no. 1 (Fall 1994): 201-11.
Mernitz, Kenneth S. Firms in Conflict : Liquid Fuel Producers in the U.S. and Germany, 1910-1933. Business and Economic History, 2d ser., 19 (1990): 143-52.
Mierzejewski, Alfred C. ¡°Accounting Reform at the German National Railway Company, 1924-1932. Business and Economic History 23, no. 1 (Fall 1994): 212-20.
Mierzejewski, Alfred C. The German National Railway Confronts Its Competitors, 1920-1939. Business and Economic History 25, no. 2 (Winter 1996): 89-102.
Mierzejewski, Alfred C. The Reich Association of German Industry's Proposal to ¡®Privatize¡¯ the German National Railway, 1921-1922. Business and Economic History 27, no. 2 (Winter 1998): 477-85.
Pinsdorf, Marion K., Varig Airlines of Brazil : An Enterprising German Investment. Business and Economic History, 2d ser., 21 (1992): 159-70.
Vascik, George S. Sugar Barons and Bureaucrats : Unravelling the Relationship between Economic Interest and Government in Modern Germany, 1799-1945. Business and Economic History, 2d ser., 21 (1992): 336-42.
C.D. Snow, German trade and the war : commercial and industrual conditions in war time and the future outlook, 1918, IA
Social History
Ethnography Note : here the Jews are regarded a religious community, thus listed under religion; the Nazi policy of subjecting Jews, defined as a "race", to genocide, listed under ethnography.
Articles Sorbs, Lithuania Minor, Nordfriesland, Danish Minority in Southern Schleswig, Porajmos (Genocide of the Gypsies), Names of the Holocaust, The Holocaust, Race Laws, from Wikipedia
See under The Holocaust
Article : Deutschland : Nichtdeutsche Bevölkerung (Germany : Non-German Population), from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Germany, pp.2371-2464 in vol.4A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Category Religion in Germany, from Wikipedia
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Germany, from Kirken i Norge
Virtual Jewish History Tour : Germany, from Jewish Virtual Library
Article : Deutschland : Konfessionen (Germany : Confessions), from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
History of Regions see under Encyclopedia Entries
Article German Empire : Constituent States, from Wikipedia
Local History History of Gdansk (Danzig), Wroclaw (Breslau), Berlin, Hanover (Hannover), Frankfurt / Main, Dortmund, Essen, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Cologne (Köln), Wuppertal (former Barmen, Elberfeld), Leipzig, Dresden, Nuremberg (Nürnberg), Munich (München), Stuttgart, Bremen, Hamburg, Free City of Lübeck, from Wikipedia
Geschichte Berlins, from Chronik Berlin, in German
Institutions History of Flight : Germany, from Flight 100
Article Television in Germany, History of Broadcasting (Chapters on Germany), from Wikipedia
A Brief History of German Railways, by John Oxlade
Biographies Standard Works of Reference Elektronische Allgemeine / Neue Deutsche Biographie (Electronic General / New German Biography), posted by BSB, in German
Web Compilations, General Articles List of Germans, from Wikipedia
Specialized Compilations Nobel Laureates by Country : Germany, from Wikipedia
BBKL (Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon, Biographic-Bibliographic Church Lexicon, in German)
Datenbank der Reichstagsabgeordneten 1919-1933 (Data Bank of Reichstag Representatives 1919-1933), at Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
Others History of the German Vegetarian Societies, from IVU

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen, (B. Cahoon); 1871-1918, 1919-1945, from Archontology
Lists of Bishops
Lists of Ambassadors List of Russian Ambassadors to Germany, from Wikipedia Russian edition, scroll down for GDR
Lista över Sveriges ambassadörer i Berlin, from Wikipedia Swedish edition
Embajadores de Mexico en Alemania, from Acervo Historico Diplomatico
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Germany, from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer)
Economic Statistics Statistical Data, Germany 1815-1914, from HGIS, comment in German
Sponsel, Rudolf (DAS). Das Schulden-Porträt der Weimarer Republik 1918-1933. IP-GIPT.
Sponsel, Rudolf (DAS). Das Schulden-Porträt: Adolf Hitler, Nationalsozialistischer Kanzler und Diktator Deutsches Reich 1933-1945. IP-GIPT.
Election Results Article Elections in Germany, from Wikipedia
Reichstagswahlen (Elections for the Reichstag), from Wahlen in Deutschland bis 1918 (Elections in Germany until 1918), in German
Wahlen in der Weimarer Republik (Elections in the Weimar Republic), in German
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazettes Article : Deutscher Reichsanzeiger, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Reichsgesetzblatt, from Wikipedia German edition
Documents Historical Newspapers Links; Overviews Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers]
Digitale Historische Tageszeitungen, from GenWiki
Entire Newspapers, Magazines Vorhandene Digitalisate für Zeitungen, from Die digitale Bibliothek
Historical Newspaper Articles Old Magazine Articles : The Nazis
Online Yearbooks
Germany Entries
Newsreels Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Search Internet Archive's Moving Image Archive for German Newsreel
Propaganda Films
Films on History/Society Germany Film Archives linked by National Film Preservation Board (U.S.)
Filmarchives Online (Europe-wide); Deutsches Filminstitut; Deutsches Filmmuseum; Deutsche Kinemathek
Article : Cinema of Germany, from Wikipedia; Historical Movies in Chronological Order : IX.4 : Germany and Austria before WW I, XI.5 : Hitler's Rise, XII.1.1 : World War II : Germany
Germany, from Cinema of the World
List of German Films, from Wikipedia; Germany Film, from IMDb
Image Databanks Images : German Collectible Cards, from germancards.com, cards featuring popular topics, with advertisements on the back side; from the 1900es to 1950es, online catalogue
Images : Abbildungen zur Deutschen Geschichte, posted by S. Jacob, German language website
Image Databanks : Deutsche Fotothek
Virtuelles Bildarchiv, at present images to the history of Baden-Württemberg, Brandenburg available
License Plates : Germany, from Francoplaque
Archival Deposits Germany Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
1866-1890, 1890-1918, 1919-1933, 1933-1945, from GHDI, primary docvs in English translation
Constitutions, Laws German legal documents (laws, constitutions) 1871-today, from Documentarchiv, in German only
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by the Germany, from ILO, 77 docs. since 1919
Internet Law Library : Germany
Search Prassi Italiana di Dirito Internazionale, Indice delle leggi e degli altri atti normativi, for Germania, 275 entries, in Italian
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections Australian Treaty Series : Bilateral Treaties - Germany
Germany, pp.121-225 in vol.8 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1971, GB
Document Collections Documents on German History for the preparation of history class, from psm-data (in German and/or English)
Primary Documents to the History of Germany from Eurodocs
Documents in German History : Texts and Translations, from Univ. of Newcastle, exclusively on the 18th century, mostly in German and English
Quellen zur Deutschen Geschichte (Sources on G. History; presently 14), posted by S. Jacob, in German
Zwangsarbeit 1939-1945, Ein Digitales Archiv
Historical Maps collections : hindsight WHKMLA Historical Atlas, Germany page
Germany 1378-2003, IEG Maps
Economic Unification of Germany, 1828-1901, IEG Maps
Railways in Germany 1835-1885 IEG Maps
(Navigable) Waterways in Germany 1850-1989, IEG Maps
Germany 1806-1999, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
collections : old maps Discus Media : The 1900 Collection, Maps from Yesteryear, Germany
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for Germany
Germany Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old Maps of Germany, Wikimedia Commons
Herder-Institut, Sammlung Topographische Kartenwerke, scroll down for Deutschland
collections : undetermined Category : Maps of the History of Germany, Wikimedia Commons
old German atlases R. Andree, Andrees Handatlas; M. Witkam (atlassen.info) posts 9 editions 1881-1937, in German
Stielers Handatlas; M. Witkam (atlassen.info) posts 1st to 7th and 10th edition (1834-1889, 1925-), in German; maproom posts 9th edition 1891
F. W. Putzgers Historischer Schul-Atlas, 1905, Leipzig, in German, maproom
Digitaler Wenker-Atlas (original published 1888-1923, on languages spoken in Germany; project)
Germany, hindsight Europe in the Year 1800, 1900, 2000, euratlas
Europe 1792, 1796, 1799, 1805, 1808, 1812, 1814, 1815, 1913, 1921, 1939, 1940, 1942, 1989, 1998, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Germany, Contemporary Germany 1896, 1898, 1900, 1905, 1906, 1922, 1930, 1932, 1936, 1938, 1950, 1987, Minerals 1906, Industries 1906, Industries 1922, Probert Encyclopedia
detail, hindsight
detail, contemporary
Encyclopedia Entries Articles Germany, States : Prussia, Bavaria, Wurttemberg (Württemberg), Baden, Hessen-Darmstadt, Saxony, Thuringia, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Brunswick (Braunschweig), Waldeck-Pyrmont, Anhalt, Lippe, Schaumburg-Lippe, Oldenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Lubeck (Lübeck), Cities : Berlin, Breslau, Danzig, Magdeburg, Halle, Hanover, Dortmund, Essen, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Cologne (Köln), Frankfort-on-Main (Frankfurt), Dresden, Leipzig, Nuremberg (Nürnberg), Munich (München), Stuttgart, from EB 1911
Articles Germany, States : Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria, Württemberg, Baden, Hessen, Anhalt, Brunswick (Braunschweig), Mecklenburg, Oldenburg, Lübeck, Hamburg, Bremen, Thuringia, Waldeck-Pyrmont, Lippe, Schaumburg-Lippe, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907
Articles Germany, States : Prussia, Saxony, Mecklenburg, Anhalt, Bavaria, Württemberg, Baden, Hessen, Brunswick (Braunschweig), Lippe, Oldenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Lübeck, Cities : Berlin, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Cologne, Dortmund, Essen, Leipsic (Leipzig), Dresden, Munich (München), Nuremberg (Nürnberg), Stuttgart, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Article Deutschland, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Article Deutschland, from Brockhaus Konversationslexikon 1894-1896, in German
Article : Deutsche Eisenbahnen, from Röll, Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens (Encyclopedia of Railroads) 2nd ed. 1912-1923, in German
Germany, pp.103-128 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Deutsches Reich, pp.1-57 in vol.1 of Kleines Staatshandbuch des Reichs und der Einzelstaaten 1883, in German, IA
W.H. Weed, The Copper Mines of the World 1907, Germany pp.90-95
Parliamentary Debates Verhandlungen des Deutschen Reichstags, 1867-1895, 1895-1918, 1918-1942, in German
Institutions Archives Lists of Archives Repositories of Primary Sources : Europe : Germany, from Univ. of Idaho; scroll further down. Mostly Archive Webpages
Historical Research in Europe, listing of archives; click Atlas Search, Germany, 817 entries
Archive Websites Politisches Archiv des Auswärtigen Amtes (Political Archive of the German Foreign Office) website
Musea Deutsches Historisches Museum
Libraries Libraries in Germany, from LibDex, 59 entries
History of the German National Library, from The European Library
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from Germany; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Germany (Deutsches Reich), from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Geldscheine Online, German-language online catalogue of German banknotes since 1874
Stamps Rare German Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamps Gallery; Stamps Prussia, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies general Bibliographischer Werkzeugkasten, from HBZ, in German
Bibliography Deutsche Aussenpolitik seit 1949
on Germany Bibliographischer Werkzeugkasten, from HBZ, in German
The Felix Posen Bibliographic Project on Antisemitism : The "Jewish Question" in German-Speaking Countries 1848-1914, at Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Jahresberichte für Deutsche Geschichte (since 1984)
Online Libraries general Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; e-corpus
on Germany Univ. Köln : Digitale Texte im Seminar für Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte, many German-language digitized books on 19th century economic history
Online Journals full text online Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Jahresberichte für Deutsche Geschichte, 1925-1938, in German
Contents Online
Historiography Article : German Historical Thought - 1500 to Present, by M.E. Blum, pp.358-364, in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Eleanor L. Turk, The History of Germany, London : Greenwood 1999, 231 pp.; KMLA Lib.Sign. 943 T939t
Mary Fulbrook, A Concise History of Germany, Cambridge : Cambridge Univ. Press 1991, 263 pp. ; KMLA Lib.Sign. 943 F962a
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia Article Germany, vol.20 pp.39-133; KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.20
Hajo Holborn, A History of Modern Germany 1840-1945, Princeton : UP 1969 [G]
Hagen Schulze, Germany. A New History, trsl. by Deborah Lucas Schneider, Harvard : UP 1998 [G]
Institut für Geschichte der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, ed., Deutsche Geschichte in Daten, Berlin (Ost) : Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften 1967 [G]
Specific Topics Jackson J. Spielvogel, Hitler and Nazi Germany - a History, Prentice Hall, 2000; KMLA Lib.Sign. 943 S755h
Joachim Remak, The Nazi Years : a Documentary History, Waveland 1990, KMLA Lib.Sign. 943.08 R384t
Wolfgang Benz, A Concise History of the Third Reich, Berkeley : Univ. of California Press 2006, KMLA Lib.Sign. 943.086 B479c
Mary Fulbrook, The Divided Nation. A History of Germany 1918-1990, Oxford : UP 1991 [G]
Das 19. Jahrhundert. Monarchie - Demokratie - Nationalstaat, Informationen zur Politischen Bildung 163, Ndr 2000 [G]
Barbara Sapinsley, From Kaiser to Hitler. The Life and Death of a Democracy, 1919-1933, NY : Grosset & Dunlap 1968 [G]
Tim Kirk, The Longman Companion to Nazi Germany, London etc.: Longman 1995 [G]
Ralf Dahrendorf, Society and Democracy in Germany, NY : Doubleday (1965) 1969 [G]
Walter Goerlitz, History of the German General Staff, NY : Praeger (1952) 1957 [G]
Marion Freyer Wolff, The Shrinking Circle. Memories of Nazi Berlin 1933-1939, NY : UAHC Press 1989 [G]
Bernd Widdig, Culture and Inflation in Weimar Germany, Berkeley : University of California Press 2001, KMLA Lib.Sign. 332.41 W638c
A.J. Nicholls, Freedom with Responsibility. The Social Market Economy in Germany 1918-1963, Oxford : Clarendon (1994) 2000 [G]
W.R. Lee, Eve Rosenhaft (ed.), State, Social Policy and Social Change in Germany 1880-1994, Oxford : Berg (1990) 1997 [G]
Sheilagh Ogilvie, Richard Overy (ed.), Germany, A New Social and Economic History, Vol.III : since 1800, Oxford : UP 2003 [G]
Kate Lacey, Feminine Frequencies. Gender, German Radio, and the Public Sphere, 1923-1945, University of Michigan Press 1996 [G]
Jack Wertheimer, Unwelcome Strangers. East European Jews in Imperial Germany, Oxford : UP 1987 [G]
Frauen in Deutschland. Auf dem Weg zur Gleichberechtigung, Informationen zur Politischen Bildung 254, 1997 [G]
Ilse Koehn, Mischling Second Degree. My Childhood in Nazi Germany, London : Puffin 1990 [G]
Uwe Spiekermann, Brown Bread for Victory : German and British Wholemeal Politics in the Inter-War Period, pp.143-171 in : Frank Trentmann (ed.), Food and Conflict in Europe in the Age of the Two World Wars, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 940.31 T795f
Johannes-Dieter Steinert, Food and the Food Crisis in Post-War Germany, 1945-1948. British Policy and the Role of British NGOs, pp.266-289 in : Frank Trentmann (ed.), Food and Conflict in Europe in the Age of the Two World Wars, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 940.31 T795f
Werner Abelshauser, Guns, Butter and Economic Miracles, in : Mark Harrison (ed.), The Economics of World War II, Cambridge : UP 1998 pp.122-176, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 940.5314 H318e
Frederic V. Grunfeld, The Hitler File. A Social History of Germany and the Nazis, 1918-1945, NY : Random House 1974 [G; actually a pictorial history]
Detlef Mühlberger, The Social Bases of Nazism, 1919-1933, Cambridge : UP 2003 [G]
Gerhard Masur, Imperial Berlin, NY : Dorset Press 1970 [G]
Otto Friedrich, Before the Deluge. A Portrait of Berlin in the 1920s, NY : Harper & Row 1972 [G]
Richard J. Evans, Death in Hamburg, Society and Politics in the Cholera Years 1830-1910, London : Penguins 1987 [G]
W. Conze, The German Empire, pp.274-299 in F.H. Hinsley, The New Cambridge History, vol.XI : Material Progress and World-wide Problems 1870-1898, Cambridge : UP (1962) 1978 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Wilfried Fest, Dictionary of German History 1806-1945, London : George Prior 1978, 189 pp. [G]

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