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First posted on February 20th 2006, last revised on December 5th 2013






History of Styria : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources



NARRATIVE
until 1918
For the history since 1992, see Austria, Slovenia


until 1918
The March of Steyr (Steyr being a place located in Lower Austria) was created within the Duchy of Carinthia in the late 10th century. In 1180 it was separated from Carinthia and elevated into the Duchy of Styria. In the later 13th centyria acquired by Otakar Przemysl, after his defeat Styria came to be ruled by the Habsburg rulers of Austria, in Dynastic Union. It has been one of the Austrian Lands (crownlands) until 1918. From the 14th to the 17th century an attempt was made to combine Styria, Carinthia, Carniola and a few smaller entities as Inner Austria. Temporarily, Inner Austria was ruled by a sideline of the Habsburg Dynasty.
Graz (Styria) became a center of the Counterrefornation before the latter got a hold in Austria proper. In 1619 the head of the Styrian line of the House of Habsburg became Emperor and head of the (Austrian line of) the Habsburg Dynasty. Ever since, Styria was under the central administration in Vienna.
In the 19th century, Styria saw the emergence of German and Slovenian culture contesting the territory of Styria (until the 1790s Latin had been the language of administration, jurisdiction and instruction; it was replaced by German, which was resented by the Slavic population). Following Austria-Hungary's defeat in World War I, in 1919 (Treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye) the southern stretches of Styria were ceded to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (SHS, in 1929 renamed Yugoslavia); today they form part of Slovenia.
In German, Styria is called Steiermark, in reference to its origin as the Styrian March.

Timeline : Styria

For files on the history of Inner Austria 1411-1740, see Inner Austria
For files on the history of Styria since 1918
see Austria

Historical Encyclopedias on the History of Styria







WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL SECONDARY SOURCES
Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current Das Land Steiermark
Article Styria (State), Duchy of Styria, from Wikipedia
Article Steiermark, from Wikipedia German edition
Article Steiermark, from GenWiki
Historical J.M. Liechtenstern, Statistisch - topographischer Landesschematismus des Herzogthums Steyermark, 1818, in German, posted on Internet Archive
F. Sartori, Neueste Geographie von Steiermark, 1816, in German, posted on Internet Archive
J.K. Kindermann, Historischer und geographischer Abriss des Herzogthums Steyermark, 3rd edition 1787, in German, posted on Google Books
A.J. Cäsar, Beschreibung des Herzogthum Steyermarks vol.1, 1786, vol.2, 1786, in German, posted on Google Books
Links General Category : Styria, from Wikipedia
Kategorie : Steiermark, from Wikipedia German edition
on History Kategorie : Geschichte der Steiermark, from Wikipedia German edition
Organizations Historischer Verein für Steiermark
Historical Dictionary on Austria J.J.H. Czikann, Oesterreichische National-Encyklopädie, oder, Alphabetische Darlegung der wissenswürdigsten Eigenthümlichkeiten des österreichischen Kaiserthumes ... vol.1 : A-D, 1835, GB, vol.2 : E-H, 1835, GB, vol.3 : J-M 1835, GB, vol.4 : N-Sedria, 1836, GB, vol.5 : Seeauer-V, 1836, GB, vol.6 : W-Z, Suppl., 1837, GB, in German
on Styria C. Schmutz, Historisch-topographisches Lexicon von Steyermark vol.1, 1822, IA, vol.2 : H-M, 1822, IA, vol.3 : N-Se, 1822, IA, vol.4 : Si-Z, 1823, GB, A-Z, 1823, IA, in German
Timelines
Accounts of History General Geschichte, from Das Land Steiermark, in German
Article : Duchy of Styria, from Wikipedia
Article : Geschichte der Steiermark, from Wikipedia, in German
A. von Muchar, Geschichte des Herzogthums Steiermark, vol.1 1844, vol.2 1845, vol.3 1846, vol.4 1848, vol.5 1850, vol.6 1859, vol.7 1864, vol.8, 1867, vol.9, Index 1874, in German, posted on Internet Archive
W. Gebler, Geschichte des Herzogthums Steiermark von den ältesten Zeiten bis auf unsere Tage, 1862, in German, posted on Internet Archive
A.J. Caesar, Staat- und Kirchengeschichte des Herzogthum Steyermarks, vol.2, 1786, vol.3, 1786, vol.4, 1786, vol.5, 1787, vol.6, 1788, vol.7 1788, in German, posted on Google Books
J. von Baumeister, Versuch einer Staatsgeschichte von Steyermark, 1780, in German, posted on Google Books
J.B. von Winklern, Chronologische Geschichte des Herzugthums Steyermark, 1820, in German, posted on Google Books
F.J.B. Schneller, Geschichte von Oestreich und Steiermark, vol.1, 1828, vol.3, 1828, in German, posted on Google Books
Specific Periods Articles March of Styria, Duchy of Styria, from Wikipedia
Article Mark an der Mur, from Wikipedia German edition
A. Schlosser, Erzherzog Johann von Oesterreich und sein Einfluss auf das Culturleben der Steiermark, 1878, in German, posted on Internet Archive
J.K. Kindermann, Beiträge zur Vaterlandskunde für Innerösterreichs Einwohner vol.1, 1790, vol.2, 1790, in German, posted on Google Books
Historiography
Military M.M. Rabenlechner, Der Bauernkrieg in Steiermark (1525) Eine historische Studie, 1901, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Economy A. von Pantz, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Innerberger Hauptgewerkschaft, 1904, posted on Internet Archive; scroll down to page (250)
F.A. von Marcher, Die Notitzen und Bemerkungen über den Betrieb der Hohöfen und Rennwerke zur Verschmelzung der Eisenerze in verschiedenen Staaten, Part 1 : Von den Hohöfen des österreichischen Kaiserthums, vol.1.4 : Vom Herzogthume Steyermark, 1810, in German, posted on Google Books
A. von Pantz, Versuch einer Beschreibung der vorzüglichsten Berg- und Hüttenwerke des Herzogthums Steyermark, 1814, in German, posted on Google Books
B.F.J. von Hermann, Beschreibung der Manipulation, durch welche in Steyermark, Kärnten und Krain der berühmte Brescianerstahl verfertigt wird, 1781, in German, postyed on Google Books
Social History
Ethnography A. Kupferschmid, Linguistisch-kultur-historische Skizzen und Bilder aus der deutschen Steiermark 1888, in German, posted on Internet Archive
K. Schober, Die Deutschen in Nieder- und Ober-Oesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Kärnthen und Krain, 1881, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Styria pp.237-238 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Religion Catholicism Beiträge zur Kirchengeschichte der Steiermark und ihrer Nachbarländer aus römischen Archiven, 1903, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Article : Diözese Graz-Seckau : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Roman Catholic Diocese of Graz-Seckau, from Wikipedia
Protestantism M. Probitsch, Geschichte des Protestantismus in der Steiermark, 1865, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Anabaptism Article : Styria, from GAMEO
Judaism E. Baumgarten, Die Juden in Steiermark: Eine historische Skizze, 1903, in German, posted on Internet Archive
A. Rosenberg, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Juden in Steiermark, 1914, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Regions F. Krauss, Die nordöstliche Steiermark : Eine Wanderung durch vergessene Lande, 1888, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Local History History of Graz, from Wikipedia
Article : Geschichte von Graz, Geschichte von Leoben, from Wikipedia, in German
Geschichte von Graz, from Cosmopolis, from VR Graz, in German
Geschichte der Stadt Bad Radkersburg, from Bad Radkersburg Online
Structures, Institutions Article : Technische Universität Graz : Geschichte, from Wikipedia German edition
Article : Graz University of Technology : History, from Wikipedia
Structurae : Styria, Slovenia
Imperial and Royal Society of Agriculture and the Useful Arts in the Duchy of Steyermark (1764), Historischer Verein für Steiermark 1850, from Scholarly Societies
Culture
Biographies Austria Forum, click on "Österreichische Biographie"; in German
Kategorie : Person (Steiermark), from Wikipedia German edition
Environmental History
Others Franz von Krones, Verfassung und Verwaltung der Mark und des Herzogthums Steier, vol.1 of Forschungen zur Verfassungs- und Verwaltungsgeschichte der Steiermark, 1897, in German, posted on Internet Archive
F. Byloff, Die Land- und peinliche Gerichtsordnung Erzherzog Karls II. für Steiermark, 1907, in German, posted on Internet Archive
F. Ilwof, Die Grafen von Attems : Freiherren von Heiligenkreuz in ihrem Wirken in und für Steiermark, 1897, in German, posted on Internet Archive
J. Tschinkowitz, Darstellung des politischen Verhältnisses der verschiedenen Gattungen von Herrschaften zur Staatsverwaltung, zu ihren Beamten und Unterthanen in der k.k. österreichischen Monarchie, mit besonderer Rücksicht auf die Provinzen Steyermark, Kärnthen und Krain vol.1, 1827 vol.2.1, 1827, vol.2.2, 1827, vol.3, 1827, in German, posted on Google Books

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Styria until 1918, Steiermark since 1918, from World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon
Lists of Bishops Liste der Bischöfe von Graz-Seckau, from Wikipedia German edition
Statistical Data Population Statistics Historical Population Statistics : Austria, from Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer
Population : Österreich : Steiermark 1819-1866, from HGIS
Statistik Austria : Bevölkerungsstand; click for Bevölkerung Österreichs nach Bundesländern seit 1869 (Austria's Population since 1869 by State); data for 1869, 1880, 1890, 1900 etc.; data for Steiermark referring to what since 1919 constitutes the Bundesland Steiermark
Statistical Data Economic Statistics Statistische Mitteilungen über Steiermark, 1907, IA, 1908, IA
Documents Historical Newspapers on Austria ANNO, Austrian Newspapers Online
Online Yearbooks Staatskalender
Austria
international
Styria Entries
Image Databanks
Archival Deposits Die Handschriften-Verzeichnisse der Cistercienser-Stifte : Reun in Steiermark, Heiligenkreuz ..., 1891, posted on Internet Archive
A. Mell, Das Archiv der steirischen Stände im steiermärkischen Landesarchive, 1905, in German, posted on Internet Archive, scroll down
J. Loberth, Das Archiv des Hauses Stubenberg, 1906, in German, posted on Internet Archive, scroll down
Laws Alphabetisch-chronologische Übersicht der k.k. Gesetze und Verordnungen vom Jahre 1740 bis zum Jahre 1843 ... vol.1 : A-B, 1825, vol.2 : C-D, 1825, vol.3 : E-Geisv, 1825 vol.4 : Geisv-Hypoth, 1826, vol.5 : I-Mayk 1826, vol.6 : Mech-Ott 1826, vol.7 : P-Sani, 1827, vol.8 : Sard-Standg 1827, vol.9 : Ständi-Tyr 1827, vol.10 : U-Z, 1827, vol.11 : 1821-1824, 1829, vol.12 : 1825-1829, 1833, vol.13 : 1830-1843, 1847, in German, posted on Google Books
Sr. k. k. Majestät Franz des Zweyten politische Gesetze und Verordnungen für die Oesterreichischen, Böhmischen und Galizischen Erbländer, vol.1-3 : 1792, vol.4-7 : 1794, vol.8-9 : 1796, vol.10-12 : 1797, in German, posted on Google Books
Sammlung der Gesetze vol.1, 1792, vol.2, 1793, vol.10, 1797, vol.18, 1804, vol.19, 1804, vol.20, 1805, vol.26, 1812, vol.27, 1813, vol.28, 1813, vol.29, 1814, vol.30, 1814, vol.31, 1815, vol.32, 1816, vol.33, 1816, vol.34, 1817, vol.35, 1817, vol.36, 1818, vol.37, 1818, vol.38, 1819, vol.39, 1819, vol.40, 1820, vol.41, 1821, vol.42, 1821, vol.43, 1823, vol.44, 1823, vol.45, 1824, vol.46, 1825, vol.47, 1825, vol.48, 1826, vol.49, 1826, vol.50, 1827, vol.51, 1827 vol.52, 1828, vol.53, 1829, vol.54, 1830, vol.55, 1831, vol.56, 1832, vol.57, 1833, vol.58, 1834, vol.59, 1835, vol.60, 1836, vol.61, 1837, vol.62, 1838, vol.63, 1839, vol.64, 1840, vol.65, 1841, vol.66, 1842, vol.67, 1843, vol.68, 1845, vol.69, 1845, vol.70, 1846, vol.71, 1847, vol.75, 1849, vol.76, 1850, in German, posted on Google Books
Historiography
Document Collections Urkundenbuch des Herzogthums Steiermark, vol.1 : 798-1192, 1875, IA, vol.2 : 1192-1246 1875, IA, vol.3 : 1246-1260 1903, IA
A. Mell, Regesten zur Geschichte der Familien von Teufenbach in Steiermark, I : 1074-1547, 1905, posted on Internet Archive
J. Chmel, Urkunden zur Geschiche von Österreich, Steiermark, Kärnten, Krain, Görz, Triest, Istrien, Tirol vol.1 : 1246-1300, 1849, IA
Primus Trubers Briefe, mit den dazu gehörigen Schriftstücken , 1897, posted on Internet Archive
C. Fleury, Historia Ecclesiastica: Ab anno Christi 1751 usque ad annum 1753, vol.81, 1791; search for Styria; has several entries on Protestants/Transmigrants; in Latin, posted on Google Books
Ch.18 : De Scriptoribus Rerum Austriacarum cum Adnexis Provinciis, pp.497-512 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Individual Documents G. Petschacher, Benedicta Virgo Cellensis, hoc est continuatio gratiarum a Deipara Cellensi in Styria ab anno 1666 usque ad annum Christi 1678, 1678, in Latin, posted on Google Books
Historical Maps Graz and Environs 1911, Graz 1906, Graz 1911, Leoben 1911, from Discus Media
Graz Meyers Konversationslexikon 5th edition 1893-1897, posted by Hic Leones
Styria, from Sohr-Berghaus, Handatlas, 4th edition 1847, 6th edition 1874, 7th edition 1883, 8th edition 1892, 8th edition 1908, posted by M. Witkam
Graz, from Sohr-Berghaus, Handatlas, 6th edition 1874, 8th edition 1892, posted by M. Witkam
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
general Articles Styria, Cilli, Eisenerz, Graz, Leoben, Marburg, Austria, from EB 1911
Articles Steiermark, Bruck, Cilli, Graz, Hartberg, Judenburg, Deutsch-Landsberg, Leibnitz, Leoben, Liezen, Marburg, Murau, Pettau, Radkersburg, from Meyers Konversationslexikon, 4th edition, 1885-1892, in German
religious Article : Styria, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914
Articles : Styria, Marburg, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
economic Stirie, pp.238-240 in vol.4 pt.1 of J.M. Demeunier, Economie politique et diplomatique, 1788, in French, GB
Das Herzogthum Steyermark, pp.146- in Ph.J. Karrer, Ausführliche historische Geographie für Kaufleute, Manufakturisten ..., 1831, in German, posted on Google Books
political Stiria pp.231-235, in : T.G. Smollett, The present state of all nations, vol.5, 1769, posted on Google Books
Styria, pp.519- in : Malte Brun, Universal geography: or a description of all parts of the world, vol.7, 1829, posted on Google Books
Styria and Cilley, pp.58-, in : Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, vol.2, 1745, posted on Google Books
Parliamentary
Debates
HRE / Germany Verhandlungen des Deutschen Reichstags 1867-1895, 1895-1918, 1918-1942
Deutsche Reichstagakten, vol.1 : 1376-1387, 1867, vol.2 : 1388-1397, 1874, vol.3 : 1397-1400, 1877, vol.4 : 1400-1401, 1882, vol.5 : 1401-1405, 1885, vol.6 : 1406-1410, 1888, vol.7 : 1410-1420, 1878, vol.8 : 1421-1426, 1883, vol.9 : 1427-1431, 1887, vol.10 : 1431-1433, 1906, vol.11 : 1433-1435, 1898, vol.12 : 1435-1437, 1901, Jüngere Reihe, vol.1 1893, vol.2 1893, posted on Internet Archive
Protokolle der deutschen Bundes-Versammlung vol.1 1817, vol.2 1817, vol.3 1817, vol.4 1817, vol.5 1818, vol.6 1818, vol.7 1819, vol.8 1819, vol.9 1820, vol.10 1820, vol.11 1821, vol.12 1821, vol.13 1822, vol.14 1822, vol.15 1823, vol.16 1824, vol.17 1825, vol.18 1826, in German, posted by Google Books
Austria Österreichische Parlamentsschriften 1848-1971 from ALEX, ONB, in German
others Hansard (British Parliament 1803-2005)
Travel Guides K. Baedeker, Südbaiern, Tirol und Salzburg, Ober- und Nieder-Österreich, Steiermark, Krain und Küstenland, 1878, 1886, 1888, 1892, in German, posted on Internet Archive
K. Baedeker, The eastern Alps, including the Bavarian highlands, the Tyrol, Salzkammmergut, Styria, and Carinthia 1879, 1907, 1911, posted on Internet Archive
John Murray, A handbook for travellers in southern Germany : being a guide to Bavaria, Austria, Tyrol, Salzburg, Styria, &c., the Austrian and Bavarian Alps 1844, posted on Internet Archive
Travelogues
Institutions Archives Stadt- und Kommunalarchive der Steiermark : Graz, Leoben, from Österreichisches Staatsarchiv
Steiermärkisches Landesarchiv, from Österreichisches Staatsarchiv
Regional Archives of Maribor
Archive in Österreich : Steiermark
Diözesanarchiv Graz-Seckau
Österreichisches Staatsarchiv
Musea Museumsland Steiermark
Libraries Landesbibliothek Steiermark
State Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Coat of Arms : Styria, from Steiermark.at; from Hic Leones (Meyer 5th ed. 1885-1892)
A.A. von Siegenfeld, Das Landeswappen von Steiermark, vol.3 of Forschungen zur Verfassungs- und Verwaltungsgeschichte der Steiermark, 1900, in German, posted on Internet Archive
Coins Coin Collection, from Landesmuseum Joanneum
Search Coin Archives for Styria, Steiermark
Search Early Dated Coins (1166-1520s) for Styria, Steiermark
Others

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries
Bibliographies general
on Eastern Europe EBSEES (European Bibliography of Slavic and East European Studies), search for Steiermark, Styria)
on Austria Österreichische Bibliografie, in German
Österreichische Historische Bibliographie, in German
on Styria Steiermark, from Bibliografie zur Geschichte des Weines
Nationalsozialismus und Holocaust : Steiermark, from erinnern.at
Steiermark, from Computatio
I. Trummler, Grazer Drucke in der Universitätsbibliothek Graz, 1781-1850 , n.d. (after 1993), posted on Google Books
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
Digitale Texte im Seminar für Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte, Univ. Köln; many 19th century texts, mostly in German
on Austria Digitaler Lesesaal, from Österreichische Nationalbibliothek
on Slovenia Digital Library of Slovenia
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories : Austria, Slovenia
Online Journals General Directory of Open Access Journals
on Austria-Hungary see : ANNO, Austrian Newspapers Online
Österreichisches Archiv für Geschichte, Erdbeschreibung, Staatenkunde und Literatur, vol.2 1832, vol.3 1833, in German, posted on Google Books
Oesterreichische Zeitschrift für Geschichts- und Staatskunde, vol.2 1836, in German, posted by Google Books
Östreichische militärische Zeitschrift (Streffleurs militärische Zeitschrift, Neue militärische Zeitschrift ), 1811 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1812 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1818 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1819 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1820 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1821 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12 1822 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1823 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1824 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1825 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1826 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1827 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1828 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1829 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1830 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1831 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1832 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1833 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1834 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1835 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1836 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1837 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1838 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1839 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1840 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1841 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1842 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1843 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1844 1-3, 4-6, 7-9 10-12, 1845 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1846 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1847 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1848 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1849 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 1863 vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, vol.4, 1868 vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, vol.4, in German, posted on Google Books
on Styria
full text online
Zeitschrift des historischen Vereines für Steiermark 1904, IA, 1905, IA, 1906, IA
Mittheilungen des Historischen Vereines für Steiermark, (click here for list of articles 1850-1903), vol.1-2, 1850, IA, vol.3-4, 1852, IA, vol.5-6, 1854, IA, vol.7-8, 1857, IA, vol.13-14, 1864, IA, vol.15-16, 1867, IA, vol.18-20, 1870, IA, vol.21-23, 1873, IA, vol.24-26, 1876, IA, vol.26-29, 1878, IA, vol.30-32, 1882, IA, vol.40-41, 1892, IA, vol.42-46, 1894, IA, vol.48, 1900, IA
Beiträge zur Kunde steiermärkischer Geschichtsquellen, vol.1-4, 1864, IA, vol.5-, 1868, IA, vol.9-, 1872, IA, vol.13-17, 1876, IA, vol.18-23, 1882, IA, vol.24-, 1892, IA, vol.32-33, 1903, IA, vol.34-, 1905, IA, vol.35-36, 1906, IA
Steiermärkische Zeitschrift 1821, GB, 1824, GB, 1834, GB, 1836, GB, 1838, GB, 1842, GB, 1845, GB, 1848, GB
on Styria
contents online
Zeitschriftenmagazin : Zeitschrift des Historischen Vereins f? Steiermark 1903-1998, posted by S. Jenks
General Accounts
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries Paula S. Fichtner (ed.), Historical Dictionary of Austria, London : Scarecrow 1999, 328 pp., KMLA Lib.Sign. R 943.6 F445h