Bangladesh 1971-1990 History of India





Bangla Desh since 1990



Politics and Administration . Democracy was reintroduced in 1990. The elections of 1991 were won by the BJD (Bangladesh National Party), those of 1996 by the Awami League; the elections of 2001 saw a BJD-led coalition victorious. Since 2006 a non-party affiliated caretaker cabinet is in power. Since 1991, two women, Khaleda Zia (BJD) and Sheikh Hasina (BAL) have vied for power. Elections scheduled for February 2007 were postponed due to violence.

Relations between Religious and Ethnic Communities . 88 % of the population is Muslim, 9 % Hindu; Bangladesh has the world's third largest Hindu population. Hindu fundamentalism in neighbouring India (demolition of Babri Mosque in Ayodhya 1992) caused demonstrations in Bangladesh, and the government to implement measures interpreted as discriminating against the country's Hindu minority (Samad); conservative Muslim Bengalis regard the country's ethnic minorities (Sylheti, Arakanese etc.) as non-indigenous immigrants (Samad; Bangladesh's Urdu speakers are immigrants/descendants of immigrants from Bihar which arrived in 1947-1948).

The Economy . Bangladesh joined the WTO in 1995.
In 1990, Bangladesh produced 26.7 million metric tons of rice, in 1999 34.4 million (IHS p.196).

Social History . Bangladesh ranks among the poorest countries in Asia, the census of 2001 establishing the country's population at 123 million, the figure for 1991 was estimated at 107 million.
Eastern Bangladesh (Cox' Bazaar) saw the arrival of Rohingya refugees from Myanmar's Rakhine State (Arakan; c.250,000 in 1978, c.250,000 in 1991). Many Bangladeshi are extremely poor. A cold spell in 2002 - temperatures fell as low as +15 degrees Celsius - killed 13. Bangladeshis were not accustomed to such conditions, many not owning the clothes to protect themselves sufficiently.

Environmental Issues . Most of Bangladesh is threatened by inundation; almost every year a part of the country is flooded. The predicted rise of the sea level in consequence of global warming is seen as a threat to the country.






EXTERNAL
FILES
History of Bangladesh : Post-Independence, from Wikipedia
Economy of Bangladesh, from Wikipedia
Article Rohingya, from Wikipedia
Bangladesh cold spell kills 13, from Relief Web (Dec 23th 2002)
Politics of Bangladesh, from Wikipedia
2006-2007 Bangladesh Political Crisis, from Wikipedia
Politics, from Virtual Bangladesh
Political Resources on the Net : Bangladesh
Article Hinduism in Bangladesh, from Wikipedia
Articles Languages of Bangladesh, from Wikipedia
State of Minorities in Bangladesh. From Secular to Islamic Hegemony, by Saleem Samad
DOCUMENTS Photos of Bangladesh, taken by Robin Upton
Historical Population Statistics : Bangladesh, from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
Bangladesh Statesmen, from World Statesmen
Election Results, from Psephos (since 1996)
UN General Assembly 45th Session 1990-1991 Resolution 45/263; 53rd Session 1998-1999, Resolution 53/1A
REFERENCE IHS : International Historical Statistics : Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, edited by B.R. Mitchell, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 4th ed. 2003
Article : Bangladesh, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1991 pp.429-430, 551, 1992 pp.401-402, 551, 1993 pp.403-404, 560, 1994 pp.403-404, 560, 1995 pp.377-378, 560, 1996 pp.376, 560, 1997 pp.394-395, 558, 2002 pp.474-475, 697 [G]
Article : Bangladesh, in : The Statesman's Year-Book 1991-1992 pp.183-188, 1992-1993 pp.182-187, 1993-1994 pp.185-190, 1994-1995 pp.180-185, 1995-1996 pp.170-175, 1996-1997 pp.181-186, 1997-1998 pp.187-192, 1998-1999 pp.212-217, 2000 pp. 258-264, 2001 pp. 255-260, 2002 pp. 264-270, 2003 pp. 263-269, 2004 pp. 265-271, 2005 pp. 258-264, 2006 pp.255-261 [G]
Entry : Travel Warnings - Bangladesh, pp.416-418 in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2000, Supplement [G]
Entry : People's Republic of Bangladesh, Cabinet, pp.10-11; Background Notes, pp.272-281, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2003 [G]
Article : Bangladesh, in : Americana Annual 1992 pp.137-138, 1993 p.132, 1994 p.132, 1998 p.121, 2006 p.72 [G]
Entry : Bangladesh, pp.246-251 in : IMF, International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2001 [G]



This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 14th 2002, last revised on August 20th 2008

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