History of India 1956-1966






East Punjab 1947-1956


The Establishment of East Punjab, 1947-1948 : The Indian National Congress had envisioned for all of British India, including the princely states, to gain independence as one undivided Dominion of India. The Muslim League had campaigned for a separate Muslim state in India, called Pakistan, consisting of the Muslim-majority provinces of British India, and of those princely states which would join it; this vision of Pakistan included the Punjab, a region which also was the historic heartland of the Sikhs, and stretching to the outskirts of the Indian capital of Delhi.
In the course of separation, the Punjab was partitioned, the Sutlej River forming the dividing line; the larger West Punjab joined Pakistan, the smaller east and most of the princely states joined the Dominion of India, and a population exchange took place; many Muslim residents of East Punjab moved into Pakistan, many non-Muslim residents of West Punjab moved into India. Chandigarh was built as the capital of the Indian state of Punjab.
The Indian part of the former Province of Punjab formed Punjab State; the princely states within the Punjab formed PEPSU (Patiala and East Punjab States Union).

Administration : From 1947 until 1967, (Indian) Punjab Province / State was administrated by INC-led governments.

Annals : 1947 : Indian Province of Punjab created
1947-1948 : exodus of a part of the Muslim population; arrival of Sikh, Hindu refugees
1948 : First Indo-Pakistani War
1948 : site for future capital Chandigarh selected
1950 : Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Faridkot, Kalsia, Kapurthala, Malerkotla form PEPSU
1950 : Dominion of India became Republic of India; Indian Province of Punjab became Indian State of Punjab
1951 : state elections held; INC formed government
1952 : the crops failed in the Punjab (BBoY 1953)
1954 : Bhakra Canal System operational, irrigated large stretches of land in the Punjab (BBoY 1955)
1955 : train service connecting Calcutta with Lahore (Pakistani Punjab) opened (BBoY 1956)
1956 : PEPSU annexed into State of Punjab;

Social History : In 1951 the population of what was to be the Punjab after 1966 was 9.16 million (the figure for 1941 : 9.6 million).
In 1947-1948 the Punjab experienced a large-scale population exchange : the exodus of much of its Muslim population and the arrival of millions of Hindu refugees.






EXTERNAL
FILES
Chandigarh History, from Where In City
History of Punjab (India), from Wikipedia
DOCUMENTS World Statesmen : India, by Ben Cahoon
Historical Population Statistics : India, by province (J. Lahmeyer)
Statistical Reports of State Elections, from Election Commission of India
REFERENCE Article : India, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1948 pp.383-386 [G]
Article : India, Dominion of, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1949 pp.337-340, 1950 pp.357-359 [G]
Article : India, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1951 pp.359-361, 1952 pp.353-355, 1953 pp.352-355, 1954 pp.352-354, 1955 pp.401-403, 1956 pp.342-344, 1957 pp.405-407 [G]
Article : India, Republic of, in : Americana Annual 1957 pp.371-375 [G]



This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on May 17th 2007

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