1919-1947 History of Pakistan since 1971





Pakistan 1947-1971



On August 1947 PaKiStan became independent - the name consists of P for Punjab, K for Kashmir and S for Sindh. There was another part not mentioned in the name, (East) Bengal, separated from West Pakistan by 1600 km of Indian territory. While the political center - capital Karachi (later Rawalpindi, then Islamabad) and the economic centers (Karachi, Lahore) all are located in the west, the majority of the population lived in East Bengal.
Immediately after independence, Pakistan had to deal with a massive refugee problem : while 5.3 million Hindus fled from Punjab and Sindh into India, 5.9 million Muslims fled from India into West Pakistan. 3.3 million Hindus fled East Pakistan, 1.3 million Muslims fled from India into East Pakistan.
Another problem was formed by the 500+ Indian principalities who had been 'indirectly' ruled by Britain. Both India and Pakistan granted them to opt for either of them. While this went through without major complication in most cases, for instance BAHAWALPUR was integrated into Pakistan's province of Punjab, the case of KASHMIR was complex. The vast majority of Kashmir was and is Muslim; the fathers of Pakistan therefore counted on it forming a central element of the new state. However, the Rajah of Jammu and Kashmir, a Hindu, opted for India. The FIRST INDO-PAKISTANI WAR of 1948 was fought over the issue; the result was that Kashmir was partitioned, the smaller western part being held by Pakistan, the larger eastern and central part held by India.

MUHAMMAD ALI JINNAH, the founder of Pakistan and the country's first president, died in 1948, even before the brief war. His successor LIAQUAT ALI KHAN was assassinated in 1951. The government was moved from Karachi to Rawalpindi. In 1956 Pakistan was declared an ISLAMIC REPUBLIC. In 1958 the enclave of GWADAR (hitherto belonging to Oman) was annexed. After a military coup d'etat in 1958, Gen. AYYUB KHAN assumed the presidency. He implemented a LAND REFORM and heavily increased state subsidies to East Pakistan. In 1965 the SECOND INDO-PAKISTANI WAR was fought; relations deescalated after the TASHKENT AGREEMENT of 1966, mediated by the USSR. Ayyub Khan resigned in 1969, succeeded by General YAHYA KHAN.
In East Pakistan, political dissatisfaction over the political and economic domination of West Pakistan had long been building up. In the 1970 elections the AWAMI LEAGUE, which stood for East Pakistani self governmenr, won all seats in East Pakistan - and thus held the majority in the national parliament. President Yahya Khan, trying to avoid a constitutional crisis, repeatedly postponed the convocation of parliament. Then the Awami League took actions in their hands, unilaterally declared independence. Civil War in East Pakistan followed; India took the side of the rebels (the THIRD INDO-PAKISTANI WAR). Pakistani troops committed atrocities against the population of Bengal.



EXTERNAL
FILES
Timeline Pakistan, from BBC News
History of Pakistan, from Story of Pakistan
History of Pakistan, by Pak Azadi
Statistics of Pakistan's Democide : Estimates, Calculations, and Sources, from Statistics of Genocide by R.J. Rummel
DOCUMENTS
REFERENCE Article Pakistan, Dominion Of, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1948 pp.565-566 (covering events of 1947) [G]
Article Pakistan, Dominion Of, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1949 pp.501-502 (covering events of 1948) [G]
Article Pakistan, Dominion Of, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1950 pp.529-530 (on events of 1949) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1951 pp. 538-539 (on events of 1950) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1952 pp. 542-544 (on events of 1951) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1953 pp. 545-547 (on events of 1952) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1954 pp. 546-547 (on events of 1953) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1955 pp. 593-595 (on events of 1954) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1956 pp. 529-531 (on events of 1955) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1957 pp. 594-595 (on events of 1956) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1958 pp. 528-530 (on events of 1957) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1959 pp. 527-529 (on events of 1958) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1960 pp. 525-527 (on events of 1959) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1961 pp. 536-537 (on events of 1960) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1962 pp. 526-527 (on events of 1961) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1963 pp. 628-629 (on events of 1962) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1964 pp. 639-640 (on events of 1963) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1965 pp. 611-613 (on events of 1964) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1966 pp. 595-596 (on events of 1965) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1967 pp. 603-605 (on events of 1966) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1968 pp. 602-604 (on events of 1967) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1969 pp. 583-584 (on events of 1968) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1970 pp. 593-594 (on events of 1969) [G]
Article Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1971 pp. 573-573 (on events of 1970) [G]
Article : Pakistan, in : The Statesman's Year-Book 1970-1971 pp. 389-398 (data of 1969-1970) [G]
Article : Pakistan, in : Americana Annual 1947 p.532 (on events of 1946) [G]
Article : Pakistan, in : Americana Annual 1957 pp.604-605 (on events of 1956) [G]
Article : Pakistan, in : Americana Annual 1961 pp.570-572 (on events of 1960) [G]
Article : Pakistan, in : Americana Annual 1962 pp.579-580 (on events of 1961) [G]
Article : Pakistan, in : Americana Annual 1963 pp.513-514 (on events of 1962) [G]
Article : Pakistan, in : Americana Annual 1964 pp.509-510 (on events of 1963) [G]
Article : Pakistan, in : Americana Annual 1965 p.544 (on events of 1964) [G]
Article : Pakistan, in : Americana Annual 1967 pp.521-523 (on events of 1966) [G]
Article : Pakistan, in : Americana Annual 1968 pp.517-519 (on events of 1967) [G]
Article : Pakistan, in : Americana Annual 1969 pp.521-522 (on events of 1968) [G]
Article : Pakistan, in : Americana Annual 1970 pp.526-527 (on events of 1969) [G]
Article : Pakistan, in : Americana Annual 1971 pp.523-524 (on events of 1970) [G]
Article : Pakistan, in : Americana Annual 1972 pp.523-525 (on events of 1971) [G]



This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on June 14th 2002, last revised on October 1st 2006

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