Government . In 1977, the Bhutto administration was toppled by a military coup d'etat. General Zia ul Haq
assumed the presidency.
Foreign Policy . Relations with India remained the defining issue for Pakistan's foreign policy. Good
relations with the PRC were maintained, the arms race with India continued; Pakistan, which under Zia ul Haq
emphasized the country's Islamic identity stronger than its predecessor, sought and received financial aid from
countries such as Saudi Arabia.
In 1979, Soviet forces invaded Afghanistan. The Mujahedeen resisted Soviet occupation and the Afghan puppet
administration installed by the Soviets. The resistance relied on supplies, coming from or channelled through
Pakistan. The country also received millions of Afghan refugees, lodged in camps on the Pakistani side of the
border. US relations with Pakistan improved, because the US actively supported the Mujahedeen and needed
Pakistani support in order to do so.
The Economy . The Zia ul Haq administration pursued the policy of privatizing the state-owned industries
(nationalized by the Bhutto administration in the early 1970es). Trade with the PRC increased; the Pakistani
Rupee continued to gradually loose value compared to the US Dollar.
Domestic Policy . With the Zia ul Haq administration strongly emphasizing Islam as the foundation for
Pakistani politics, the conservative tribes of Baluchistan and the North West Frontier Priovince had less of a
reason to maintain a relellious attitude, and the threat of a secession of Baluchistan was avoided. The mainly
urban support base of the PPP was disgruntled (their leader Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto being the victim of judicial
murder in 1979); but the cities of Pakistan were under the control of the military; martial law lasted until 1985.
Christophe Jaffrelot (ed.), A History of Pakistan and its Origins, translated from the French, London : Anthem Press (2002) 2004,
KMLA Lib. Call Sign 954.91 J23h |
Article : Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1978 pp.573-574, 1979 pp.565-566, 1980 pp.563-564, 1981 pp.564-566,
1982 pp.566-568, 1983 pp.559-561, 1984 pp.558-559, 1985 pp.512, 755, 1986 pp.505-506, 754, 1987 pp.476-477, 722,
1988 pp.433-434, 674, 1989 p.674 [G]
Article : Pakistan, in : The Statesman's Year-Book 1978-1979 pp.944-952, 1979-1980 pp.949-958, 1980-1981 pp.951-960,
1981-1982 pp.954-963, 1983-1984 pp.948-956, 1984-1985 pp.948-957, 1985-1986 pp.949-957, 1986-1987 pp.949-958,
1987-1988 pp.954-963, 1988-1989 pp.956-965 [G]
Article : Pakistan, in : The World in Figures 2nd ed. 1978 pp.190-192, 4th ed. 1984 pp.190-192 [G]