1971-1988 History of Pakistan

Pakistan 1977-1988

Government . In 1977, the Bhutto administration was toppled by a military coup d'etat. General Zia ul Haq assumed the presidency.

Foreign Policy . Relations with India remained the defining issue for Pakistan's foreign policy. Good relations with the PRC were maintained, the arms race with India continued; Pakistan, which under Zia ul Haq emphasized the country's Islamic identity stronger than its predecessor, sought and received financial aid from countries such as Saudi Arabia.
In 1979, Soviet forces invaded Afghanistan. The Mujahedeen resisted Soviet occupation and the Afghan puppet administration installed by the Soviets. The resistance relied on supplies, coming from or channelled through Pakistan. The country also received millions of Afghan refugees, lodged in camps on the Pakistani side of the border. US relations with Pakistan improved, because the US actively supported the Mujahedeen and needed Pakistani support in order to do so.

The Economy . The Zia ul Haq administration pursued the policy of privatizing the state-owned industries (nationalized by the Bhutto administration in the early 1970es). Trade with the PRC increased; the Pakistani Rupee continued to gradually loose value compared to the US Dollar.

Domestic Policy . With the Zia ul Haq administration strongly emphasizing Islam as the foundation for Pakistani politics, the conservative tribes of Baluchistan and the North West Frontier Priovince had less of a reason to maintain a relellious attitude, and the threat of a secession of Baluchistan was avoided. The mainly urban support base of the PPP was disgruntled (their leader Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto being the victim of judicial murder in 1979); but the cities of Pakistan were under the control of the military; martial law lasted until 1985.

Timeline Pakistan, from BBC News
History of Pakistan, from Story of Pakistan
History of Pakistan, by Pak Azadi
CASCON Case KAS : Kashmir 1947-, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
REFERENCE Christophe Jaffrelot (ed.), A History of Pakistan and its Origins, translated from the French, London : Anthem Press (2002) 2004, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 954.91 J23h
Article : Pakistan, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1978 pp.573-574, 1979 pp.565-566, 1980 pp.563-564, 1981 pp.564-566, 1982 pp.566-568, 1983 pp.559-561, 1984 pp.558-559, 1985 pp.512, 755, 1986 pp.505-506, 754, 1987 pp.476-477, 722, 1988 pp.433-434, 674, 1989 p.674 [G]
Article : Pakistan, in : The Statesman's Year-Book 1978-1979 pp.944-952, 1979-1980 pp.949-958, 1980-1981 pp.951-960, 1981-1982 pp.954-963, 1983-1984 pp.948-956, 1984-1985 pp.948-957, 1985-1986 pp.949-957, 1986-1987 pp.949-958, 1987-1988 pp.954-963, 1988-1989 pp.956-965 [G]
Article : Pakistan, in : The World in Figures 2nd ed. 1978 pp.190-192, 4th ed. 1984 pp.190-192 [G]

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on November 10th 2006, last revised on April 14th 2007

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