1955-1970 1977-1988

Sindh, 1970-1977

In 1970 the Province of Sindh was reestablished. Karachi was chosen as provincial capital, a decision which caused disappointment in Hyderabad, which had served as provincial capital from 1948 to 1955.
Following the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, General Yahya Khan resigned from office; a new constitution providing wider authorities for the provinces and a greater degree of democracy was in preparation. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, head of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP), became president; he remained in office until ousted by yet another coup d'etat in 1977. The PPP platform was one of secular, moderate socialism, in a nominally Islamic state.
In regard to Sindh, this policy was perceived as discriminating against the Urdu-speaking Mohajir population; many of the Mohajirs were merchants or businessmen who regarded the socialist policies of the PPP an unfriendly environment. The adoption as Sindhi as the provincial language of Sindh (1972), provoked demonstrations by the Mohajir population; in response the law was modified to declare both Sindhi and Urdu provincial languages.
The PPP had strong support among the Sindhi-speaking population, as president Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was a Sindhi native, and as his policies benefitted many of the Sindhi poor; between 1972 and 1977 the province's chief ministers were PPP politicians; the first chief minister of Sindh since the restoration of the province (1972-1973) was Mumtaz Ali Bhutto, cousin of president Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto.
Sindh continued to experience strong population growth.

History of Sindh, from Pakistan History, from Wikipedia
Hyderabad History, from Apnahyderabad, from Wikipedia
Kolachi to Karachi, from City of Karachi
Story of Karachi, from Pakistan History; from Wikipedia
Article Provincial Assembly of the Sindh, from Wikipedia
History of the High Court of Sindh, Karachi
Article Khayrpur, from Wikipedia
Article Bhutto Tribe, from Wikipedia
Article Mumtaz Bhutto, from Wikipedia
DOCUMENTS Pakistan Provinces : Sind, from World Statesmen
Historical Population Figures : Pakistan, Provinces, from Population Statistics
REFERENCE Christophe Jaffrelot (ed.), A History of Pakistan and its Origins, translated from the French, London : Anthem Press (2002) 2004, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 954.91 J23h

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on April 30th 2007

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