Sindh, 1988-1999

In 1988, General Zia ul Haq died in a plane crash. Parliamentary democracy was reintroduced; hitherto banned political parties such as the PPP resumed activity, exile politicians returned. Benazir Bhutto (PPP) was elected prime minister of Pakistan (1988), ousted on charges of corruption (1990), reelected (1993) and ousted for a second time in 1996.
In 1989, Mumtaz Ali Bhutto had founded the Sindh National Front, a political party demanding a higher degree of political autonomy for Sindh. The PPP provided chief ministers for Sindh from 1988 to 1990 and from 1993 to 1996; from 1996 to 1997 the position was held by Mumtaz Ali Bhutto (SNF).
In Karachi and Hyderabad, meanwhile, the population had split into two hostile camps, the Mohajirs and Sindhis. In June 1992 the Pakistani armed forces launched an operation aiming at suppressing "revolutionary tendencies" (i.e. the MQM). The army was withdrawn in 1994; Karachi and Hyderabad continued to see politically motivated violence. In 1997 the MQM changed her name from Mohajir Qaudi Movement to Muttahida Quami Movement, and shifted from pursuing military activity to operating as a legitimate political party.
The popultion of Sindh rose from 21.6 million in 1985 to 29.9 million in 1998, that of the agglomeration of Karachi from 5.2 million in 1981 to 9.2 million in 1998.

History of Sindh, from Pakistan History, from Wikipedia
Hyderabad History, from Apnahyderabad, from Wikipedia
Kolachi to Karachi, from City of Karachi
Story of Karachi, from Pakistan History; from Wikipedia
Article Provincial Assembly of the Sindh, from Wikipedia
History of the High Court of Sindh, Karachi
Article Bhutto Tribe, from Wikipedia
Article Mumtaz Bhutto, from Wikipedia, from SNF
Yearwise detail of MQM atrocities, from FAS
Article Benazir Bhutto, from Wikipedia
Article MQM, from Wikipedia
DOCUMENTS Pakistan Provinces : Sind, from World Statesmen
Historical Population Figures : Pakistan, Provinces, from Population Statistics
Sindh Provincial Assembly, Ninth Assembly, 1990-1993
REFERENCE Christophe Jaffrelot (ed.), A History of Pakistan and its Origins, translated from the French, London : Anthem Press (2002) 2004, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 954.91 J23h

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on April 30th 2007

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