1947-1955 1970-1977

Pakistani Punjab, 1955-1970

In 1955, Pakistan implemented an administrative reform; the province of Punjab and the princely state of Bahawalpur were abolished, both integrated into the new province of West Pakistan. In 1958, the capital was moved from Karachi (Sindh) to Rawalpindi (Punjab), and construction of the new capital of Islamabad (Punjab) was begun. Punjabis continued to be heavily overrepresented in army and state administration.
In 1958, General Ayub Khan assumed power in a coup d'etat. He had the various political parties banned, a new constitution passed. His land reform of 1959 resulted in many tenants in the Punjab becoming landowning farmers. During his tenure in office, Pakistan experienced sustained economic growth. The Punjab continued to benefit from state investment projects, at the expense of provinces such as East Bengal. The population of the (Pakistani) Punjab rose from 25.4 million in 1961 to 37.3 million in 1972, that of Lahore from 1.29 million in 1961 to 2.16 million in 1972.
The state investments concentrated on the northern Punjab; in the 1960es, resentment against perceived discrimination in the southern Punjab caused the emergence of the Seraiki Language Movement, demanding recognition of Seraiki as a language separate from Punjabi (hitherto it was regarded a dialect of Punjabi).
The Second Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 caused the prestige of president Ayub Khan to suffer. With his health failing, in October 1968 demonstrations began, in the cities of Punjab as well as elsewhere in Pakistan; Ayub Khan resigned in March 1969. His successor, General Yahya Khan, agreed to reintroduce the old provinces.

Articles Provincial Assembly of the Punjab, Seraiki People, from Wikipedia
DOCUMENTS Pakistan Provinces : Sind, from World Statesmen
Historical Population Figures : Pakistan, Provinces, from Population Statistics
Former Assemblies of the Punjab, 1947-2001, from Provincial Assembly of the Punjab
REFERENCE Christophe Jaffrelot (ed.), A History of Pakistan and its Origins, translated from the French, London : Anthem Press (2002) 2004, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 954.91 J23h

This page is part of World History at KMLA
First posted on May 3rd 2007

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