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Jammu & Kashmir (India) Khyber Pakhtunkhai
First posted on November 30th 2008, last revised on June 5th 2010

In 1947 the British withdrew from India. The political visions of the Muslim League (a Muslim State in India called Pakistan, with Punjab, Kashmir and Sindh as core areas) and of the Indian National Congress (a Republic of India comprising of a multi-ethnic, multi-religious, unpartitioned India) conflicted. Both the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress regarded India's 500+ princely states as remnants of a feudal past. The Maharaja of Jammu & Kashmir (a Hindu) opted for the Republic of India, much to the surprise of many of the Muslim inhabitants of Jammu & Kashmir, which made up the overwhelming majority of the population.
Political upheaval followed, with the opponents of the Maharaja being supported by Pakistani forces, the princely administration by the Indian forces; Jammu & Kashmir was partitioned, separated by the Line of Control (1948). Several Indo-Pakistani Wars (1965, 1971) and the actions of guerillas called liberation fighters by one, terrorists by the other side, have failed in changing the political map in Jammu & Kashmir.
The Pakistani-administrated part of Jammu & Kashmir was partitioned in two : Azad (Jammu and) Kashmir, and the Federally Administrated Northern Areas.
Formally, Azad Kashmir is not part of Pakistan, but a separate state. When the Election Commission of Pakistan describes the territory of Pakistan as comprising "the provinces of Punjab, Sindh, North-West Frontier and Balochistan, the Islamabad Capital Territory i.e. the Federal Capital, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATAs) and such states and territories as are or may be included in Pakistan whether by accession or otherwise", Azad Kashmir and the Federally Administrated Northern Areas (since 2009 : Gilgit-Baltistan) may be interpreted as "such states and territories as are or may be included in Pakistan whether by accession or otherwise".
During the 1950s and 1960s, Azad Kashmir was frontier area where military concerns took precedent over civilian matters. In the mid 1970s, measures were taken to develop the regional political and social infrastructure; the University of Azad Kashmir was established in 1974, a flag for Azad Kashmir chosen in 1975. The issue of Jammu & Kashmir remains unresolved, as Pakistan regards the Indian part of Jammu and Kashmir as illegally occupied by the Republic of India, while the Republic of India regards Azad Jammu & Kashmir as illegally occupied by Pakistan. The 2005 earthquake centering on Muzaffarabad focussed world attention on Azad Kashmir, an area for which information is scarce, even in the age of the internet.

For the History prior to 1947, see Jammu & Kashmir (Princely State)
Timeline : Jammu & Kashmir

Historical Atlas : Jammu & Kashmir, British India, India, Pakistan Pages

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as Kashmir is a disputed territory, users are advised to use discretion, as many of the sources linked below are biased in one way or another. The webmaster of WHKMLA is not responsible for the content of external websites.

Country Profiles Articles Azad Kashmir (India)
Azad Kashmir, official website
Kashmir Flashpoint, from BBC News
Pakistan Occupied Kashmir, from Indian Embassy, Washington
Links Conflict in Kashmir, Selected Internet Resources, from UC Berkeley Library
Organizations Kashmir Study Group
Kashmir Heritage
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines see here
Kashmir Timeline, by Justin Podur, since 1925
Timeline Conflict over Kashmir 1947-2002, from CNN; Timeline Kashmir 2003-2004, from The Guardian; from SATP; from Kashmir Information
Timeline of the Kashmir Cnflict, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History Current, on Kashmir History of Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, from Wikipedia
History of Jammu and Kashmir, from Webindia 123
History of Kashmir, from Kashmir Information, from Kashmir News Network
L.N. Dhar, An Outline of the History of Kashmir, posted by Koausa
Kashmir, History of a Flashpoint, from Buzzle.com
Current, on Azad Kashmir History of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, from Region Azad Kashmir, from Mirpur's First Entertainment Website
Specific Periods History of the Kashmir Conflict, from Wikipedia
Short History of Kashmir Dispute, from IEER
Politics Kashmir National Identity Campaign (KNIC, UK)
Military Jammu and Kashmir Assessment, from SATP
Kashmir, from Global Security
Articles Line of Control, Kargil War, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances Economy, from Region Azad Kashmir
Agriculture, from Region Azad Kashmir
Social History Kashmir and IDP's, from IDP World Citizenship
Ethnography Jammu and Kashmir : Distribution of Languages, from Kashmir Study Group
India, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
Map : Jammu and Kashmir, Principal Languages 1981, from Wikipedia
Shams Rehman, Diaspora and Development: the case of British Kashmiris from Azad Kashmir, KNIC
Shams Rehman, British Kashmiris : Earliest British in Kashmir and Kashmiris in Britain
Religion Jammu & Kashmir, Distribution of Religions, from Kashmir Study Group
Local History Article : Mirpur : History, from Wikipedia
Article : Muzaffarabad : History, from Wikipedia
Institutions Article University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir (1974), from Wikipedia
Others Article Simla Agreement (1972), from Wikipedia
Jennifer Crook, War in Kashmir and its Effect on the Environment, ICE Case Studies 1998, Samantha Hulkower, Kashmir: Melting Glaciers, Boiling Conflicts, ICE Case Studies 2007

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), scroll down
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Pakistan, by State (Province), from Population Statistics, at UUtrecht
Population of Cities : Pakistan : Azad Kashmir, from City Population
Election Results
Documents Historical Newspapers Jammu & Kashmir News Archive (since 1997); Kashmir Herald, Archive, 2001-2005
The History of Kashmir, Jammu and Ladakh, from World History Archives
Life Magazine, 1936-1972, Search for "Kashmir", search all issues; 203 Kashmir articles, GB
Modern Newspapers
Image Databanks Photos of Kashmir, by Peter Langer
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK)
Search Janus
Constitutions, Laws Kashmir Legal Documents, from Kashmir Information
Document Collections UN Resolutions on Kashmir, from fisiusa
Documents, from Fouq Library (www.kashmiri.info)
Jammu and Kashmir Documents, from SATP
Baharistan-i-Shahi, ch.1, ch.2, ch.3, ch.4, ch.5, ch.6, ch.7, ch.8
Historical Maps Location of places in Azad Kashmir, from TAGEO
Maps, from Kashmir Study Group
Kashmir, from Asian Linguistic Maps
Map, from Kashmir Heritage
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives
Libraries National Library of Pakistan
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms State Flag, from Azad Jammu & Kashmir (of 1975)

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Kashmir from Kashmir : Hope for the Future
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
International Boundary Studies
Search DBNG for Bengalen etc.
on Kashmir Tibetan & Himalayan Digital Library
Pakistan Research Repository
Fouq Library, articles on the Kashmir Issue
Indcat, Online Uinion Catalogue of Indian Universities, from INFLIBNET, click Union Database
Digital Library of India
History of India Digital Library
Online Journals
Online Yearbooks
General Accounts
Specific Topics

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