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Uttar Pradesh
First posted on December 14th 2005, last revised on December 4th 2009






Until 1722 (formally until 1819) Awadh was a province of the Mughal Empire. From 1722 to 1856 the Nawab of Awadh was a ruler in his own right. In 1856 Awadh was annexed by British India (the East India Company) and formed the Province of Awadh. In 1877 the Provinces of Agra and Awadh were merged to form the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, after independence renamed Uttar Pradesh (U.P.).

Timeline : Awadh

Historical Atlas, Awadh, Uttar Pradesh, British India, India Page






DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Profiles Article : Awadh, from Wikipedia
Links, General Category : Awadh, from Wikipedia
Historical Maps Schwartzberg, Historical Atlas of South Asia, posted by DSAL
Maps of India; Historical Maps of India, links from Rootsweb
Map of Oudh 1880, from Wikipedia
Timelines
Accounts of History Articles : Awadh, Nawab of Awadh, from Wikipedia
History of Awadh, by Hameed Akhtar Siddiqui
B.S. Saxena, Nawabs of Oudh and their Secularism
The Royal House of Oudh
H.C. Irwin, The garden of India; or, Chapters on Oudh history and affairs 1880, posted on Internet Archive
The Royal Family of Oudh (Awadh), by Christopher Buyers
Specific Periods Purmendu Basu, Oudh and the East India Company 1785-1801, 1943, posted on Internet Archive
R.W. Bird, The Spoliation of Oudh, 1857, posted on Internet Archive
Accounts of History of India w Reference to Oudh Edwin Arnold, The Marquis of Dalhousie's administration of British India, vol.2, Annexation of Pegu, Nagpor, and Oudh, and a general review of Lord Dalhousie's rule in India, 1862, posted on Internet Archive
Encyclopedia Entries Article : Oudh, from Imperial Gazetteer of India (1909-1931) posted by DSAL
Administration Malcolm Lewin, Has Oude been worse governed by its native princes than our Indian territories by Leadenhall Street ? 1857, posted on Internet Archive
Military Article : Rohilla War 1772-1774, from India Net Zone
Economy India, from Global History of Currencies
Article : Economic History of India : Nawabs, Marathas and Nizams, from Wikipedia
Ethnology
Social History Article Widow Burning, from Encyclopedia of Death and Dying
Rajkumar Sarvadhkari, The Taluqdari Settlements in Oudh 1882, posted on Internet Archive
Religion Sikh Relations with Nawab of Oudh, from The Sikh Encyclopedia
Cole, J. R. I. Roots of North Indian Shi'ism in Iran and Iraq: Religion and State in Awadh, 1722-1859., Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.
Regional History
Local History Article : Lucknow from Wikipedia
Historic City Lucknow, from City of Lucknow
Ancient City : Awadh, from India Net Zone
Cultural History Ikramuddin Qidwai, The Court Life under the Nawabs of Awadh (1754-1797), 1960 thesis
Architecture under the Nawabs of Awadh, from India Net Zone
The Post-Mughal Style of Architecture : Avadh (Oudh) Style, from Culturopedia
Biographies
Others History of Indian Science and Technology, from Indian Science
Bibliographies Bibliography on Topics Relevant to Indic Civilization, from Indic Studies
Search RHS Bibliography for Awadh, Oudh

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Lists of Statesmen List of Nawabs of Awadh, from Wikipedia
List of Chief Commissioners of Oudh 1856-1877, from Wikipedia
Contemporary Travelogues Mahomet, Dean. The Travels of Dean Mahomet: An Eighteenth-Century Journey through India., Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.
W.H. Sleeman, A journey through the kingdom of Oude in 1849-1850, with private correspondence relative to the annexation of Oude to British India, vol.1, vol.2 1858, posted on Internet Archive
Document Collections C.U. Aitchison, A Collection of treaties, engagements, and sunnuds, relating to India and neighbouring countries, vol.2 (1892), The treaties, &c., relating to the N. W. Provinces, Oudh, Nipal, the Punjab and the states on the Punjab frontier, posted on Internet Archive
Archives, Musea D. Dewar, A hand-book to the English pre-mutiny records in the government record rooms of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh 1875, posted on Internet Archive
Aloys Sprenger, A catalogue of the Arabic, Persian and Hindu'sta'ny manuscripts, of the libraries of the King of Oudh vol.1, Persian and Hindustany poetry, 1854, posted on Internet Archive
State Symbols Flag, from Wikipedia
Coins Articles : Coins of Awadh, from India Net Zone
Awadh Coins 1718-1858, from Collection Hameed Akhtar Siddiqui
Coins from the Princely States of India, from Nupam's Webpage for the Indian Coins; scroll down for Awadh
Others Search Bridgeman Art, Culture & History Images for Oudh

PRINTED REFERENCE
Online Libraries Internet Archive; Project Gutenberg, Online Catalogue
Indcat, Online Uinion Catalogue of Indian Universities, from INFLIBNET, click Union Database
Digitial Library of Indian History Books, from Indic Studies
Pakistan Research Repository
Online Journals South Asia Journals, from ELIN-NIAS; India Journals, from ELIN-NIAS
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
General History of India B.D. Metcalf and T.R. Metcalf, A Concise History of India, Cambridge : UP 2002, 321 pp., KMLA Lib.Sign. 954 M588c
Vincent A. Smith, The Oxford History of India, (1919) Oxford : UP 2001, 945 pp., KMLA Lib.Sign. 954 S642b
Gordon Johnson, Cultural Atlas of India, NY : Facts on File 1996, 240 pp., illustrated, KMLA Lib.Sign. 954 J66c
H.S. Bhatta, Military History of British India (1607-1947), New Delhi : Deep & Deep 1977, 256 pp. [G]
Francis Watson, India. A Concise History, London : Thames & Hudson (1974) 1996, 192 pp. [G]
General History Awadh S.N. Singh, The Kingdom of Awadh. Its History, Polity and Administration. New Delhi : Mittal 2003 [G]
Specific Topics Muzaffar Alam, The Crisis of Empire in Mughal North India. Awadh & the Punjab, Oxford : UP (1986) 2001 [G]
Kapil Kumar, Peasants in Revolt. Tenants, Landlords, Congress & the Raj in Oudh 1886-1922, Delhi : Manohar 1994 [G]