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India Nepal
First posted on May 20th 2002, last revised on May 27th 2010







A Buddhist theocracy 1616-1907, regarded a dependency of Tibet, which in the 18th century was capable of expanding its influence into northern Bengal (Cooch Bihar).
Lost her lowland territories to the E.I.C. (Bengal Presidency, present-day West Bengal); established independence from Tibet, converted constitution into that of a hereditary monarchy in 1907. Reclusive; cultivated loose relations with British India, and in her succession, with the Republic of India.

Alternative spellings : Bootan, Boutan, Bhutan

Bhutan since 1968
Bhutan 1910-1968
Bhutan 1772-1910

Timeline : Bhutan
Historical Atlas, South Asia Page








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P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
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DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook, Countries : Bhutan
Library of Congress Country Study : Bhutan; from World Wide Gazetteer
Historic
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World
from BUBL, from dmoz
Pandora, Australia's Web Archive, search for Bhutan
Bhutan Portal
on History from UC Berkeley Library
Category : History of Bhutan, from Wikipedia
Organizations The Bhutan Society of the U.K.
Vermont Bhutanese Association
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines from timelines.ws, a website exploiting US newspaper articles, very detailed on the 20th century; from BBC News
Accounts of History Current History of Bhutan, from Lonely Planet, from infoplease, from Land of the Thunder Dragon : Bhutan, from Univ. Wien
Article History of Bhutan, from Wikipedia;
Historical
Specific Periods S. Turner, Ambassade au Thibet et au Boutan, vol.1, 1800, vol.2, 1800, Collection des Planches, 1800, French trsl. of Engl. or., GB
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Bhutan; Governments on the WWW : Bhutan; Article Politics of Bhutan, from Wikipedia
Klaus Hofmann, Democratization from above : The Case of Bhutan, posted by European Referendum.Org
History of the National Assembly of Bhutan
Cultural Plurality, National Identity and Consensus in Bhutan, from CIS Zürich; paper by D. Schäppi
Brief History of Australia-Bhutan Relations, from Australia Bhutan
Military Orders, Decorations and Medals of Bhutan, from ODM
Bhutan Assessment, from SATP
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Bhutan
Article Economy of Bhutan, from Wikipedia
Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan
History of Bhutan National Bank
Bhutan, from Internet World Stats
Royal Audit Authority of Bhutan, from International Journal of Government Auditing, 1999
History of Bhutan Textiles
Social History Bhutan, from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World (Robert Winslow)
Ethnography Languages of Bhutan (25), from Ethnologue
Assessment for Lhotshampas in Bhutan, from Minorities at Risk
Group Chonology : Lhotshampas of Bhutan, from Minorities at Risk
Country Report : Bhutan, from U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, reports 1999-2004
Documents on Discrimination : Bhutan, from Antiracism Info
Bhutanese Refugees
The Exodus of Ethnic Nepalis from Southern Bhutan, from UNHCR
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Bhutan
Bhutan, pp.501 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Bhutan, pp.410-432 in vol.1B of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Bhutan, from Kirken i Norge
Category Religion in Bhutan, from Wikipedia
A Brief Historical Background of the Religious Institutions of Bhutan, by D.R. Dorje
History of Regions Districts of Bhutan, from www.statoids.com
Local History Article Thimphu, from Wikipedia
Institutions History of Sherubtse College; History of the Royal University of Bhutan; History of Samtse College of Education
The Evolution of Forest-Related Institutions in Bhutan, by E.L. Webb, L. Dorji
Bhutan, from Airline History
Structurae : Bhutan
Culture Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Bhutan
Article Bhutan at the Olympics, Sport in Bhutan, from Wikipedia
Biographies
Others Disaster History by Country : Bhutan, from Relief Web
Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Bhutan, from Royal Ark (Christopher Buyers)
Historical Data Lists of Ambassadors Heads of Canadian Legation / Embassy Thimphu (since 2003), from MOFA Canada
Statistical Data Responsible Institution National Statistics Bureau, Bhutan
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Bhutan, from Population Statistics, Univ. Utrecht
Population of Cities : Bhutan, from City Population
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Documents Historical Newspapers Documents for the history of Bhutan, from World History Archives
Bhutan Article Archives, by Keepmedia
Life Magazine, 1936-1972, Search for "Bhutan", search all issues; 8 Bhutan articles, GB
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers, from Newspaper Index
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons
Oriental Collections
Items on Bhutan
Asian Historical Architecture, a Photographic Survey
Universal Collections
Items on Bhutan
License Plates, from pl8s.com
Photos of Bhutan, by Peter Langer
Airline Timetable Images : Bhutan
Medals of Bhutan, from OMSA
\
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK) for Bhutan
Constitutions, Laws Draft Constitution of 2005, from SATP
Internet Law Library : Bhutan
Treaties
Document Surveys British Library, Guide to Current South Asian Official Publications; scroll down for Bhutan
Document Collections Bhutan Documents - Acts and Ordinnances, Papers, from SATP
Historical Maps responsible institutions UNESCO : National Mapping Agencies : Bhutan : Survey Department (SB), Thimpu
collections Digital Himalayas : Himalayan Map Collection
Tibetan and Himalayan Library : Tibetan and Himalayan Maps
Historical Maps of Bhutan, from Bhutan Stamps, Covers & Postal History
Maps : Indic Languages from Titus
Bhutan, hindsight
Bhutan, Contemporary Constable 1893 : Bengal, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and west Assam , Upper Burma, Assam and Chittagong (and Eastern Bhutan), from Historical Maps of India
Assam 1906, 1922, 1932, from Probert Encyclopedia
Bangladesh & Bhutan, from Asian Linguistic Maps, covers Eastern India
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article : Boutan, pp.205-206 in vol.3 of Encyclopedie Methodique, 1809, in French, GB
Article Bhutan, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Article Bhutan, from EB 1911
Religious Bootan, pp.92-96 in Ch. Williams, The missionary gazetteer, 1828, GB
Economic Of the Trade of Lassa, or Boutan, and Chaoul, p.654 in W. Beawes, Lex Mercatoria Rediviva, 1773, GB
Handel von Lassa oder Boutan, pp.98-99, in : Friedrich Ludwig Langstedt, Geschichte des asiatischen Handels, 1803, in German, GB
Of the Trade of Lassa, or Boutan, and Chaoul, p.211 in W. Beawes, Lex Mercatoria, 1813, GB
Of the Present State of Agriculture in Chinese Tartary, Thibet and Bootan, pp.162-163 in vol.1 of J. Cl. Loudon, An Encyclopaedia of Agriculture, 1835, GB
E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Bhutan
Geographical Chinese Empire : Tibet, pp.352-360 in Modern Geography : a Description of the Empires, Kingdoms, States, and Colonies, with the Oceans, Seas and Isles in All Parts of the World, 1806, GB ; treats Bootan as Tibet's southern province
Tibet and Bootan, p.329 in R. Jameson, System of Mineralogy, 1808 (estimated altitudes of mountains)
Bootan, pp.134-136 in vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, or a Description of all the Parts of the World 1822, GB
Die Ostgruppe des Himalaya-Systems, oder der Bhutan-Assamsche Himalaya, pp.137-171 in vol.3 of C. Ritter, Erdkunde von Asien, 1834, in German, GB
Boutan, pp.380-381 in H. Murray, The Encyclopaedia of Geography, 1839, GB
Boutan, pp.10-11 in vol.3 of Dictionnaire geographique universel, 1839, in French, GB
Article Bhutan, in : Imperial Gazetteer of India (1908-1931), posted by DSAL
Bootan, p.373 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Historical Boutan, pp.285-286 in vol.1 of Th. Salmon, Modern History or the Present State of All Nations, 1744, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues Tibet und Boutan. Das Reich der Birmanen, vol.10 of E.A.W. Zimmermann (ed.), Taschenbuch der Reisen, 1811, in German, GB
Institutions Archives Archive of the National Library of Bhutan
Archive of the National Assembly of Bhutan (publications since 2004)
Musea
Monuments Huntington Archive of Buddhist and Related Art : Bhutan
Libraries National Library and Archives of Bhutan
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Emblem of Bhutan, from Wikipedia; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Bhutan, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money, from Zeno
Coins of Bhutan, from Zeno

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Bhutan survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies K.H. Krämer, Bibliography on Nepal and the Himalayan area
Bibliography, Library of Congress Country Studies : Nepal and Bhutan
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies
serial publications New Asia Books : Bhutan
general bibliographies
Bhutan entries
D. Wujastyk, Online South Asian Bibliographies
D. Milobar, South Asia History Bibliography
booksellers
from UC Berkeley Library
Bhutan Studies; Journal of Bhutan Studies, from Digital Himalaya
Search Asian Development Bank (ADB) Publications for Bhutan
Online Libraries general Project Gutenberg, Online Catalogue, keywords Ceylon
Internet Archive
e-corpus
on Bhutan National Library of Bhutan Online
National Digital Library of Bhutan Project
Tibetan & Himalayan Digital Library
Online Journals full text online Bhutan Society [of the U.K.] Newsletters, since 2001
Table of Contents online
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.14, pp.898-902 Article Bhutan. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.14
Specific Topics Chr.V. Hill, South Asia : an Environmental History, Santa Barbara : ABC Clio 2008, 329 pp., KMLA Lib. Call Sign 304.2 H645s
Historical Dictionaries
Historical Atlasses C. Collin Davies, An Historical Atlas of the Indian Peninsula, Oxford : UP, 2nd edition, 1959 [G]
Historical and Cultural Maps, National Atlas of India Vol.8, published by National Atlas & Thematic Mapping Organisation, Calcutta 1983, edited by G.K . Dutt, S.K. Biswas [G]
J.E. Schwartzberg, A Historical Atlas of South Asia, Chicago : UP 1978 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]