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Cochin Travancore
First posted on June 2nd 2011






The feudal Kingdom of Kozhikode (Calicut; title of the ruler : Zamorin or Samoothiri), located in modern Kerala State on the Malabar coast, was independent from the 12th century until 1766, when it was annexed by Mysore.
Kozhikode was ruled by the Hindu Eradi Dynasty. Vasco da Gama visited Kozhikode (in western sources called Calicut) in 1498. The Portuguese failed in their attempts to take Kozhikode.

Modern spelling : Kozhikode, historical spellings Calecut, Calicut, Collicuthia



Students' Papers : Myeong Do Hyeong, The Clash of Cultures in Malabar : Encounters, Conflict and Interaction with European Culture, 1498-1947 (2012)






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DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Article Saamoothiri / Zamorin, from Wikipedia
Historical An Account of the Cities of Calicut and Bijanagur in the 15th century, translated from the Persic of Khondemir, pp.226-227 in vol.2 of The Asiatic Annual Register or a View of the History of Hindustan, 1801, GB
D. Barbosa, A description of the coasts of East Africa and Malabar : in the beginning of the sixteenth century, trsl. and ed. by H.E.J. Stanley, 1866, GB
J.C. Visscher, Letters from Malabar, tr.: to which is added an account of Travancore, and fra Bartolomeo's travels in that country, trsl. by H. Drury, 1862, GB
Links Category : Kozhikode, from Wikipedia
Organizations Kerala Council for Historical Research
Timelines
Accounts of History Current Article History of Kozhicode, from Wikipedia
History and Culture, from Government of Kerala
Historical G.P. Maffei, Le istorie dell' Indie Orientali, edition of 1589, edition of 1749, in Italian, GB; numerous Calecutr references
Specific Periods Portuguese Discovery of the Passage to India, pp.71-, Portuguese Conquest of India in vol.1 of H. Murray, Historical and descriptive account of British India, 1832, GB
An Account of the Franks in Malabar, and of their villainous Proceedings in that country, pp.74- in Zayn al-Din Abd al-Aziz al-Malibari, Tohfut-ul-mujahideen, Oriental Translation Fund 1833, GB
Calicut, pp.55- in L.V. de Camoes, The Lusiad, trsl. by W.J. Mickle, 1773, GB
Ram Chandra Rao Punganuri, Memoirs of Hyder and Tippoo: rulers of Seringapatam, written in the Mahratta language, trsl. by C.P. Brown, 1849, GB
List of feudal statews in Kerala, from Wikipedia
J. Biddulph, The Pirates of Malabar, 1907, GB
Military Article : Samoothiri-Polarthiri war, from Wikipedia
The Shade of Swords : Inhuman Acts by Portugues Agressors in India, excerpts from M.J. Akbar's book 'The Shade of Swords'
Historic Alleys : Manjeri Moplahs Revolt against Tipu
Economy & Finances Calico Entries, in N. Cox, K. Dannehl, Dictionary of Traded Goods and Commodities, 1550-1820 2007, posted by British History Online
Ethnography
Religion The history of the Church of Malabar, 1694, GB
Residenza di Calicut, pp.42-47 in F. Barreto O.S.J., Relatione delle missioni e christianita che appartengono alla provincia di Malavar della compagnia di Giesu, 1645, in Italian, GB
Local History
Institutions
Others A.E. Freitas Cavalleiro e Sousa, De Portugal a Calecut, monographia historico-critica do descobrimento do caminho maritimo da India, 1898, in Portuguese, IA

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Calicut (Kozhikkode)
Calicut, from Indian Princely States, by H. Soszynski
Documents Historical Newspapers
Image Databanks Category : Historical Images of Kozhikode, from Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK); Janus
Search ARCHIEVEN.NL; Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo, Lisbon, Portugal; Vatican Secret Archives
Search Tamil Nadu Archives; Goa Departmrent of Archives and Archaeology; Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties Biker, J.F.J., Collecçao de tratados e concertos de pazes que o estado da India Portugueza fez com os reis e senhores com quem teve relaçoes nas partes da Asia e Africa Oriental desde o principio da conquista ate ao fim do secolo XVIII. Lisboa, Imprensa Nacional, vol.1 1881, covering 1507-1643, posted on Internet Archive; vol.2 1882, covering 1604-1719, posted on Internet Archive; vol.3 1883, covering 1661-1739, posted on Internet Archive; vol.4 1884, covering 1510-1699, posted on Internet Archive; Vol.5 1885, covering 1606-1717, posted on Internet Archive; vol.6 1885, covering 1708-1750, posted on Internet Archive; vol.7 1885, covering 1753-1762, posted on Internet Archive; vol.8 1885. covering 1762-1794, posted by Internet Archive; vol.9 1885, covering 1790-1798, posted on Internet Archive; vol.10 1885, covering 1725-1840, posted on Internet Archive; vol.11 1886, covering 1799-1839, posted on Internet Archive; vol.12 1886, covering 1746-1851, posted on Internet Archive; vol.13 1887, covering 1719-1885, posted on Internet Archive; search for Calecut, Calicut
Document Collections Joao Baptista Lavanha, Da Asia de Joao de Barros e de Diogo de Couto, vol.1 : Nova Edicao offerecida a Sua Magestade D. Maria I. Rainha Fidelissima , 1778 ; Da Asia de Diogo de Couto. Dos Feitos, que os Portugueses Fizeram na Conquista, e Descubrimento das Terras, e Mares do Oriente. vol.2 : Decada Primeira. Parte Segunda, 1777 ; vol.3 : Decada Segunda. Parte Primeira, 1777 ; vol.4 : Decada Segunda. Parte Segunda, 1777 ; vol.5 : Decada Terceira. Parte Primeira, 1777 ; vol.6 : Decada Terceira. Parte Segunda, 1777 ; vol.7 : Decada Quarta. Parte Primeira, 1777 ; vol.8 : Decada Quarta. Parte Segunda, 1777 ; vol.9 : Vida de Joao de Barros por Manoel Severim de Faria e Indice Geral das Quatro Decadas de sua Asia, 1778 ; Da Asia de Diogo de Couto. Dos Feitos, que os Portugueses Fizeram na Conquista, e Descubrimento das Terras, e Mares do Oriente. vol.10 : Decada Quarta. Parte Primeira, 1778 ; vol.11 : Decada Quarta. Parte Segunda, 1778 ; vol.12 : Decada Quinta. Parte Primeira, 1779 ; vol.13 : Decada Quinta. Parte Segunda, 1780 ; vol.14 : Decada Sexta. Parte Primeira, 1781 ; vol.15 : Decada Sexta. Parte Secunda, 1781 ; vol.16 : Decada Setima. Parte Primeira, 1782 ; vol.17 : Decada Setima. Parte Segunda, 1783 ; vol.18 : Decada Oitava., 1786 ; vol.19 : Decada Nona., 1786 ; vol.20 : . Decada Decima. Parte Primeira., 1788 ; vol.21 : Decada Decima. Parte Segunda., 1788 ; vol.22 : Decada Undecima da Asia. Dos Feitos, que os Portugueses Fizeram no Descubrimento dos Mares, e Conquistas das Terras do Oriente, Em Quanto Governaram a India, Manoel de Sousa Coutinho e Mathias de Alboquerque, supprindo a que falta de Diogo de Couto, Chronista, e Guarda Mor da Torre do Tombo do Estado da India, 1788 ; Da Asia de Diogo de Couto. Dos Feitos, que os Portugueses Fizeram na Conquista, e Descubrimento das Terras, e Mares do Oriente. vol.23 : Decada Duodecima, 1788, in Portuguese, GB; search for Calecut
Bullarium patronatus Portugalliae regum in Ecclesiis Africae, Asiae atque Oceaniae, vol.1 : 1171-1600, 1868, vol.2 : 1601-1700, 1861, in Latin, GB; search for Collicuthia
Collecçao de monumentos ineditos para a historia das conquistas dos Portuguezes, em Africa, Asia e America, Seria I : Historia de Asia, vol.1, 1858, vol.1 pt.2, 1859, vol.2 pt.1, 1860, vol.3 pt.1, 1862, vol.3 pt.2, 1863, vol.4 pt.1, 1864, vol.4 pt.2, 1866, vol.5, 1868, in Portuguese, GB; search for Calecut
Manuel de Faria de Sousa, Asia Portuguesa, vol.1 1666, vol.2 1674, vol.3 1675, in Portuguese, GB
Commentarios do grande Afonso Dalboquerque, 1774, in Portuguese, GB
E. Moor (ed.), A Compilation of all the Government and General - Government - General - Brigade and Garrison Orders - Minutes of Council - Commands of the Hon. Company - or Regulations, from whatever Authority Promulgated, from the year 1750 to 31st of July 1801, that are now in force and operating on the discipline or expoenditure of the Bombay Army , 1801, GB; search for Calicut
Individual Documents Zayn al-Din Abd al-Aziz al-Malibari, Tohfut-ul-mujahideen an historical work in the Arabic language, Engl. trsl. by M.J. Rowlandson, 1833, GB
D. de Gois, Chronica do felicissimo rey Don emanuel da gloriosa memoria, 1619, in Portuguese, GB ; D. de Goes, Chronica do serenissimo senior rei D. Emanuel, 1790, in Portuguese, GB (on the reign of Manuel I., 1495-1521)
F. Andrada, Cronica do muyto alto e muito poderoso rey destes reynos de Portugal dom Ioao III deste nome, 1613, in Portuguese, GB (Joao III. ruled from 1521 to 1557)
Historical Maps Map Collections Malabar Maps, search David Rumsey Map Collection
Overview, modern Map : Location of the Kingdom of Zamorins in India, from Wikipedia
Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 1100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1500 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Map : Kerala in the 12th Century, from Wikipedia
Map : Kerala in the Late Middle Ages, from Wikipedia
Map : Kerala in the 15th Century, from Wikipedia
Map : Kerala in the 17th Century, from B.M. John, The Ali Rajas of Cannanore: status and identity at the interface of commercial and political expansion, 1663-1723, thesis Leiden 2007
Kingdoms of South India, 1320, Map of the Deccan Sultanates 1520, from Jambudveep's Blog
Overview, contemporary Map of the Malabar Coast, 17th c., from V.O.C. Warfare
An atlas of the southern part of India, including plans of all the principal towns & cantonments, reduced from the grand trigonometrical survey of India, shewing also the Tenasserim provinces, 1854, IA
Madras, Mysore, Goa (Constable 1893), from Historical Maps of India
Travancore, Trichinopoli and Ceylon (Constable 1893), from Historical Maps of India
Detail, modern
Detail, contemporary Calicut (Braun 1572), from Wikipedia
Atlas of Mutual Heritage, posted by Nationaalarchief; search for Calicut
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Calicut, p.405 in vol.2 of Encyclopaedia Americana, 1835, GB
Religious
Economic Malabar, p.34 in vol.3 of C.G. Ludovici, Allgemeine Schatz-Kammer Der Kauffmannschafft , 1742, in German, GB
Calicut, p.657 in W. Beawes, Lex mercatoria rediviva : or, The merchant's directory, 1773, GB
Calicut, p.125 in vol.1 of P. Kelly, Universal Cambist, 1811, GB
Calicut, pp.325-327 in W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 1813, GB
Calicut, pp.61-62 in W. Dickinson, Universal Commerce, 1818, GB
Calicut, pp.118-119 in W. Anderson, The London commercial dictionary, and sea-port gazetteer, 1819, GB
Calicut, p.120 in G.T. Flügel, The merchant's assistant, or, Merchantile instructer, 1834, GB
Political Discours du Roy de Calicut, pp.917-925 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde, 1613, in French, GB
Discours du Roy de Calicut, pp.915-923 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde, 1614, in French, GB
Discours du Roi de Calicut, pp.183-191 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, empires royaumes, seigneuries, duchez, et principautez du monde, 1621, in French, GB
Discours de l'estat du Roy de Calicut, pp.917-925 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde, 1628, in French, GB
Discours du Roy de Calicut, pp.653-659 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, empires et principautez du monde representez par la description des pays et moeurs des habitans, richesses des provinces, les forces, le gouvernement, la religion, et les princes qui ont gouverne chacun estat , 1630, in French, GB
Estats du Roy de Calecut, pp.589-594 in P. d'Avity, Le Monde, ou la Description generale de ses quatre parties, 1643, in French, GB
Discours du Roy de Calicut, pp.804-808 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, empires, royaumes et principautez du monde , 1659, in French, GB
Discours de l'estat du Roy de Calicut, pp.1134-1140 in P. d'Avity, Nouveau theatre du monde: contenant les estats, empires, royaumes, et principautez, representez par l'ordre et veritable description des pays, moeurs des peuples, forces, 1661, in French, GB
Discours du Roy de Calicut, pp.804-808 in P. d'Avity, Les estats, empires, royaumes et principautez du monde, 1665, in French, GB
Geographical Kingdom of Calicut, pp.152-157 in D. Barbosa, A description of the coasts of East Africa and Malabar: in the beginning of the sixteenth century, 1866, GB
Calicut, in S. Franck, Weltbuch: spiegel vnd bildtnis des gantzen Erdtbodens , 1542, in German, GB
Il regno di Calicut, p.187 in vol.2 of Claudio Tolomeo, Geografia cioe descrittione vniuersale della terra, 1598, in Italian, GB
Il Re di Calecut ou Malavar, pp.441-443 in G.P. Belli, Geografia istorico-politica , 1689, in Italian, GB
Calicut, p.47 in J.B. Bourguignon d' Anville, A geographical illustration of the map of India, 1759, GB
Calicut, p.330 in J. Payne, Universal geography formed into a new and entire system 1794, GB
Malabar, pp.459-468 in vol.5 of L.P. Anquetil, Precis de l'Histoire Universelle ou Tableau historique presentant les vicissitudes des Nations ... , 1799, in French, GB
Calicut, p.206 in J. Hudden, The Oriental Navigator, 1801, GB
Calicut, p.237 in J. Pinkerton, Modern Geography, 1804, GB
Calicoet, pp.276-277 in vol.1 of G. Bruining, Algemeen Aardrijkskundig Woordenboek, 1821, in Dutch, GB
Calicut, pp.209-210 in vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1825, GB
Calicut, pp.536- in J. Walker, A gazetteer of Southern India, 1855, GB
Calicut, pp.176-177 in E. Thornton, A Gazetteer of the territories under the government of the East India Company and of the native States on the continent of India , 1858, GB
Historical Das Königreich Malabar, pp.141-142 in G. Marcel, Conspectus historiae universalis 1696, in German, GB
Collicuthia, p.138 in P. Braccioloni Historiae de varietate fortunae libri quatuor, 1723, in Latin, GB
Calicut, p.165 in Abu Zayd Hasan ibn Yazid Sirafi, al-tajir Sulayman, Ancient accounts of India and China, ed. by E. Renaudot, 1733, GB
Calicut, p.235 in vol.1 of T. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, GB
Zamorin, p.1164 in Suppl. vol.6 of J.C. Beck, Neu-vermehrtes Historisch- und Geographisches Allgemeines Lexicon, 1744, in German, GB
Calecut, pp.737-738 in vol.2 of J.P. Schmidt, Allgemeine Geschichte der Handlung und Schiffahrt, 1754, in German, GB
Book Reviews Malabar, pp.267-270 in vol.10 of The History of the works of the learned, or, An impartial account of books lately printed in all parts of Europe, 1708, GB
Malabar, p.280-286 in vol.26 of Maandelyke uittreksels, of Boekzaal der geleerde waerelt, 1728, in Dutch, GB
'Jornada of Dom Alexis de Menezes : A Portuguese account of the Sixteenth century Malabar' edited by Dr. Pius Malekandathil NSC Network
Parliamentary Debates British Parliament 1784, Debate on Tippoo Sultan, pp.105-129 in History of the proceedings and debates of the House of Lords, vol.30, 1791, GB
Tour Guides, Travelogues pre 15th century Abd er Razzak, Journey to Hindoostan, pp.13- in R.H. Major (ed.), India in the fifteenth Century, 1857, GB
E. Renaudot, Anciennes Relations Des Indes Et De La Chine, De deux Voyageurs Mahometans (Abu-Zaid Hasan Ibn-Yazid, Sulaiman at-Tagir), 1718, in French, GB
Journey overland to India and Abyssinia, by Covilham and de Payva, pp.288-291 in vol.2 of R. Kerr, A general history and collection of voyages and travels, 1824, GB; Pero da Covilhao, from Discoverers Web; Article : Pro de Covilha, from Wikipedia
Zheng He's Inscription, posted by M. Los
15th, 16th century L. de Varthema, The travels of Ludovico di Varthema : in Egypt, Syria, Arabia Deserta and Arabia Felix : in Persia, India, and Ethiopia, A.D. 1503 to 1508, edited by J. Winter Jones, Hakluyt Society 1863, GB; extensive coverage of Calicut
17th century Voyage of Captain Walter Peyton to India : Occurrences at Calicut (1616), pp.232-239 in vol.9 of R. Kerr (ed.), A general history and collection of voyages and travels , 1813, GB
The Kingdom of Calicut, pp.119-128 in S. Purchas' narrative, in Early travels in India: being reprints of rare and curious narratives of old travellers in India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries : first series, comprising Purchas's Pilgrimage and Travels of van Linschoten, 1864, GB
Calecut, pp.265-289 in M. Schipano, Viaggi di Pietro Della Valle il pellegrino, 1663, in Italian, GB
Quanto successe in detta citta, e di la in Calecut, sin dentro la serra, pp.85-89 in Prima Speditione All'Indie Orientali del P. F. Giuseppe di Santa Maria 1666, in Italian, GB
Calecut pp.256-259 in Voyages de Mr de Thevenot contenant la relation de l'Indostan, des nouveaux Mogols et des autres peuples & pays des Indes, 1684, in French, GB
18th century Franz Pyrard's Reisen und Abenteuer : Calicut, p.123 in vol.2 of Neue Litteratur und Völkerkunde, 1787, in German, GB
19th century Calicut, pp.223-224 in A. Delano, A narrative of voyages and travels in the northern and southern hemispheres, 1817, GB
Calicut, pp.169-186 in R.F. Burton, Goa, and the Blue Mountains: or, Six months of sick leave, 1851, GB
Institutions Archives Kerala State Archives
Musea Pazhassiraja Museum and Art Gallery, Kozhikode
Monuments
Libraries State Central Library, Kerala
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes Kerala Department of Archaeology, scroll down for Koyikkal Palace, Numismatic Museum
Coins of Kerala, from Karsha

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Calicut Kerala History Bibliography
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
Gallica
Center for Research Libraries (CRL)
on India Digital Library of India
Online Journals
General Accounts
Specific Topics
Historical Atlasses C. Collin Davies, An Historical Atlas of the Indian Peninsula, Oxford : UP, 2nd edition, 1959 [G]
Historical and Cultural Maps, National Atlas of India Vol.8, published by National Atlas & Thematic Mapping Organisation, Calcutta 1983, edited by G.K . Dutt, S.K. Biswas [G]
J.E. Schwartzberg, A Historical Atlas of South Asia, Chicago : UP 1978 [G]
Encyclopedia, Yearbook Entries