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British India Maldives
First posted on December 11th 2011

Kingdom of Kandy 1469-1817 . Ceylon under V.O.C. Rule, 1656-1796 . Ceylon/Sri Lanka independent, 1948-






In 1796 the British occupied Dutch Ceylon, and the Batavian Republic ceded the island to Britain in 1802. A first British occupation of Kingdom of Kandy in 1803 was only temportary; in 1815 a second campaign succeeded in annexing the Kingdom of Kandy. Ceylon was now united under British rule. To work the plantations on Ceylon, the British brought in numerous Tamil workers from the Madras Presidency.
Ceylon became independent in 1948.

British Ceylon 1931-1948 . British Ceylon 1918-1931 . British Ceylon 1880-1918 . British Ceylon 1815-1880

Click here for the History of the Kingdom of Kandy (Udarata)

Historical Atlas, South Asia Page


Students' Paper : Lee, Seung Heon, History of Transportation in South Asia (2009)






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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current
Historic R. Percival, An account of the island of Ceylon, 1803, GB
J. Cordiner, A Description of Ceylon (1807), IA
H. Marshall, Ceylon, a general description of the island and its inhabitants, with an historical sketch of the conquest of the colony by the English, 1846, IA
C. Pridham, An historical, political, and statistical account of Ceylon and its dependencies 1849, IA
G. Barrow, Ceylon Past and Present, 1857, IA
J.E. Tennent, Ceylon (1859), IA
L.F. Liesching, A Brief Account of Ceylon (1861), IA
H.J. Suckling, Ceylon: A General Description of the Island, Historical, Physical .. (1876), IA
J. Ferguson, Ceylon in 1883: The Leading Crown Colony of the British Empire, 1883, IA; J. Ferguson, Ceylon in 1893: Describing the Progress of the Island Since 1803, 1893, IA; J. Ferguson, Ceylon in 1903: Describing the Progress of the Island Since 1803, 1903, IA
H. Cave, The Book of Ceylon, 1908, IA
A. Clark et al., Ceylon (1910), IA
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World
from BUBL, from dmoz
from Lanka Library; Category : Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia; Sri Lanka, from Post-Colonial Web; Categorie : Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
on History from Lanka Library; from Lakdiva; from UC Berkeley Library; Category : History of Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia; Categorie : Geschiedenis van Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia Dutch edition; History of Sri Lanka, from Post-Colonial Web
Historical Dictionary S.C. Chitty, The Ceylon gazetteer: containing an account of the districts &c. of Ceylon (1834), posted on Internet Archive
A.C. Lawrie, A Gazetteer of the Central Province of Ceylon (excluding Walapane) 1898, IA
Organizations International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka (1845), posted on Scholarly Societies
Department of Archaeology, Sri Lanka
Department of National Museums, Sri Lanka
Timelines from timelines.ws, a website exploiting US newspaper articles, very detailed on the 20th century; from BBC News; from Tikalanka
Accounts of History Current History of Ceylon / Sri Lanka, from www79.pair.com, 9 chapters; from Lonely Planet; from Sri Lanka Web Window
The True History of Sri Lanka, anonymous, detailed, list of kings
History of Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
De Fonseka Family Website, on the history of Ceylon / Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, the Untold Story, by K.T. Rajasingham, posted by ATimes, at least 35 chapters
Historical R. Fellowes, The history of Ceylon: from the earliest period to the year MDCCCXV , 1817, GB
Humphry William Codrington, A Short History of Lanka (1926), posted by Rhajiv Ratnatunga (covers period until 1833)
G. Turnour, An Epitome of the History of Ceylon: compiled from native annals and the first twenty chapters of the Mahawanso, 1836, GB
Ceylon, pp.1-122 in R. Montgomery Martin, History of the British possessions in the Indian & Atlantic Oceans, 1837, GB
W. Knighton, The history of Ceylon from the earliest period to the present time 1845, GB
C. Pridham, An historical, political, and statistical account of Ceylon and its dependencies 1849, IA
H.Ch. Sirr, Ceylon and the Cingalese: Their History, Government, and Religion .. (1850), IA
G. Barrow, Ceylon Past and Present, 1857, IA
D. Obeyesekere, Outlines of Ceylon history (1911), IA
K.M. de Silva, A history of Sri Lanka, 1981, GB
British Period Articles : British Ceylon, 1815-1948, from Wikipedia
Specific Periods Articles : Sri Lanka Independence Movement, Participation of Ceylon in World War II, from Wikipedia
E.W. Perera, Memorandum upon Recent Disturbances in Ceylon (1915), IA
Administration General
Institutions History, of Sri Lanka's Parliament
Article Donoughmore Constitution, from Wikipedia
Political Parties, Movements Sri Lanka Independence Struggle, from Wikipedia
Category : Political Parties in Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
G.J. Lerski, Origins of Trotskyism in Ceylon, from marxists.org
Military Wars of Sri Lanka, from ACED; History of Sri Lanka Army; Orders, Decorations and Medals of Sri Lanka, from ODM; Military of Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
Four Lankans die in secret 'Independence War', article from Weekend Express, on Ceylon in World War II
Under the Tropical Sun. Lachlan Macquarie & the 73rd Regiment in Sri Lanka 1796-1821, posted by Macqurie Univ. Library
J. Forbes, Recent disturbances and military executions in Ceylon 1850, IA
War against the Dutch in Ceylon, from Fibis
The Swiss de Meuron Regiment, CCV Northwest Company
A. Johnston, Narrative of the operations of a detachment in an expedition to Candy, in the island of Ceylon, in the year 1804, 1854, IA
Economy & Finances General History of Employers Federation of Ceylon
History of the Auditor General's Department, Sri Lanka
The Origin, from Ceylon Chamber of Commerce; History of National Chamber of Commerce of Sri Lanka
Colombo Stock Exchange, click : about CSE, Historical Milestones
John Capper, An Outline of the Commercial Statistics of Ceylon, pp.424-434 in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Volume 2 1839 GB
A. Bertolacci, A view of the agricultural, commercial, and financial interests of Ceylon , 1817, GB
Money & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Sri Lanka
Speculum, Ceylon, Her Present Condition: Revenues, Taxes, and Expenditure 1868, IA
Trade
Crafts A.K. Coomaraswamy, The arts and crafts of India and Ceylon, 1913, IA
Mining W.M.A. Karunaratne, Culture and Mining - Metallurgical History of Sri Lanka 2005
Agriculture The History of Ceylon Tea, from Dilmah; from Wilson Teas, from Explore Sri Lanka, from Mlesna Teas, from Sri Lanka Tea Board; Taylor, Lipton and the Birth of Ceylon Tea, from Tea Muse
Cinnamon, from UCLA Biomedical Library
The History of Sri Lanka Coffee, from Hansa Coffee
History of Sri Lanka Tea Board
G.T. Pett, The Ceylon Tea-Maker's Handbook 1899, IA
W. Sabonadiere, The coffee-planter of Ceylon 1870, IA
S. Jolly, Coffee-planting in Ceylon 1861, IA
J. Ferguson, Ceylon & Her Planting Enterprize: In Tea, Cacao, Cardamoms, Cinchona, Coconut, and Areca Palms 1885, IA
C.E. Akers, Report on the rubber industry of the Orient (including Ceylon, the Malay Peninsula, Java and Sumatra) 1912, IA
Tea producing companies of India and Ceylon, showing the history and results of those capitalised in sterling 1897, IA
Social History Class Society The Dutch in Ceylon : the Burghers of Ceylon, from Colonial Voyage (Marco Ramerini); also from Lanka Library
Article : Burgher People (Ceylon), from Wikipedia
Articles : Caste System (Sri Lanka), Sri Lankan Mudaliyars, from Wikipedia
Slavery Slavery and the slave trade in British India; with notices of the existence of these evils in the islands of Ceylon, Malacca, and Penang, drawn from official documents 1841, IA
Slave trade (East India) Slavery in Ceylon: Copies or abstracts of all correspondence between the directors of the East India Company and the Company's government in India, since the lst day of June 1827, on the subject of slavery in the territories under the Company's rule ; Also communications relating to the subject of slavery in the island of Ceylon , 1836, GB
Labor Conditions Immigrant Plantation Labour in Ceylon, The Labour Monthly, Vol. 19, August 1937, No. 8, pp.503-506, posted by www.marxists.org
K.E. Helle, The Dirty Secret of Ceylon Tea (on conditions of plantation workers)
Education H. Sharp, Notes on vernacular education in Ceylon (1919), IA
Article : Education in Sri Lanka : History, from Wikipedia
Other from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World (Robert Winslow)
Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Sri Lanka
J. Capper, Old Ceylon, sketches of Ceylon life in the olden time (1877), IA
Ethnography Languages of Sri Lanka (8), from Ethnologue
Minorities at Risk, Sri Lanka : Indian Tamils, Sri Lankan Tamils
History, from Ceylon Tamils
International Centre for Ethnic Studies, Sri Lanka
Imtiaz Ahmed, Communal Conflict in Modern Sri Lanka : Search for a Resolution, from IJP
Chronological Events in the History of Sri Lankan Malays, by Tony P. Miskin
South Asia, from World Cultures Encyclopedia
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Sri Lanka
Religion Buddhism History of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, from Sinhalanet
Repression of Buddhism in Sri Lanka by Portuguese, from Christian Aggression
Buddhism and Caste in India and Sri Lanka, by Jeffrey Samuels
J.E. Tennent, Christianity in Ceylon: its introduction and progress under the Portuguese, British and American Missions, with a historical sketch of the Brahmanical and Buddhist superstitions 1850, IA
D.J. Gogerly, Ceylon Buddhism 1908, IA [author died in 1862]
R.S. Hardy, The British government and the idolatry of Ceylon 1841, IA
Hinduism J.E. Tennent, Christianity in Ceylon: its introduction and progress under the Portuguese, British and American Missions, with a historical sketch of the Brahmanical and Buddhist superstitions 1850, IA
Article : Hinduism in Sri Lanka : Historic Roots, from Wikipedia
R.S. Hardy, The British government and the idolatry of Ceylon 1841, IA
Islam A Brief History of the Muslims of Sri Lanka, from Sri Lanka Genealogy Website
Between Hammer and Anvil : Sri Lanka's Muslims, from CPA Media
Christianity Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Sri Lanka, from Kirken i Norge
History of Methodism in Sri Lanka, from GBGM-UMC
The Church of Ceylon, from Anglican Communion
Ceylon, from Roman Catholic Hierarchy
Patron Saint Index : Ceylon
S. Tuttle, Letters and conversations on the Ceylon mission, 1830, GB
J.E. Tennent, Christianity in Ceylon: its introduction and progress under the Portuguese, British and American Missions, with a historical sketch of the Brahmanical and Buddhist superstitions 1850, IA
Judaism Article : History of the Jews in Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
F.K. Campbell, A Historical Appraisal of Jewish Presence in Sri Lanka, Draft 2007
History of Regions Provinces of Sri Lanka, Divisions of Nepal, from www.statoids.com
Article Provinces of Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
Local History History of Colombo, from Wikipedia
History of Trincomalee, from Wikipedia
History of Batticaloa, from Wikipedia
History of Galle, from Wikipedia
History of Jaffna, from Wikipedia
Institutions History, from Sri Lanka's Broadcasting Corporation; History, of Sri Lanka Telecom; of Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation
History, from Sri Lankan Airlines; Ceylon, Sri Lanka, from Airline History
Brief History of Sri Lanka Railways; The Railways of S.L., from Info Lanka
Article Education in Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia; History of University of Moratuwa, of University of Colombo, of Ceylon Technical College, of Trinity College, Kandy
History of Sri Lanka Post
History of Colombo Observatory, from Institute of Commonwealth Studies
History, of Department of Archaeology, Sri Lanka
Newspapers in Ceylon, from Sri Lanka Genealogy Website
Structurae : Sri Lanka; Search Lighthouse Depot for Sri Lanka
Culture Sri Lanka, from UK Food Online, history of Sri Lankan cuisine
Articles History of Cricket in Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka at the Olympics, Sport in Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
Biographies Category : Sri Lankan People, from Wikipedia
Others Landmarks in the history of soil science in Sri Lanka, by R.B. Mapa
Disaster History by Country : Sri Lanka, from Relief Web; Category Disasters in Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF
Sanderson Beck, Tibet, Nepal and Ceylon 1800-1950
H. Cave, The ruined cities of Ceylon (1904), posted on Internet Archive

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
List of Prime Ministers of Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
Lists of Consuls U.S. consular officials in Sri Lanka, from Political Graveyard
The Colonial Office List : Foreign consulates in British Colonies, 1867 ed. pp.121-130, GB
Colombo & Ceylon, p.132 in Sveriges och Norges Stats-kalendar 1870 ed., GB
Konsular-Agentie in Colombo p.102 in vol.1851 issue 4 of Verordnungsblatt für die Verwaltungszweige des Österreichischen Handelsministeriums, in German, GB
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Sri Lanka, from Population Statistics
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers]
Newspaper Article Index, from National Library and Documentation Centre, Sri Lanka
Life Magazine, 1936-1972, Search for "Ceylon", search all issues; 292 Ceylon articles, GB
Newsreels British Pathe
Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Sri Lanka, from Images of Asia
Documents for the history of Sri Lanka, from Colombo Postcards (before 1947), Sri Lanka Postcards, from Harappa
License Plates of Sri Lanka, from License Plates of the World, from Sri Lanka
Ceylon : Colombo, from Tram Views of Asia
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
Search Delcampe Picture Postcards for Ceylon
Images of Ceylon
Airline Timetable Images : Sri Lanka
Medals of Sri Lanka, from OMSA
P & O Navigation Timetables; lines destined to Bengal and further east stopped at Colombo
Plate's Ceylon, from Early Postcards of India and Ceylon
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK) for Ceylon, Sri Lanka
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre for Ceylon, Sri Lanka
Search Janus (catalogues of archives and manuscript collections held throughout Cambridge) for Ceylon, Sri Lanka
Methodist Missionary Society Archives 1791-1948, from IDC Publishers, have files on Ceylon
National Archives (UK) : Slave Registers : Sri Lanka
Constitutions, Laws Sri Lanka Legislation
Court of Appeal of Sri Lanka
Supreme Court of Sri Lanka
Internet Law Library : Sri Lanka
Ceylon Constitution 1945, IA
A.W.D. Tocke, Analytical Index to the Ordinances of Ceylon Printed in the Edition of 1900, 1904, IA
Treaties
Document Collections An Ordinnance for the Total Abolition of Slavery in Ceylon, 1844
Historical Maps WHKMLA Historical Atlas
Atlas of Sri Lanka, from Wikimedia Commons
Schwartzberg, Historical Atlas of South Asia, posted by DSAL
Maldives & Sri Lanka, from Asian Linguistic Maps
Maps Bellin Ceylon 1750, Jaffenapatam 1761, Point de Galle 1751, posted by FWP
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article : Ceylon, pp.309-311 in vol.4 of Encyclopaedia Britannica , 1797, GB
Article : Ceylon, pp.360-365 in vol.5 of the 4th ed. of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1810, GB
Article : Ceylon, pp.676-680 in vol.2 of supplement to the 4th-6th editions of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1824, GB
Article : Ceylon, pp.359-370 in vol.5 of Encyclopaedia Britannica , 1833, GB
Articles Ceylon, Dschaffna, Kandi, Trinkonomali, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Articles Ceylon; Colombo, Kandy, Jaffna, Kurunegala, Trincomalee, Batticaloa, Galle, from EB 1911
Religious from Catholic Encyclopedia (1908, Ceylon); Article Colombo, from Catholic Encyclopedia
Ostindien, pp.677-696 in vol.2 of C.Fr. Staeudlin, Kirchliche Geographie u. Statistik, 1804, in German, GB
Economic Ceylon, pp.338-362 in vol.1 of W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, GB
Of the Agriculture in Ceylon, pp.151-152 in J.Cl. Loudon, An Encyclopaedia of Agriculture, vol.1, 1825, GB
Ceylon, pp.182-209 in W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, or, The East India Trader's Complete Guide, 1825, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Ceylon oder Ceylan, Colombo, posted by DTBSWS
E.G. Balfour, The Cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Ceylon
Geographical Articles Calpentyn, Adamsbjerget, Ceylon, Arippo, Colombo, Jaffnapatam, Trinkonomale, Galle, Point de, Negombo, from Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, in Danish
G.Th. Landmann, A universal gazetteer; or, Geographical dictionary of the world (1835), posted on Internet Archive; search for Ceylon
Ceylon pp.247-248 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Ceylon, p.379 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Historical Ceylon pp.383-384, in vol.2 of S. Maunder, The history of the world: comprising a general history, 1856, GB
Other Article : Ceylon, from Röll, Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens (Encyclopedia of Railroads) 2nd ed. 1912-1923, in German
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Exhibition Catalogues Ceylon Commission, Official handbook & catalogue of the Ceylon courts 1893, IA
Tour Guides J. Murray, A handbook for travellers in India, Burma, and Ceylon 1898 edition, 1901 edition, 1911 edition, IA
J. Murray, The Imperial Guide to India, Including Kashmir, Burma and Ceylon 1904, IA
J.C. Willis, Ceylon, a handbook for the resident and the traveller (1907), IA
T. Cook, India, Burma, and Ceylon. Information for travellers and residents, 1909 edition, 1912 edition, IA
G.J.A. Skeen, A guide to Colombo 1906, IA
Travelogues J. Daly, An account of the interior of Ceylon, and of its inhabitants , 1821, GB
J. Haafner, Travels on foot through the island of Ceylon, 1821, GB
E.A.P.H. Haeckel, A Visit to Ceylon 1883, IA
Personal Diary of Anagarika Dhammapala (1896-1897, Buddhist missionary who travelled from Ceylon to U.S.), posted on Anagarika Dhammapala Web Site
Residence Memoirs H.L. Winslow, Memoirs 1840, IA [author died 1833]
M. Leitch, Seven years in Ceylon : stories of mission life 1890, IA
Th. Skinner, Fifty years in Ceylon. An autobiography (1891), IA
C.F.G. Cumming, Two Happy Years in Ceylon vol.1 1892, vol.2 1893, IA
W.H. Gregory, Sir William Gregory, K. C. M. G., formerly member of Parliament and sometime governor of Ceylon. An autobiography, 1894, IA
S.W. Baker, Eight years in Ceylon (1902), IA
J.N. Brink, Recollections of a Boer prisoner-of-war at Ceylon 1904, IA
M.E. Steuart, Every day life on a Ceylon cocoa estate 1905, IA
J. Hagenbeck, Fünfundzwanzig Jahre Ceylon; Erlebnisse und Abenteuer im Tropenparadies, 1922, in German, GB
Institutions Archives National Archives of Sri Lanka, from TANAP
Huntington Archive of Buddhist and Buddhist-related Art, Sri Lanka
Musea Articles : Colombo Port Maritime Museum, National Museum of Colombo, from Wikipedia
Monuments Tentative List : Sri Lanka, World Heritage List, scroll down for Sri Lanka, from UNESCO World Heritage
Sri Lanka, from Showcaves
Libraries National Library and Documentation Centre, Sri Lanka
Libraries in Sri Lanka, from LibDex
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Ceylon, from World Currency Museum; of Ceylon / Shri Lanka, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money; from Oriental Coins Database
Coins, from Oriental Coins Database
Search Coin Archives for Ceylon
Stamps Rare Ceylon Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Ceylon 1857-1902, 1902-1920, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Ceylon / Sri Lanka Sri Lanka, from Terrorism and Political Violence : An International Bibliography
Sri Lanka, from The Online Books Page
Search Asian Development Bank (ADB) Publications for Sri Lanka
Food and Culture (Bibliography) : South Asia
D. Ludden, Bibliography on South Asian Agrarian History (c.1990)
Bibliography on Topics Relevant to Indic Civilization, from Indic Studies
Labor in South Asia, a Bibliography, from UC Berkeley Library
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Gallica
on Sri Lanka National Library and Documentation Centre, Sri Lanka
Tamil Electronic Library
Search DBNG for Ceylon, Sri Lanka etc.
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre for Sri Lanka
Theses Server Index to Post Graduate Theses, from National Library and Documentation Centre, Sri Lanka
Online Journals South Asia Journals, from ELIN-NIAS; Sri Lanka Journals, from ELIN-NIAS
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
Historiography Article : Sinhalese Historiography, by M.R. Fernando, pp.836-837, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.28, pp.167-180 Article Sri Lanka. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.28
Patrick Peebles, The History of Sri Lanka, Westport CT : Greenwood 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 954.93 P373h
Specific Topics G.C. Mendis, Ceylon under the British, New Delhi : (1952) Asian Educational Services 2005 [G]
P. Ramanathan, Riots and Martial Law in Ceylon, 1915, New Delhi : (1916) Asian Educational Services 2003 [G]
Valli Kanapathipillai, The Repatriation of Indian Tamil Plantation Workers from Sri Lanka to India, pp.326-330 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
The Far Frontiers pp.507-523, in : John Gunther, Inside Asia, 1942 War Edition, NY : Harper & Brothers (1938) 1942 [G]
Chr.V. Hill, South Asia : an Environmental History, Santa Barbara : ABC Clio 2008, 329 pp., KMLA Lib. Call Sign 304.2 H645s
Historical Dictionaries S.W.R. de A. Samarasinghe, Historical Dictionary of Sri Lanka, Rowman & Littlefield 1997
Historical Atlasses Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of Southeast Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Article : Sri Lanka, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 pp.197-198, 2nd ed. 1978 pp.197-198, 4th ed. 1984 pp.197-198 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Ceylon, 1913 pp.623-625, 1944 p.168, 1945 pp.169-170, 1946 p.191, 1947 pp.190-191, 1948 pp.179-180 [G]
Statesman's Year-Book Ceylon, 1895 pp.103-109, 1898 pp.103-109, 1901 pp.112-118, 1905 pp.116-122, 1910 pp.103-108, 1918 pp.99-104, 1919 pp.104-109, 1924 pp.107-112, 1925 pp.108-114, 1926 pp.98-103, 1928 pp.99-105, 1929 pp.99-104, 1932 pp.100-105, 1937 pp.106-112, 1943 pp.93-98 [G]
(New) Int'l Yearbook Ceylon, 1898 pp.172-173, 1899 pp.172-173, 1900 pp.184-185, 1907 pp.149-150, 1908 pp.136-137, 1909 pp.144-145, 1913 p.145, 1914 pp.145-146, 1916 p.125, 1918 p.118, 1919 pp.137-138, 1920 pp.124-125, 1921 pp.126-127, 1923 p.127, 1925 pp.131-132, 1928 p.144, 1930 p.145, 1932 p.149, 1933 pp.136-137, 1934 pp.122-123, 1935 pp.126-127, 1938 pp.130-131, 1939 pp.120-121, Events of 1940 pp.115-116, 1941 p.104, 1942 pp.119-120, 1943 p.106, 1944 p.112
Americana Annual Ceylon, 1927 p.159, 1928 pp.142-143, 1930 pp.156-157, 1931 pp.180-181, 1932 pp.147-148, 1933 pp.143-144, 1934 p.137, 1935 p.135, 1936 pp.126-128, 1937 pp.114-115, 1938 p.114, 1939 pp.122-123, 1940 pp.117-118, 1943 pp.138-139, 1944 p.134, 1945 p.146, 1946 pp.151-152, 1947 pp.127-128 [G]
Other Article : Ceylon, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia 1932 p.115, 1933 p.154, 1934 p.130, 1935 pp.120-121, 1936 p.106, 1937 p.105, 1938 p.107, 1942 p.91, 1943 pp.98-99, 1944 p.70, 1946 p.94 [G]