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First posted on December 11th 2011

Ceylon British Crown Colony, 1796-1948 . Ceylon/Sri Lanka independent, 1948-

At the time of the arrival of Vasco da Gama in Calicut (Kozhikode) 1498, the island of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) was divided into several polities : the Kingdom of Jaffna, the Kingdom of Kotte, the Kingdom of Kandy being the largest ones. The Portuguese established their control over Colombo (in the territory of Kotte, the latter kingdom being annexed by the Portuguese in 1597) and established a protectorate over the Kingdom of Jaffna until the Portuguese also annexed this kingdom in 1619.
In 1656-1660 the V.O.C. ousted the Portuguese from Ceylon and took over their territory around Colombo and Jaffna. The Kingdom of Kandy was the only native polity to last throughout the era of Portuguese and Dutch colonialism.
In 1796 the British occupied Dutch Ceylon, and the Batavian Republic ceded Ceylon to Britain in 1802.

Click here for the History of the Kingdom of Kandy (Udarata)

Historical Atlas, South Asia Page

Students' Paper : Son, Bo Kyung, The History of Persecution of the Buddhist Faith (2011)
Students' Paper : Lee, Seung Heon, History of Transportation in South Asia (2009)

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Country Profiles Current Articles : Dutch Period in Ceylon, from Wikipedia; Ceylon (VOC-Gebied), from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Gewesten : Ceylon, from V.O.C. Kenniscentrum, in Dutch
Article : V.O.C. op Ceylon, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Ceylon, from De V.O.C. site, in Dutch
Albert van den Belt, Het VOC-bedrijf op Ceylon : een voorname vestiging van de Oost-Indische Compagnie in de 18de eeuw, diss. Leiden 2008
Historic W. Hunter, Description du Pégu et de l'isle de Ceylan 1793, in French, GB
R. Percival, An account of the island of Ceylon, 1803, GB
Links on History from Lanka Library; from Lakdiva; from UC Berkeley Library;
Historical Dictionary Category : History of Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia; Categorie : Geschiedenis van Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia Dutch edition; History of Sri Lanka, from Post-Colonial Web
S.C. Chitty, The Ceylon gazetteer: containing an account of the districts &c. of Ceylon (1834), posted on Internet Archive
Organizations Wolvendaal Foundation
International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka (1845), posted on Scholarly Societies
Department of Archaeology, Sri Lanka
Department of National Museums, Sri Lanka
Timelines from timelines.ws, a website exploiting US newspaper articles, very detailed on the 20th century; from BBC News; from Tikalanka
Accounts of History Current History of Ceylon / Sri Lanka, from www79.pair.com, 9 chapters; from Lonely Planet; from Sri Lanka Web Window
The True History of Sri Lanka, anonymous, detailed, list of kings
History of Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
De Fonseka Family Website, on the history of Ceylon / Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, the Untold Story, by K.T. Rajasingham, posted by ATimes, at least 35 chapters
History : The Dutch Period in Ceylon, 1602-1796, from Wolvendaal Foundation
Historical J.R. Menezes, Rebelion de Ceylan, y los Progessos de su Conquista en el Gobierno de Constantino de Saa y Norona, 1681, in Spanish, GB
R. Knox, An historical relation of the island Ceylon, in the East-Indies , 1681, GB
J. Ribeiro, History of Ceylon: presented ... to the king of Portugal, in 1685 1847, GB; French trsl. 1701, GB
R. Fellowes, The history of Ceylon: from the earliest period to the year MDCCCXV , 1817, GB
Humphry William Codrington, A Short History of Lanka (1926), posted by Rhajiv Ratnatunga (covers period until 1833)
G. Turnour, An Epitome of the History of Ceylon: compiled from native annals and the first twenty chapters of the Mahawanso, 1836, GB
Ceylon, pp.1-122 in R. Montgomery Martin, History of the British possessions in the Indian & Atlantic Oceans, 1837, GB
W. Knighton, The history of Ceylon from the earliest period to the present time 1845, GB
C. Pridham, An historical political and statistical account of Ceylon and its dependencies 1849, GB
H.Ch. Sirr, Ceylon and the Cingalese: Their History, Government, and Religion .. (1850), IA
D. Obeyesekere, Outlines of Ceylon history (1911), IA
K.M. de Silva, A history of Sri Lanka, 1981, GB
Dutch Period Article : Dutch Period in Ceylon, 1656-1796, from Wikipedia
Dutch Portuguese Colonial History, by Marco Ramerini, scroll down for Ceylon
P.E. Pieris, Ceylon and the Hollanders 1658-1796, New Delhi : (1918) Asian Educational Services 1999 [G]; online at Internet Archive
R.G. Anthonisz, The Dutch in Ceylon, 1929, vol.1; also from GB
Specific Periods Schrikker, Alicia Frederika, Dutch and British colonial intervention in Sri Lanka c. 1780 - 1815 : Expansion and reform., diss. Leiden 2006
Willem van Geer, De opkomst van het Nederlandsch gezag over Ceilon pt.1, diss. Leiden 1895, in Dutch, posted on Internet Archive
Dutch colonial attitude on Ceylon in the late eighteenth century : the memoranda of Thomas Nagel and Jacob Burnand, TANAP Workshop 2003, anonymous draft
S. Asaratnam, Baron van Imhoff and Dutch policy in Ceylon 1736-1740 , Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 118 (1962), no: 4, pp.454-468
Military Under the Tropical Sun. Lachlan Macquarie & the 73rd Regiment in Sri Lanka 1796-1821, posted by Macqurie Univ. Library
War against the Dutch in Ceylon, from Fibis
The Swiss de Meuron Regiment, CCV Northwest Company
A. van der Kraan, A Baptism of Fire: The van Goens Mission to Ceylon and India, 1653-54 , pp.1-53 in Journal of the UNE Asia Centre, 1999
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Sri Lanka
Cinnamon, from UCLA Biomedical Library
C. van Bochove, Prices in Sri Lanka and Southern India during the pre-industrial period , IISG
A. van Loon, Peper geven en gember krijgen. De diplomatie van de VOC op Ceylon, thesis Univ. Utrecht 2010 [covers 1602-1658]
Article : Cinnamon : History, from Wikipedia
W.M.A. Karunaratne, Culture and Mining - Metallurgical History of Sri Lanka 2005
Sri Lankan handcrafts, from Lanka.Com
Social History Classes, Castes The Dutch in Ceylon : the Burghers of Ceylon, from Colonial Voyage (Marco Ramerini); also from Lanka Library
Article : Burgher People (Ceylon), from Wikipedia
Articles : Caste System (Sri Lanka), Sri Lankan Mudaliyars, from Wikipedia
Peasantry Dewasiri, Nirmal Ranjith, Peasant in transition : agrarian society in Western Sri Lanka under Dutch rule, 1740-1800, diss. Leiden 2007
Laborers P. de Swart, Labour Relations in Ceylon in the Late Seventeenth Century, IISG
P. de Swart, Population, labour and living standards in Ceylon, 1680-1790 : An empirical contribution to the Divergence debate., draft
Slavery M. Vink, "The World's Oldest Trade" : Dutch Slavery and Slave Trade in the Indian Ocean in the Seventeenth Century
De VOC Site : Slavernij en slavenhandel bij de VOC, scroll down for Galle
Other Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Sri Lanka
C. de F.W. Goonaratna, Some Historical Aspects of Leprosy in Ceylon during the Dutch Period, 1656-1796
Ethnography Languages of Sri Lanka (8), from Ethnologue
History, from Ceylon Tamils
International Centre for Ethnic Studies, Sri Lanka
Chronological Events in the History of Sri Lankan Malays, by Tony P. Miskin
South Asia, from World Cultures Encyclopedia
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Sri Lanka
Article : Ceylon Dutch Creole, from Wikipedia
Dravidian Studies in the Netherlands Part 1 (1605-1690s) : Pioneers of Orientalism at the VOC, IISG
Religion Buddhism History of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, from Sinhalanet
Buddhism and Caste in India and Sri Lanka, by Jeffrey Samuels
Hinduism Article : Hinduism in Sri Lanka : Historic Roots, from Wikipedia
Islam Between Hammer and Anvil : Sri Lanka's Muslims, from CPA Media
A Brief History of the Muslims of Sri Lanka, from Sri Lanka Genealogy Website
Christianity Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Sri Lanka, from Kirken i Norge
History of Methodism in Sri Lanka, from GBGM-UMC
The Church of Ceylon, from Anglican Communion
Ceylon, from Roman Catholic Hierarchy
Patron Saint Index : Ceylon
Don Peter, Catholic Church in Sri Lanka : A History in Outline : The Dutch Period, 1658-1796
Judaism Article : History of the Jews in Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
F.K. Campbell, A Historical Appraisal of Jewish Presence in Sri Lanka, Draft 2007
History of Regions Provinces of Sri Lanka, Divisions of Sri Lanka, from www.statoids.com
Article Provinces of Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
Local History History of Colombo, from Wikipedia
History of Trincomalee, from Wikipedia
History of Batticaloa, from Wikipedia
History of Galle, from Wikipedia
History of Jaffna, from Wikipedia
Institutions Structurae : Sri Lanka; Search Lighthouse Depot for Sri Lanka
Culture Sri Lanka, from UK Food Online, history of Sri Lankan cuisine
R.K. da Silva, Early Painters of Ceylon, Art Sri Lanka
Biographies Category : Sri Lankan People, from Wikipedia
Others Disaster History by Country : Sri Lanka, from Relief Web; Category Disasters in Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lijst van gouverneurs van Nederlands-Ceylon, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Sri Lanka, from Population Statistics
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers]
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Sri Lanka, from Images of Asia
Images of Ceylon
Lankapura. Historical Images of Sri Lanka
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK) for Ceylon, Sri Lanka
Search ARCHIEVEN.NL for Ceilon, Ceylon, Sri Lanka
National Archives of Sri Lanka, Dutch Records Project
M.W. Jurriaanse, Catalogue of the Archives of the Dutch Central Government of Coastal Ceylon, 1640-1796 (1943), TANAP
TANAP, Reconstructie van het archief van de VOC-vestiging Ceylon
Nationaal Archief, Popgids (persoonsbestanden in archieven bij het NA), Titel: Generale monsterrollen van VOC-dienaren in Ceylon, 1694-1778, met rollen van de opvarenden van op Ceylon gestationeerde VOC-schepen,1707-1778. NB. Ook monsterrol Perzië (1710) en Coromandel (1712).
Treaties S. Arasaratnam, J.H.O. Paulusz on the 1638 Westerwolt Treaty in Ceylom : a Rejoinder, Bijdragen tot Taal- en Volkenkunde 138/2-3 (1982) pp.191-202, posted by KITLV
Document Collections R.G. Anthonisz., Report on the Dutch Records in the Government Archives at Colombo: With Appendices (1907), posted on Internet Archive
L.J. Penny, List of inscriptions on tombstones and monuments in Ceylon, of historical or local interest, with an obituary of persons uncommemorated, 1913, IA
Instructions from the Governor-general and Council of India to the Governor of Ceylon, 1656-1665, 1908, IA
Historical Maps WHKMLA Historical Atlas
Atlas of Sri Lanka, from Wikimedia Commons
Schwartzberg, Historical Atlas of South Asia, posted by DSAL
Talessman's Atlas, series of maps of the Eastern Hemisphere 1300 BC - 1500 AD
Search Atlas of Mutual Heritage for Ceylon, Arippi, Avissawella, Batticaloa, Chilaw, Colombo, Delft Island, Elephant Pass, Fort Frederick, Fort Hammenhiel, Hultsdorf, Kalpitya, Kalutara, Kandy, Manmar, Nielwelle, Panama, Fort Starfort
Maldives & Sri Lanka, from Asian Linguistic Maps
Maps Bellin Ceylon 1750, Jaffenapatam 1761, Point de Galle 1751, posted by FWP
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article : Ceylon, pp.309-311 in vol.4 of Encyclopaedia Britannica , 1797, GB
Article : Ceylon, pp.360-365 in vol.5 of the 4th ed. of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1810, GB
Religious from Catholic Encyclopedia (1908, Ceylon); Article Colombo, from Catholic Encyclopedia
Ostindien, pp.677-696 in vol.2 of C.Fr. Staeudlin, Kirchliche Geographie u. Statistik, 1804, in German, GB
Economic Ceylon, pp.338-362 in vol.1 of W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 1813, GB
Geographical Article : Ceilan, pp.422-432 in vol.2 of A.A. Bruzen de la Martiniere, Le grand dictionnaire géographique et critique, 1730, in French, GB
The Maldives and Ceylon, pp.299-301 in P. Gordon, Geography anatomiz'd, or, The geographical grammar, 1735, GB
L'Isle de Ceylan, pp.321-337 in vol.10 of J.J. Vaissete, Geographie historique, ecclesiastique et civile 1755, in French, GB
Of Ceylon, pp.200-212 in vol.1 of J. Payne, Universal geography formed into a new and entire system 1794, GB
Historical Of the Island of Ceylone, pp.287-304 in vol.1 of T. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations 1744, GB
Island of Ceylon, pp.116-117 in vol.37 of G. Sale, An universal history, 1783, GB
Ceylon pp.383-384, in vol.2 of S. Maunder, The history of the world: comprising a general history, 1856, GB
Tour Guides, Travelogues Ph. Baldaeus, Wahrhaftige ausführliche beschreibung der berühmten ostindischen kusten Malabar und Coromandel, als auch der insel Zeylon: samt dero angräntzenden und untergehörigen reichen, fürstentühmen, ländern, städten ... so wol auch der merkwürdigsten kriegshändel, belägerungen, feld- und seeschlachten, sonderlich zwischen den Portugesen und Holländern, handel-und kaufmannschaften: durchgehends verzieret mit neuen landkahrten und abbildungen der vornehmsten städte, festungen, trachten, thiere, früchte, &c. so in India selbst nach dem leben gezeichnet, und folgends mit fleiss zu kupfer gebracht: benebst einer umständlichen und gründlichen entdeckung der abgötterey der ost-indischen heyden, Malabaren, Benjanen, Gentiven, Bramines &c. .. (1672) in German, IA
Residence Memoirs Memoir of Hendrick Zwaardecroon, Commandeur of Jaffnapatam (afterwards Governor-General of Nederlands India) 1697. For the guidance of the council ot [sic] Jaffnapatam, during his absence at the coast of Malabar (1911), posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Archives National Archives of Sri Lanka, from TANAP
Musea Articles : Colombo Dutch Museum, Colombo Port Maritime Museum, National Museum of Colombo, from Wikipedia
Monuments Tentative List : Sri Lanka, World Heritage List, scroll down for Sri Lanka, from UNESCO World Heritage
Sri Lanka, from Showcaves
Libraries National Library and Documentation Centre, Sri Lanka
Libraries in Sri Lanka, from LibDex
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Coat of Arms Ceylon Dutch Colony, from Wikipedia
Coins Coins, from The coins and history of Asia (until 1600); from Lakdiva Coins Collection, from Oriental Coins Database
Search Coin Archives for Ceylon, Sri Lanka
Dutch Coins, from CeylonWeb
Dutch Coins, from Ceylon Coins and Currency Database

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Ceylon / Sri Lanka Food and Culture (Bibliography) : South Asia
D. Ludden, Bibliography on South Asian Agrarian History (c.1990)
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
on Sri Lanka National Library and Documentation Centre, Sri Lanka
Tamil Electronic Library
Search DBNG for Ceylon, Sri Lanka etc.
Search Leiden University Repository (NL, Open Access) for Sri Lanka
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre for Sri Lanka
Theses Server Index to Post Graduate Theses, from National Library and Documentation Centre, Sri Lanka
Search Narcis (server for theses from the Netherlands) for Ceylon, Sri Lanka
Online Journals South Asia Journals, from ELIN-NIAS; Sri Lanka Journals, from ELIN-NIAS
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
Historiography Article : Sinhalese Historiography, by M.R. Fernando, pp.836-837, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.28, pp.167-180 Article Sri Lanka. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.28
Patrick Peebles, The History of Sri Lanka, Westport CT : Greenwood 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 954.93 P373h
Specific Topics G.C. Mendis, Ceylon under the British, New Delhi : (1952) Asian Educational Services 2005 [G]
Donald Ferguson, The Earliest Dutch Visits to Ceylon, New Delhi : (1930) Asian Educational Services 1998 [G]
P.E. Pieris, Ceylon and the Hollanders 1658-1796, New Delhi : (1918) Asian Educational Services 1999 [G]; online at Internet Archive
Chr.V. Hill, South Asia : an Environmental History, Santa Barbara : ABC Clio 2008, 329 pp., KMLA Lib. Call Sign 304.2 H645s
Historical Dictionaries S.W.R. de A. Samarasinghe, Historical Dictionary of Sri Lanka, Rowman & Littlefield 1997
Historical Atlasses Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of Southeast Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]

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