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Mughal Empire Malabar
First posted on December 16th 2011

In the 14th century the Muslim Bahmani Sultanate and the smaller Sultanate of Khandesh ruled much of the northern Deccan, while the southern part was controlled by the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire. The Bahmani Sultanate disintegrated in the late 15th century, breaking up into the Sultanates of Ahmadnagar, Berar, Bidar, Bijapur (the Adil Shahi Dynasty) and Golconda (the Qutb Shahi Dynasty).
In 1510 the Portuguese conquered Goa from Bijapur. In the late 16th century, Berar was absorbed by Ahmadnagar. In 1601 Khandesh was absorbed by the Mughal Empire. By 1619 Vijayanagara had lost much territory to Golconda and Bijapur; Bidar was absorbed by Bijapur. Ahmadnagar was absorbed by the Mughal Empire in 1636. In 1646, Vijayanagara disintegrated; it was succeeded by the Sultanate of Mysore and the Nayakdoms of Tanjore and Madurai.
The military campaigns of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb into southern India failed to establish lasting Mughal rule, but succeeded in terminating the Sultanates of Bijapur (1686) and Golconda (1687).

English, by place


Khandesh Sultanate
Bahmani Sultanate, Gulbarga
Sultanate of Ahmadnagar
Sultanate of Berar
Sultanate of Bidar
Sultanate of Bijapur
Sultanate of Golkonda
Spelling Variety

Dakhan, Dakan

Khan Desh

English, by Dynasty

Faruqi Dynasty

Nizam Shahi Dynasty
Imad Shahi Dynasty

Adil Shahi Dynasty
Qutb Shahi Dynasty

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Country Profiles Current Article : Deccan Sultanates, from Wikipedia
Medieval Kingdoms of Deccan, from IndiaNetZone
Organizations Database of Organizations Libraries and Archives in South Asia Wiki
on Asia or India Asiatic Society Mumbai; Asiatic Society Kolkata; Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland
Archaeological Survey of India
Numismatic Society of India; Oriental Numismatic Society
International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
on the Deccan Centre for Deccan Studies, Hyderabad
Libraries and Archives in South Asia Wiki : Karnataka Historical Research Society (Dharwad, India), Asiatic Society of Bombay, Andhra Historical Research Society (Rajahmundry, India)
Historical Dictionaries Digital South Asia Library : Imperial Gazetteer of India 1909-1931
Maharashtra State Gazetteers Department, Reprint of Old Gazetteers, Gazetteers of Bombay Presidency
Accounts of History Current Article : Deccan Sultanates, from Wikipedia
Medieval Kingdoms of Deccan, from IndiaNetZone
Historical G.P. Maffei, Le istorie dell' Indie Orientali, edition of 1589, edition of 1749, in Italian, GB; numerous Calecutr references
Firishta (1560-1620), History of the rise of the Mahomedan power in India, till the year A.D. 1612 vol.1 1829, GB, vol.2 1829, GB, vol.3 1829, GB
History of Dekkan from the first Mahummedan conquests: with continuation 1794, GB
W.W. Loch, Dakhan History, Musulman and Maratha, 1300-1818, Part 1 1877, Part 2 1875, in Gazetteer of Bombay Presidency, vol.1 Part 2, n.d.
J.D.B. Gribble, A History of the Deccan 1896, IA
Specific Periods Ram Chandra Rao Punganuri, Memoirs of Hyder and Tippoo: rulers of Seringapatam, written in the Mahratta language, trsl. by C.P. Brown, 1849, GB
Military Wars R. Rikhye, The Wars & Campaigns of Ibrahim Adil Shahi II of Bijapur 1576-1626 2005
R. Rikhye, Wars & Campaigns of Krishnadevaraya, Emperor of Vijaynagar, 1509-1529 2005
R. Rikhye, The Wars and Campaigns of Chattrapati Shivaji 1657-1680 2006
Article : Portuguese Conquest of Goa (1510), from Wikipedia
Article : Maratha War of Independence (1681-1707), from Wikipedia
Voice of India, The 27 Year War, Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5, 2011, Part 6 2010, Part 7
Battles Article : Battle of Raichur 1520, from Wikipedia
Article : Battle of Talikota 1565, from Wikipedia
Fortresses Articles : Bijapur Fort, Purandar Fort, from Wikipedia
Military Architecture : Fortifications in Asia : Golkonda Fort
Maharashtra Tourism, Ahmadnagar Fort, Gavilgarh Fort, Murud-Janjira Fort, Kondana Sinhagarh Fort
Economy & Finances Article : Wootz Steel, from Wikipedia
S. Srinivasan and S. Ranganathan, Wootz Steel : An Advanced Material from the Ancient World
All about Gemstones : India's Diamonds of Golconda
Social History Article : Deccan Famine of 1630-1632, from Wikipedia
Ethnography Kannada LIS India : Kannada
History of India : Kannada
Article : Kannadiga : Early Settlements, from Wikipedia
Konkani Article : Konkani Language : Medieval Konkani, from Wikipedia
K. Kamat, The Origins of the Konkani Language
LIS India : Konkani; scroll down for history
History of India : Konkani
Article : Konkani People : Muslim Rule, from Wikipedia
Marathi Article : Marathi Language : History, from Wikipedia
LIS India : Marathi
History of India : Marathi
Article : Marathi People : History, from Wikipedia
Telugu LIS India : Telugu
History of India : Telugu
Article : Telugu People : History, from Wikipedia
other Article : Gurjar : Gujarat and Maharashtra, from Wikipedia
Religion General South Asian History : Adaptation and Compromise with Hindu and Jain Traditions in the Regional Sultanates
Discover Golden India : Medieval India : Bhakti and Sufi Movements
Hinduism Article : Persecution of Hindus : During Islamic Rule of the Indian Subcontinent, from Wikipedia
S. Nayyar, Basavanna & Vir Shaivism Lingayat Movement 2001
Civil Service India : Virasaiva or Lingayat Saivism
Jainism P.M. Joseph, History of Jainism in Andhra Pradesh Part 1, Part 2
Article : Jainism in Karnataka, from Wikipedia
N. Sridhar, History : Jainism in Karnataka
Jainism in Karnataka, from Classical Kannada
M. Sanglikar, History of Jainism in Maharashtra
Islam Kokani History (i.e. Konkani Muslims), from i-Kokani
Islam in Karnataka, from Classical Kannada
Sufis in Karnataka, from Classical Karnataka
V. Bolar, The Role of Islam in Karnataka, International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies Vol.3 No.2 2011
Article : Andhra Muslims : History, from Wikipedia
Ismaili Influence in Deccan, Shah Tahir Hussain Dakkani from ismaili.net (Sufi)
Article : Sufi Saints of Aurangabad
Sikhism Deccan Sikhs - 19th Century Peace Corps, from SikhNet
Regional History Modern States Andhra Pradesh History : Middle Ages, from AP Online
Article : History of Andhra Pradesh : Mughal Era, from Wikipedia
Karnataka Article : Political History of Medieval Karnataka, from Wikipedia
Maharashtra Maharashtra before King Shivaji, from India Divine
Historical States Bahmani Sultanate 1347-1527 Bahamani Sultanate of Deccan, from Indian History
H.A. Siddiqui, History of Bahmanis of Deccan, a Gulbarga Saltanate of India, from Indian Coins
Articles : Bahmani Sultanate (1347-1527), History of the Bahmani Sultanate, from Wikipedia
History of the Bahamani Kingdom 1347-1538, from Classical Kannada
M. Nimkar, History of India : Bahamani Kingdom
S.K. Jadhav, Contribution of Iranian Afaquis to the Bahmani Kingdom, Indian Streams Research Journal I/IX 2011
Ahmadnagar Sultanate 1490-1636 Article : Ahmednagar Sultanate (1490-1636), from Wikipedia
Nizamshahi Dynasty of Ahmadnagar, from IndiaNetZone
Gazetteers of Bombay Presidency, Ahmednagar District Gazetteer (1884), The Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar
A. Vardhan, Short Essay on the Administrative System of Nizam Shahi Sultans
Berar Sultanate 1490-1574 Article : Berar Sultanate (1490-1574), from Wikipedia
Bidar Sultanate 1527-1619 Article : Bidar Sultanate (1527-1619), from Wikipedia
Bidar, its History and Monuments 2005, IA
Bijapur Sultanate 1527-1686 Article : Adil Shahi Dynasty (Bijapur, 1527-1686)), from Wikipedia
Adilshahi Dynasty, from Classical Kannada
Adil Shahi Dynasty of Bijapur, from IndiaNetZone
J. Kamat, History of Bijapur : The Adil Shahi Kingdom
R. Rikhye, Shivaji and The Adil Shahi Dynasty of Bijapur 2005 <
Golkonda Sultanate 1518-1687 Article : Qutb Shahi Dynasty (Golkonda, 1518-1687), from Wikipedia
Qutb Shahis, from Andhra Pradesh Online
South Indian Inscriptions (vol.10) : Qutb Shahi Dynasty of Golkonda, from What is India
Khandesh 1388-1601 Articles : Khandesh : History, Faruqi Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Gazetteers of Bombay Presidency : Khandesh District Gazetteer (1880), Khandesh : History : Musalmans, 1295-1760
Predecessors Sultanate of Delhi
Reddy Dynasty 1325-1448 Article : Reddy Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Vijayanagar 1336-1646 Article : Vijayanagara Empire, from Wikipedia
Warangal 1082-1323 Article : Warangal, from Wikipedia
Article : Kakatiya Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Local History Article : History of Bangalore : Sultanate of Bijapur, from Wikipedia
Article : History of Hyderabad : The Qutb Shahis, from Wikipedia
Article : History of Pune, from Wikipedia
Article : History of Goa : Medieval Period, from Wikipedia
Article : History of Aurangabad, Maharashtra, from Wikipedia
Culture Ialamic Art of the Deccan, from Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
A. Vardhan, Short Essay on Adil Shahi Architecture
Architecture Qutb Shahi Style, from Andhra Pradesh Online
A. Vardhan, Short Essay on Qutb Shahi Architecture
Huqqa base, last quarter of 17th century, Bidar, from Metropolitan Museum of Art
M. Zebrowski, Deccani Painting, 1983, GB
S. Vepachedu, Telugu Literature and Culture of Qutub Shahi Dynasty (Golconda)

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen List of Adil Shahi Emperors (Bijapur), Ahmadnagar, Bahmani, Berar, Bidar, Faruqi Dynasty (Khandesh), Golkonda Sultans, from Wikipedia
I. Mladjov, Rulers of Muslim India, 1206-
Documents Image Databanks
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK); Janus
Constitutions, Laws
Document Collections Survey of Manuscripts in India, see Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra
Catalogues of Oriental Manuscripts, at this site
Individual Documents
Historical Maps Map Collections DSAL, Imperial Gazetteer of India, Atlas 1909, Atlas 1931
DSAL, J.E. Schwartzberg, A Historical Atlas of South Asia
Overview, modern Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 1100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1500 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Map : Deccan Sultanates 1490-1687, from Wikipedia
Map of the Deccan Sultanates 1520, from Historical Battles : Battle of Raichur, on Jambudveep's Blog
Map of India 1400 AD, on Madhu Nimkar's Blog on the History of India
Map of Deccan Sultanates, from India Map Store
Anandaroop Roy, The Deccan in the 17th Century, India late 16th Century, India 1400
Map : Languages of India, from Titus
Overview, contemporary
Detail, modern Kolhapur and the Deccan 1947 by J. de Salas Vara de Rey
Map : Bahmani Sultanate 1470, from Wikipedia
Map : Bijapur Sultanate 1620, from Wikipedia
Detail, contemporary
Encyclopedia Entries
Travelogues pre 15th century Athanasius Nikitin (1469/1472), from Hampi Online; Brief Extract from the Travels of Athanasius Nikitin, a Native of Twer 1857, IA
15th, 16th century
17th century
Institutions Archives Libraries & Archives in South Asia Wiki, search Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra Indices
Karnatakla State Archives Department
Musea Archaeological Survey of India, Archaeological Museum, Bijapur
Monuments Indian Architecture : Monuments in Bidar (KT), Bijapur (KT), Golkonda (AP), Gulbarga (KT)
Monuments of Ahmednagar, from IndiaNetZone
Islamic Architecture in India, click Ahmadabad, Bidar, Bijapur, Golconda, Gulbarga; site maintained in Japan
Libraries Libraries & Archives in South Asia Wiki, search Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra Indices
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes Anwar's Coin Collection : Ahmadnagar Sultanate, Bahmani of Deccan, Bidar Sultanate, Bijapur Sultanate, Golkunda Sultanate
Khandesh Sultanate
World Coin Catalog, Ahmadnagar, Bidar, Bijapur, Golconda, from Numismaticon
Bahmani Sultans, Adil Shahs of Bijapur, Barid Shahs of Bidar, Nizam Shahs of Ahmadnagar, Qutb Shahs of Golkonda, from Oriental Coins Database

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on the Deccan
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Center for Research Libraries (CRL)
on India Digital Library of India
Indcat, Online Union Catalogue of Indian Universities, from INFLIBNET, click Union Database
Digitial Library of Indian History Books, from Indic Studies
Online Journals Full Text Online
ToC Online Deccan Studies
General Accounts
Specific Topics
Historical Atlasses C. Collin Davies, An Historical Atlas of the Indian Peninsula, Oxford : UP, 2nd edition, 1959 [G]
Historical and Cultural Maps, National Atlas of India Vol.8, published by National Atlas & Thematic Mapping Organisation, Calcutta 1983, edited by G.K . Dutt, S.K. Biswas [G]
J.E. Schwartzberg, A Historical Atlas of South Asia, Chicago : UP 1978 [G]

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