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Mughal Empire
First posted on June 19th 2012








Between 1160 and 1187, Muhammad al-Ghuri conquered the Ghaznavid Empire; he continued to expand his territory, and in 1192 he razed the Buddhist temple complex at Nalanda to the ground, in effect terminating the history of Buddhism in India.
The Delhi Sultanate lasted from 1206 to 1526 and again from 1540 to 1555. Upon the death of Muhammad al-Ghuri, his governor of Delhi established the Mamluk Dynasty or Slave Dynasty (1206-1290; Mamluk Dynasty of Delhi, not to be confused with the Mamluk Dynasty of Cairo 1250-1517).
The Mamluk Dynasty of Delhi was succeeded by the Khilji Dynasty 1290-1320, the Tughluq Dynasty 1320-1414, the Sayyid Dynasty 1414-1451 and the Lodhi Dynasty 1451-1526 and 1540-1555.

Delhi was chosen as capital because of its strategic location, controlling the plain connecting the Jumna and Sutlej valleys (tributaries of the Ganges respectively Indus rivers). The core region of the Delhi Sultanate was the Upper Indus, Upper and Central Ganges Valley. It reached its largest extension under the early Tughluq Dunasty. The Bahmani Sultanate broke away in 1345, marking the beginning of the Deccan Sultanates.
In the 13th and early 14th century, the Delhi Sultanate was able to defend itself against Mongol attacks; only in 1398 did Delhi fall to the army of Tamerlane (who died in 1405). The Sultanate of Delhi recovered.
In 1526 Timurid Babur defeated the Lodhi Dynasty, took Delhi and established the Mughal Empire. The Lodhi had been defeated, but not eliminated; in 1540 Lodhi Sher Suri Shah expelled Mughal Emperor Humayun from Delhi; only in 1555 was the Lodhi Dynasty terminated by a returning Humayun.

Islam was official religion, Farsi (Persian) the language of the court. During the Delhi Sultanate, the language of Urdu (Hindi with Arab, Turkic, Persian loanwords, written in the Arabic alphabet) emerged. The Delhi Sultanate was dominated by Turks of Central Asian extraction.

Students' Paper : Son, Bo Kyung, The History of Persecution of the Buddhist Faith (2011)
Students' Paper : Lee, Dahyeon, National Historiography : Heroes and Villains in the History of India (2010)
Students' Paper : Yeon, Haram, The History of Textiles in South Asia (2009)
Students' Paper : Lee Yeonhwa, A Social History of Hindustan (2008)






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DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Article : Delhi Sultanate, from Wikipedia
Article : Delhi Sultanate, Encyclopaedia Iranica
Karnataka Education : History Textbook, Chapter 13 : Consolidation of the Sultanate
Historical Asian Perspective
European Perspective
Links
Organizations Database of Organizations Libraries and Archives in South Asia Wiki
on Asian History Asiatic Society Mumbai; Asiatic Society Kolkata; Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland
Archaeological Survey of India
National Fund for Cultural Heritage, Pakistan; National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research, Pakistan
Numismatic Society of India; Oriental Numismatic Society; Numismatic Society of Calcutta
International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
Historical Dictionaries Banglapedia
SikhiWiki
The Sikh Encyclopedia
Digital South Asia Library : Imperial Gazetteer of India 1909-1931
Portals
Timelines Clickable Timeline of Indian History, from kamat.com
Accounts of History General, Modern A.L. Srivastava, The Sultanate of Delhi 711-1526 A.D., 1959, IA
General, Historical Mughal Accounts Muammad Qasim Hindu Shah Astarabadi Firishtah, The history of Hindostan 1768 edition vol.1, GB, 1768 edition vol.2, GB; vol.1 1803, GB, vol.2 1792, GB
History of the rise of the Mahomedan power in India, till the year A.D. 1612 vol.1 1829, GB, vol.2 1829, GB, vol.3 1829, GB
Other Asian Accounts
European Accounts
Specific Periods Article : Mamluk Sultanate of Delhi, Wikipedia
Article : Khilji Dynasty, Wikipedia
Article : Tughlaq Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Article : Sayyid Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Article : Lodi Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Administration History Tuition : Administration of the Delhi Sultanate
Military Article : Mongol Invasions of India, from Wikipedia
N. Oliver, Tughlaqabad Fort, India
Trips Guru, Siri Fort, Delhi
Article : Tughlaqabad Fort, Wikipedia
Economy & Finances General India Net Zone, Economic Condition under Delhi Sultanate
Money & Finances
Trade
Crafts Indian Textiles : Trade and Production, from Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
Article : History of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent : Early Common Era-Early Modern Era, from Wikipedia
Article : History of Science and Technology in the Indian subcontinent : Late Middle Ages, from Wikipedia
Karnataka Education, History Textbook : Chapter 6 : History of Textile Industry in India
Agriculture B.D. Sharma, Origin and History of Potato in India, pp.149- in V.C. Sristava, History of agriculture in India, up to c. 1200 A.D., 2008, GB
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Social History Article Widow Burning, from Encyclopedia of Death and Dying
Education in Ancient and Medieval India
Indian Women down the Ages
India Net Zone : Society under the Delhi Sultanate
India Net Zone : History of Higher Education in India
Ethnography
Religion General
Islam Jaffur Shurreeff, Qanoon-e-Islam: or, The customs of the Moosulmans of India , 1832, GB
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R. Upadhyay, Sufism in India : Its origin, history and politics 2004
S.M. Ikram, Muslim Civilization in India, 1964
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Hinduism India Net Zone : Bhakti Movement
Article : Bhakti Movement, Wikipedia
Sikhism Article : History of Sikhism, from Wikipedia
Jainism
Zoroastrianism Fezana Religious Education, History of the Parsis in India
Judaism Virtual Jewish History Tour : India; Article : History of the Jews in India from Wikipedia
Regional History Andhra Pradesh Article : History of Andhra Pradesh : Kakatiyas, Wikipedia
Bengal Article : History of Bengal : Deva Kingdom, Ilyas Shahi Dynasty, from Wikipedia
J.N. Demeunier, Etat civil, politique et commerçant, du Bengale, vol.1, 1775, in French, GB
Bihar Article : History of Bihar : Medieval Period, from Wikipedia
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Deccan
Gujarat Articles History of Gujarat : Medieval Period, from Wikipedia
A.M. Khan, The political and statistical history of Gujarat 1835, GB
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Haryana Article : History of Haryana : Medieval Period, from Wikipedia
Himachal Pradesh Article : History of Himachal Pradesh : Medieval History, from Wikipedia
Multan
Punjab Articles History of the Punjab : The Delhi Sultanate, from Wikipedia
Rajasthan Article : History of Rajasthan : Medieval Period, from Wikipedia
Sindh Article : History of Sindh : Under the Umayyads, Abbasids and later Dynasties, from Wikipedia
Tamil Nadu Article : History of Tamil Nadu : Delhi Sultanate, Wikipedia
Article : Madurai Sultanate, Wikipedia
Uttar Pradesh Article : History of Uttar Pradesh : Delhi Sultanate, from Wikipedia
Local History Agra called Akbarabad in Mughal times
Article : Agra : History, from Wikipedia
F. Pritchett, Indian Routes : Agra Fort, the Early Mughal Capital
Delhi History of Delhi, from Welcome to Delhi
Dhaka (Bengal) Article : Dhaka, from Banglapedia
Kabul (Afghanistan) Article : Kabul : Timurid and Mughal Period, from Wikipedia
Lahore (Punjab) F. Pritchett, Indian Routes : Lahore Fort, 1500s and on
Patna (Bihar) Article : History of Patna : The Mughals, from Wikipedia
Article Patna City, from Imperial Gazetteer of India (1909), posted by DSAL
Sonargaon (Bengal) Article : Sonargaon, from Wikipedia
Article : Sonargaon, from Banglapedia
Surat major Mughal port until 1664
Article : Surat : History, from Wikipedia
Article : Surat District, from Imperial Gazetteer of India (1909), posted by DSAL
Institutions M.G. Singh, A Fist full of Memoirs : Grand trunk road, Kabul to Bengal, Mughals, Sher Shah Sur, Chandragupta Maurya
Cultural History Online Publications on the History of Indian Architecture, posted by ArchNet
Famous India, travel agency site offering historical information & images on Indian temples, cities, shrines etc.
Ministry of Culture, Government of India, Centre for Cultural Resources and Training, Indo-Islamic Architecture, Medieval Schools of Sculpture, Miniature Painting, Literary Arts, scroll down for Medieval Literature
Article : Delhi Sultanate Literature, Wikipedia
P. Sen, The Salient Features of Architecture under the Sultanate Period
Biographies N. Hanif, Biographical Encyclopedia of Sufis, 2000, GB
Others History of Indian Science and Technology, from Indian Science

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : India, by Ben Cahoon; from Rulers (B. Schemmel)
I. Mladjov, Rulers of Muslim India, 1206-
Documents News Pamphlets
Image Databanks Search Bridgeman Art, Culture & History Images
Archival Deposits
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties
Document Surveys Ch.11 : De Scriptoribus Rerum Orientalium atque Asiaticarum, Par.8 : Indicarum rerum scriptores, pp.248-250 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
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Document Collections Indian History Sourcebook
Documents for the history of India, from Project South Asia
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DSAL, J.E. Schwartzberg, A Historical Atlas of South Asia
Maps of India; Historical Maps of India, links from Rootsweb
Map : Indoaryan Language Groups (in South Asia), from Wikipedia
Map : Delhi Sultanate, Wikipedia; Map : Delhi Sultanate, Wikipedia
Map : Mamluk Sultanate of Delhi, 1206-1290, Wikipedia
Map : Khilji Dynasty 1290-1320, from Wikipedia
Map : Tughluq Dynasty 1320-1330, Wikipedia
Map : Tughlaq Dynasty 1320-1398, Wikipedia
Map : Sayyid Dynasty, World Navigator
Map : Lodhi Dynasty, Maps of India
T. Lessman's Atlas of World History : Eastern Hemisphere 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500
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Encyclopedia Entries
Secular
Religious
Economic
Political
Geographical
Historical
Travelogues
Institutions Archives National Archives of India, of Pakistan
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Musea National Museum, New Delhi
Lahore Museum
Monuments
Libraries
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins RBI Monetary Museum, Medieval Coinage of India
www.numis.in, Sultanate Coins
The Coins and History of Asia, 1600 and before, has several subfiles on India
Coins of Islamic Dynasties, from Nupam's Webpage for the Indian Coins
Coins with Couplets, Coins with Mint Epithets, Coins with Different Mints, Coins with Persian Months, Mughal Governor Issues, from P. Thakkar's Classic Gallery of Indian Numismatics
M.A. Khan, Gold and Silver Coins of Sultans of Delhi, 1974, IA
The Coins of the Sultans of Delhi in the British Museum, 1884, IA

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on South Asia General Bibliography of Pre-Modern History in South Asia, D. Ludden
Bibliography on Topics Relevant to Indic Civilization, from Indic Studies
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Gallica
Center for Research Libraries (CRL)
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Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
General Accounts on India B.D. Metcalf and T.R. Metcalf, A Concise History of India, Cambridge : UP 2002, 321 pp., KMLA Lib.Sign. 954 M588c
Vincent A. Smith, The Oxford History of India, (1919) Oxford : UP 2001, 945 pp., KMLA Lib.Sign. 954 S642b
Gordon Johnson, Cultural Atlas of India, NY : Facts on File 1996, 240 pp., illustrated, KMLA Lib.Sign. 954 J66c
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Francis Watson, India. A Concise History, London : Thames & Hudson (1974) 1996, 192 pp. [G]
on Delhi Sultanate
Specific Topics