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V.O.C.
First posted on December 29th 2004, last revised on November 22nd 2009






The V.O.C. established factories on a number of points on the Indian coast, and inland along the navigable rivers. The V.O.C. (established in 1602) for most of its history treated India as 4 distinct "gewesten" (regions), Malabar, Coromandel, Bengal and Surat. Until into the 1660es, the V.O.C. pursued an aggressive policy against Portuguese strongholds, failing in several attempts to take Goa. The marriage of English king Charles II. with Portuguese princess Catherine de Bragança in 1661 provided Portugal with an English alliance. The gewest of Surat did not revore from the sack of this important Mughal city by the Mahrattas in 1664. The decline of the V.O.C. began with the 'disaster year' 1672 (French invasion of the Netherlands); in Bengal, the V.O.C. remained the leading foreign trading company until into the 1730es, when it was overtaken by the E.I.C. In 1799 the V.O.C. assets were taken over by the Dutch state (then the Batavian Republic); after a period of British occupation they were returned to the Netherlands in 1814, but ceded by the latter to Britain (the E.I.C.) in 1825.
The V.O.C. acquired spices, textiles, diamonds, ivory from India. Its factories in India produced coin and gunpowder. For the V.O.C., entrepot trade was an important source of revenue.


Timeline : Dutch India

Historical Atlas, South Asia Page


Students' Paper : Yeon, Haram, The History of Textiles in South Asia (2009)






DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Historical Maps Atlas of Mutual Heritage, posted by Nationaalarchief
Leen Helmink, The Secret Atlas of the Dutch East India Company; scroll down for India, 3 maps
Kaarten : Voor-Indie, from V.O.C. Kenniscentrum
The Dutch Town Plan of Pondicherry, from Auroville Today
Calicut, from Historic Cities
Maps Bellin Bengal 1747, Hughly 1752, Pulicat 1751, Cochin 1755, Gulf of Bengal, Coromandel, posted by FWP
Historical Dictionaries V.O.C. Glossarium, from Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis
Encyclopedia Entries Coromandel, pp.81-82 in vol.2 of S. Ricard, Traite general du commerce, 1781, in French, GB
Military Wil O. Dijk, The V.O.C.s Gunpowder Factory ca 1620-1660, IIAS newsletter 26
Economy & Finances Spices The Economic History of Indonesia, from Economic History Encyclopedia
Producten, from V.O.C. Kenniscentrum
Belangrijke Handelsprodukten : Kaneel [cinnamon], Suiker [sugar], from V.O.C. Kenniscentrum, in Dutch
Economy & Finances Slave Trade Slavenhandel en Slavernij bij de V.O.C., from De V.O.C. site, in Dutch; Slavenhandel en Slavernij onder the V.O.C., from V.O.C. Kenniscentrum, in Dutch
The Dark Side of the V.O.C. Mentality (Slave Trade w. Arakan), from Univ. Leiden Research Archive
Stephan van Galen, The Changing Nature of the Seventeenth Century Slave Trade in Arakan and Eastern Bengal, Kaladan Press
Wim O. Dijk, An End to the History of Silence ? The Dutch Trade in Asian Slaves. Arakan and the Bay of Bengal, 1621-1665, IIAS Newsletter 2008
Dutch Slavery and Slave Trade in the Indian Ocean in the Seventeenth Century, by Markus Vink, from Journal of World History
Economy & Finances Textiles Om Prakash, India and the Indian Ocean in Textile Trade, GEHN 2005; Anthony Reid, Southeast Asian Consumption of Indian and British Cloth 1600-1850, GEHN 2005
Natalie Mault, From Patola to Paisley : How Colonization Led to Changes within Textile Designs, 2004 draft
Belangrijke Handelsprodukten : Zijde [silk], Effen en Gestreepde Kleeden [plain and striped cloth], Gedecoreerde Kleden [decorated cloth], from V.O.C. Kenniscentrum, in Dutch
Article : Chintz, from Wikipedia
Costume 18th Century : Coromandel Coast 1780s, Chintz c1715, by Meg Andrews; Chintz Fabric, from Den Haan & Wagenmakers
Religion
History of Regions Malabar India. Shores without end, from Tanap; scroll down for Malabar, Coromandel
The Dutch in Kerala (Malabar), from Colonial Voyage (Marco Ramerini)
S. Anjana, From Merchant-Warriors to Landlords : the Changing Appearances of the V.O.C. in Cochin 1663-1795, 2007
Gewesten : Malabar, from V.O.C. Kenniscentrum, in Dutch
Malabar, from De V.O.C. site, in Dutch
Lijst van commandeurs van Malabar, from Wikipedia Dutch Edition
Colonial Imprints in India : the Dutch, from IHR Blog
Article : Kozhicode : History [Calicut], History of Kochi [Cochin], Kollam : History [Quilon], from Wikipedia
Article : Kozhikode, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Articles Malabar, Calicut City, Cochin Town, from Imperial Gazetteer of India 1909-1931, posted by DSAL
Article Calicut, Quilon, Cochin, Malabar, from EB 1911
Ramachandran Vaidyanadhan, Communication history of the Dutch in India (review)
V.O.C. Trade with Bengal Article : V.O.C. in Bengalen, from Wikipedia Dutch Edition
Article : The Dutch, from Banglapedia
Gewesten : Bengalen, from V.O.C. Kenniscentrum, in Dutch
Bengalen, from De V.O.C. site, on Dutch
Lijst van VOC-directeuren in Bengalen, from Wikipedia Dutch Edition
Colonial Imprints in India : the Dutch, from IHR Blog
Article : Hugli-Chuchura : History, from Wikipedia
Article : Chinsura, from Banglapedia
Articles Bengal, Chinsura, from Imperial Gazetteer of India 1909-1931, posted by DSAL
Article Chinsura, from EB 1911
V.O.C. Trade with Coromandel India. Shores without end, from Tanap; scroll down for Malabar, Coromandel
Gewesten : Coromandel, from V.O.C. Kenniscentrum, in Dutch
Articles : Nagapattinam, Kust van Coromandel, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
S. Arasaratnam, The Dutch East India Company and its Coromandel Trade 1700-1740, Bijdragen tot de Taal- en Volkenkunde 123/3 1967 pp.325-346, posted by KITLV
Coromandel, from De V.O.C. site, in Dutch
Factorijen van de V.O.C. aan de Coromandelkust, from Berts Geschiedenissite, in Dutch
Colonial Imprints in India : the Dutch, from IHR Blog
Dutch factory at Pulicat, from India History
Article : History of Pulicat, Nagapatnam : History, Thoothukudi : History [Tuticorin], from Wikipedia
Articles Coromandel Coast, Pulicat Town, Negapatam Town, Masulipatam Town, from Imperial Gazetteer of India 1909-1931, posted by DSAL
Articles : Coromandel Coast, Negapatam, Pulicat, from EB 1911
Coromandel Muslims, from Indian Muslims
V.O.C. Trade with Sindh M.H. Panhwar, An Introduction to Willem Floor's Book "The Dutch East India Company (V.O.C.) and Diewel-Sindh (Pakistan) in the 17th and 18th Centuries
Article : Handelsposten van de V.O.C. in het Midden-Oosten, Thatta, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
V.O.C. Trade with Surat Article : Suratte, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Suratte, from De V.O.C. site, on Dutch
Colonial Imprints in India : the Dutch, from IHR Blog
History of Surat, from In Surat; Article Surat : History, from Wikipedia
Articles Surat City, from Imperial Gazetteer of India 1909-1931, posted by DSAL
Article : Surat, from EB 1911
Ghulam Ahmad Nadri, Commercial World of Mancherji Khurshedji and the Dutch East India Company: A Study of Mutual Relationships (abstract of 2007 article), accessible through Cambridge Journals Online
Institutions Forts & Factories Dutch Colonial Remains in Asia 1600-1800, Portuguese-Dutch Fort at Malacca, from Colonial Voyage (Marco Ramerini)
Anjana Singh, Fort Cochin in Kerala 1750-1830 : the social condition of a Dutch community in an Indian milieu, diss. Leiden 2007
Dutch factory at Pulicat, from India History
Biographies
Bibliography Search Digitale Bibliografie Nederlandse Geschiedenis for Malabar, Surat, Coromandel, Bengalen
V.O.C. in Indie, Bibliografie, compiled by Dick de Jong
Journal of Asian History, index of articles
Southeast Asia Publications, from Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University
Monographs, from Yale University Council on Southeast Asian Studies
South East Asia Dissertations, click South East Asia, Indonesia
McGill Southeast Asian Studies (theses), search for Indonesia
Boeken, from De V.O.C. Site; Literatuur, from V.O.C. Kenniscentrum
Bibliography of Dutch Colonial History : Asia, from Colonial Voyage (Marco Ramerini)
Itinerario cumulative index 2003-
Publications, from Calico Museum, Ahmedabad
Others P.K. Bhattacharyya, Beginning of Modern Botany in India by Dutch in 16th-18th Century, Indian Journal of History of Science 17/2 1982 pp.365-376
Onderzoek naar flora en fauna ten tijde van de Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (V.O.C.), from V.O.C. Kenniscentrum, in Dutch

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Statesmen Dutch India, from World Statesmen
Document Collections
Archives, Musea The Archives of the V.O.C., from TANAP
Coins, Banknotes Dutch Coinage in India, posted by JMD
1695 Dutch India Kali - Negapatnam Copper Dumps, from Lakdiva
1646-1794 Dutch India Puliakate VOC One Kas, from Lakdiva
Coins of Dutch India, from Zeno

PRINTED REFERENCE
Online Libraries Internet Archive
South East Asia Digital Library (project)
South East Asia Visions, at Cornell
Leiden University Repository (NL, Open Access)
South East Asian Studies, Student Theses, from Ohio University
Search Narcis (server for theses from the Netherlands) for V.O.C.
Online Journals Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
Indian Trade History Om Prakash, European Commercial Enterprise in Pre-Colonial India, The New Cambridge History of India, Cambridge : UP 1998
Historical Dictionaries