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British India Portuguese India
First posted on May 26th 2002, last revised on October 18th 2009

The French East India Company established factories at Chandernagore (Bengal) in 1673, at Pondicherry (Coromandel) in 1674, at Yanaon in 1723, at Mahe (Malabar) in 1725, at Karikal (Coromandel) in 1739. From the late 18th century, the French possessions in India were dwarfed by those of the (British) East India Company.
From 1761 to 1765, from 1793 to 1802 and from 1803 to 1816 French India was under British occupation. Chandernagore was ceded to India in 1950, the remainder of French India annexed by India in 1954.

Pondicherry, since 1954

Historical Atlas, South Asia Page

Spelling varieties : Etablissements francais dans l'Inde, L'Inde francais, French India
Spelling varieties : Pondichery, Pondicherry, Puducherry
Spelling varieties : Yanaon, Yanam
Spelling varieties : Karikal, Karaikal

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Country Profiles Current Articles : French India, French East India Company, from Wikipedia
Article : Etablissements français de l'Inde, from Wikipedia French edition
Historical Notices statistiques sur les etablissements français de l'Inde, 1839, in French, GB
D. MacPherson, The History of the European Commerce with India, 1812, GB
Organizations on Asian History International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
Cercle Culturel des Pondicheriens
on French Colonial History Societe française d'histoire d'outre mer
Association Etudes Coloniales
Accounts of History History of Pondicherry, from pondicherry.com, from pondicherry.net, from pondy.com
Politics Article : Franco-Indian Alliances, from Wikipedia
Military La Fin Française du Pondicherry, 1761, from Histoire Militaire, in French
R. Orme, A history of the military transactions of the British nation in Indostan , 1803, GB
J. Almon, An impartial history of the late war, 1763, GB
R. Beatson, Naval and military memoirs of Great Britain: from the year 1727, to 1784, vol.1, 1790, vol.2, 1790, vol.4, 1804, vol.5, 1804, GB
O. Goldsmith, The martial review; or, A general history of the late wars , 1763, GB
R.Orme, Histoire des guerres de l'Inde, ou des evenemens militaires arrives dans l'Indoustan depuis l'annee 1745, vol.1, 1765, vol.2, 1765, French trsl. of Engl. or., GB
R.O. Cambridge, An account of the war in India: between the English and French, on the coast of Coromandel, from the Year 1750 to the Year 1760, together with a Relation of the Late Remarkable Events on the Malabar Coast and the Expeditions to Golconda and Surat, 1761, GB
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : French India
Article French Indian Rupee, from Wikipedia
Ethnography Foreign Possessions in India : French Possessions, p.498 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : India, from Kirken i Norge
History of the Archdiocese of Pondicherry, from Archdiocese of Pondicherry
The History of Christianity in India, vol.1, 1839, vol.2, 1839, vol.4, 1845, vol.5, 1860, GB ; vol.2 most relevant for Pondicherry
Local History Articles Municipal Administration in French India, Yanaon, Pondichery, Chandernagor, from Speedy Look
Pondicherry : Where India Meets France, from CPA Media
History of Pondicherry, from pondicherry.com, from pondicherry.net, from pondy.com
Article : Yanam (Inde Française), History of Puducherry, from Wikipedia
Institutions French Institute of Pondicherry
Others Article Causes of the integration of the French establishments of India to the Indian Union, French Company of the Eastern Indies, Coup d'Etat de Yanaon, from Speedy Look

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel), scroll down
Population Figures India : historical demographical data of the administrative divisions, from Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyert; look for Pondicherry
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazettes Le Moniteur officiel des ?ablissements français dans l'Inde 1881-1893, Gallica
Journal officiel de l'Inde française 1883-1937, incomplete series, Gallica
Journal officiel des ?ablissements français dans l'Inde 1894-1937, Gallica
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Archives nationales d'outre-mer, Base Ulysse, image base
Systematic Collections
R. Duvert, Pondichery, Un album de 313 cartes postales anciennes, Chandernagar, Cartes postales et vues divers anciennes
Accidental Collections
Oriental Collections
Items on Frech India
Universal Collections
Items on French India
License Plates, from License Plates Online
Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
Archival Deposits India - Records of the erstwhile French administration in Pondicherry (1577-1954), from UNESCO Memory of the World Register
French Ancestors in India, from Family History in India, lists archive deposits
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties Treaty of Peace between Britain and France, 3 Sept. 1783, pp.334-342 in A Collection of All the Treaties of Peace, Alliance, and Commerce , 1785, GB ; treaty in French, on Pondichery etc.
Document Collections A. Martineau (ed.), Correspondance du Conseil superieur de Pondichery et de la Compagnie vol.2 : 1736-1738, n.d., vol.5 : 1755-1759, n.d., in French, GB
J.F. Dupleix, Memoire pour le Sieur Dupleix contre la Compagnie des Indes , 1759, in French, GB
P. de Gennes, Memoire pour le Sieur de la Bourdonnais, vol.1, 1751, vol.2, 1751, vol.3, 1751, (no volume number), 1751, in French, GB
B.F. Mahe la Bourdonnais, Memoires historiques de B.F. Mahe de La Bourdonnais, gouverneur des iles de France et de Bourbon, 1827, in French, GB
Head Quarters, Camp before Pondichery, Aug. 23 1793, General Orders by Col. Braithwaite, p.171 in J. Debrett, A Collection of State Papers Relative to the War against France 1794, GB
Historical Maps Maps of Pondicherry, from Maps of India
Map Bellin Pondicherry 1741, Madras 1746, posted by FWP
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article : Karikal, p.299 in The Popular Encyclopedia, 1836, GB
Article : India : French India, p.559 in vol.6 of Encyclopaedia Americana, 1838, Gb
Article Ponditscherri, Mahe, Karikal, Tschandernagar, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek
Article French India, Pondicherry, Karikal, Yanaon, Chandernagore, from EB 1911
Religious Article India (has brief passage on French India); Archdiocesis of Pondicherry, from Catholic Encyclopedia (1907)
Article India, from Jewish Encyclopedia (of 1901)
Ostindien, pp.677-696 in vol.2 of C.Fr. Staeudlin, Kirchliche Geographie u. Statistik, 1804, in German, GB
Economic Coromandel, pp.81-82, Pondichery, pp.210-211, in vol.2 of S. Ricard, Traite general du commerce, 1781, in French, GB
Pondichery, pp.183-184 in T.A. de Marien y Arrospide, Tratado general de monedas, pesas, medidas y cambios de todas las naciones, 1789, in Spanish, GB
Pondichery, pp.118-125 in J.Chr. Schedel, Historisches Handbuch für Kaufleute, 1793, in German, GB
Entry : Pondicherry, pp.684-687 in : J.F. Lange et al., Übersicht und Berechnung aller Münzen, Ellenmaasse und Handelsgewichte von allen Welttheilen, 1804, in German, GB
Pondicherry, p.131 in vol.1 of P. Kelly, The Universal Cambist, and Commercial Instructor, 1811, GB
Pondicherry, pp.377-407 in vol.1 of W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 1813, GB
Pondicherry, p.407 in Chr. Dubost, The Elements of Commerce, 1818, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Pondicherry, posted by DTBSWS
Geographical Description of the Coast from Pondicherry to Madras, pp.244-246 in J. Huddart, The Oriental Navigator, 1801, GB
Pondicherry, pp.439-442 in vol.2 of W. Hamilton, A Geographical, Statistical, and Historical Description of Hindostan and the Adjacent Countries, 1820, GB
Pondicherry, pp.408-409 in W. Hamilton, The East Indian Gazetteer, 1828, GB
Pondicherry, pp.192-193 in C. Malte-Brun, Universal geography, 1829, GB
Article Chandernagore, Karikal, Mahe, Pondicherry, Yanam, French Possessions, from Imperial Gazetteer of India, posted by DSAL
Historical The History of the French Commerce in the East Indies .., pp.60-196 in The Modern Part of an Universal History, 1759, GB
Pondichery, Sieges de, pp.223-224 in vol.5 of F.M.M., Nouveau dictionnaire historique des sieges et batailles memorables, 1808, in French, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Staten Generaal Digitaal (Dutch Parliament, 1900-1994)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives Archives Nationales d'Outremer (France)
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of French India, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money, from the Indian Currency Collection; from CGB (commercial site)
The Colonial Coins of India, click for French India
Coins of French India, from Zeno
Colonial Coins of India, has a section on French India
Stamps Postage Stamps of the French Establishments in India, 1893-1904, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on India Digital Library of India
History of India Digital Library
Online Journals Guides Electronic Journals Online
on France, Colonies Mercure de France 1738 Feb., 1769 Dec., 1770 Dec., 1779 Jan., 1780 Jan., 1784 Jan., 1784 Aug., 1785 Feb., 1785 Aug., 1789 Aug., in French, GB
General Accounts
Specific Topics Ajit K. Neogy, Decolonization of French India. Liberation Movement and Indo-French Relations 1947-1954, Institut Français de Pondicherry 1997 [G]
Historical Atlasses C. Collin Davies, An Historical Atlas of the Indian Peninsula, Oxford : UP, 2nd edition, 1959 [G]
Historical and Cultural Maps, National Atlas of India Vol.8, published by National Atlas & Thematic Mapping Organisation, Calcutta 1983, edited by G.K . Dutt, S.K. Biswas [G]
J.E. Schwartzberg, A Historical Atlas of South Asia, Chicago : UP 1978 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year French Colonial Empire, 1945 pp.301-302, French Colonial Empire : French India, 1946 p.330, 1947 p.344, French Overseas Territories : French India, 1949 p.289, French India, 1951 p.310, 1953 p.298, 1954 p.297, 1955 p.343
Statesman's Year-Book French India, 1895 p.508, 1898 p.506, 1901 p.580, 1905 pp.637-638, 1910 p.784, 1918 pp.843-844, 1919 p.849, 1924 pp.888-889, 1925 p.900, 1926 p.873, 1928 pp.886-887, 1929 pp.874-875, 1932 pp.876-877, 1937 pp.915-916, 1943 pp.901-902
(New) Int'l Yearbook 1907 p.287, 1908 p.267, 1909 pp.265-266, 1913 p.268, 1914 p.274, 1916 p.249, 1918 p.232, 1919 p.272, 1920 p.260, 1921 pp.259-260, 1923 p.266, 1925 p.261, 1928 p.277, 1930 p.289, 1932 p.304, 1933 p.289, 1934 p.252, 1935 p.259, 1938 pp.270-271, 1939 p.293, Events of 1940 p.290, 1941 p.223, 1942 p.267, 1943 pp.227-228, 1944 p.239, 1945 p.223
Americana Annual 1927 p.364, 1928 p.323, 1930 p.341, 1931 p.337-338, 1932 p.307, 1933 p.335, 1934 pp.264-265, 1935 p.307, 1936 p.312, 1937 p.306, 1938 pp.297-298, 1939 pp.321-322, 1940 pp.322-323, 1943 pp.307-308, 1944 p.295, 1945 p.304, 1946 p.306, 1947 p.274, 1957 p.302
Other Article : French India, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1932 p.271, 1933 pp.226-227, 1934 p.250, 1935 pp.241-242, 1936 p.214, 1937 p.216, 1938 p.223, 1940 p.250, 1946 p.180, 1952 p.171 [G]

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