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Punjab North-West Frontier Province
First posted on March 6th 2004, last revised on June 6th 2010

The state of Jammu & Kashmir was created in 1846. Politicians who aimed for the establishment of a Muslim state in India, knowing that the vast majority of the population in Jammu & Kashmir was Muslim, included Kashmir into the core areas of the state to be created (Punjab, Kashmir, Sindh => PaKiStan, a term coined in the 1930s). The Indian National Congress, on the other hand, opted for all of British India to be released into independence as one unpartitioned, multi-ethnic and multi-religious Republic of India.
Both the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress saw no future for the large number of India's princely states; they were to be integrated into the Republic of India respectively Pakistan. The Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, a Hindu, opted for the Republic of India; his decision caused the first Indo-Pakistani War (1948). Jammu and Kashmir was partitioned.

Spelling varieties : Cashmeer, Cashmere, Cashmir, Kashmir

For the History since 1947 see Jammu & Kashmir (India), Azad Kashmir (Pakistan) and Federally Administered Northern Areas (since 2009 Gilgit-Baltistan, to Pakistan); since 1962 see Aksai Chin (P.R. China)

Timeline : Jammu & Kashmir

Historical Atlas : Jammu & Kashmir, British India, India, Pakistan Pages

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as Kashmir is a disputed territory, users are advised to use discretion, as many of the sources linked below are biased in one way or another. The webmaster of WHKMLA is not responsible for the content of external websites.

Country Profiles Current Articles Kashmir Region, from Wikipedia
Kashmir Flashpoint, from BBC News

Historical The Soobah of Cashmeer, pp.123-154 in vol.2 of Ayeen Akbery; or, the institutes of the Emperor Akber, trsl. by Francis Gladwin, 1800
Cashmeer, pp.237-242 in vol.2 of M. Elphinstone, An account of the kingdom of Caubul, and its dependencies in Persia, Tartary and India, 1839, GB
F. Drew, The Jummoo and Kashmir Territories: A Geographical Account (1875), Internet Archive
F. Drew, The Northern Barrier of India: A Popular Account of the Jummoo and Kashmir Territories (1877), posted on Internet Archive
F.M.L. Bruce, Kashmir (1911), posted on Internet Archive
F.E. Younghusband, E. Molineux, Kashmir (1911), IA
Th. Holland (ed.), Provincial geographies of India (1913), vol.1 : J. Douie, The Panjab, Northwest Frontier Province and Kashmir posted on Internet Archive
Links General Category : Jammu & Kashmir, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of Jammu & Kashmir, from Wikipedia
Conflict in Kashmir, Selected Internet Resources, from UC Berkeley Library
Organizations Kashmir Study Group
Kashmir Heritage
Kashmiri Overseas Association (KOAUSA)
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines see here
Kashmir Timeline, by Justin Podur, since 1925
Timeline Kashmir from Kashmir Information
Accounts of History Current History of Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, from Wikipedia
History of Jammu and Kashmir, from Webindia 123
History of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (official)
History of Kashmir, from Kashmir Information, from Kashmir News Network
History of Jammu and Kashmir, from ummah.org
L.N. Dhar, An Outline of the History of Kashmir, posted by Koausa
Kashmir, History of a Flashpoint, from Buzzle.com
Specific Periods
Administration W. Digby, Condemned Unheard : The Government of India and H.H. the Maharaja of Kashmir .. (1890), posted on Internet Archive
Economy & Finances R.C. Rawlley, The silk industry and trade : a study in the economic organization of the export trade of Kashmir and Indian silks, with special reference to their utilization in the British and French markets (1919), posted on Internet Archive
Social History
Ethnography Jammu and Kashmir : Distribution of Languages, from Kashmir Study Group
India, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
Religion Jammu & Kashmir, Distribution of Religions, from Kashmir Study Group
History by Region A. Cunningham, Ladak, physical, statistical, and historical ; with notices of the surrounding countries (1854), posted on Internet Archive
Local History History of Srinagar, from Wikipedia
History of Gilgit, from Wikipedia
History of Muzaffarabad, from Wikipedia
History of Leh, from Wikipedia
History of Jammu, from Wikipedia
Institutions History of University of Kashmir, Hazratbal near Srinagar
Biographies J.Ch. Basu, The Maharaja of Kashmir : a vindication and an appeal (1893), posted on Internet Archive
Others India Environment Portal : Jammu & Kashmir
Terrestrial Ecoregions : Indo-Malayan, from WWF; scroll down for Western Himalayan Subalpine Conifer Forests, Western Himalayan Broadleaf Forests, Himalayan Subtropical Pine Forests

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), scroll down
Worldwide Guide of Women in Leadership, India Substates : K; scroll down for Kashmir
Article Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, The Royal House of Jammu and Kashmir, from Wikipedia
Jammu and Kashmir, from Indian Princely States
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : India, by State (Province), Historical Population Statistics : Pakistan by State, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Historical Newspapers Life Magazine, 1936-1972, Search for "Kashmir", search all issues; 203 Kashmir articles, GB
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Kashmir Old Pictures
Systematic Collections
Old Photographs of Kashmir, 1920, from V.C.S. O'Connor, The Charm of Kashmir, 1920
Forgotten Kashmir : Some Old Photographs
Photos of Kashmir, by Peter Langer
Accidental Collections
Oriental Collections
Items on Kashmir
Kashmir Early Artistic Postcards (c.1910), from Early Postcards from India and Ceylon; India : Srinagar, India : Kashmir, from Images of Asia
Universal Collections
Items on Kashmir
Medals of Jammu & Kashmir, from OMSA
Historical Picture Postcards, from Worldwide Vintage Postcards;
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK)
Search Janus
Constitutions, Laws Kashmir Legal Documents, from Kashmir Information; same documents from Kashmir News Network
Document Collections Documents, from Fouq Library (www.kashmiri.info)
Baharistan-i-Shahi, ch.1, ch.2, ch.3, ch.4, ch.5, ch.6, ch.7, ch.8
Historical Maps Maps of Jammu and Kashmir, from Maps of India, from Maps-India (sites edited in India; maps do not show lines of control, claim all of Jammu & Kashmir as Indian territory)
Kashmir Maps, from PCL, Utexas
East Punjab and Kashmir (Constable 1893), from Historical Maps of India
Chinese Turkestan, Kashmir & Jamu (Constable 1893), from Historical Maps of India
NWFP and Kashmir (Bartholomew 1909), from DSAL
Maps, from Kashmir Study Group
Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 550 B.C., Eastern Hemisphere 527 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 500 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 400 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 335 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 323 BC, Easern Hemisphere 300 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 200 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 100 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 050 BC, Parthian Empire 001 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 050 AD, Kushan Empire, 100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 450 AD, Hephtalite Empire and Hunas, 500 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 565 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 600 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 610 AD, Sindh in 700 AD, Asia 700 AD, Asia 800 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 900 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1000 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1025 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1500 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Kashmir, from Asian Linguistic Maps
Regional Maps, Kashmir Maps, Srinagar Maps, from Kashmir Stamps
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Kaschmir, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Article Kashmir, from EB 1902
Articles Kashmir, Jammu, Gilgit, Ladakh and Baltistan, from EB 1911
Economic Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Das Pendschab, Peschawer und Caschemir, vol.4 1844 pp.232-235, in German, posted by DTBSWS
E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Kashmir
Geographical The Province of Cashmere, pp.504-512 in vol.1 of W. Hamilton, A Geographical, Statistical, and Historical Description of Hindostan and the Adjacent Countries, 1820, GB
Cashmere, p.353 in vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1826, GB
Articles Kashmir and Jammu, Ladakh, Srinagar City, Gilgit, Baltistan, from Imperial Gazetteer of India (1909), posted by DSAL
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues H. D'Oyley Torrens, Travels in Ladak, Tartary, and Kashmir (1862), posted on Internet Archive
H.G.M. Murray-Ainsley, Our visit to Hindostan, Kashmir, and Ladakh (1879), posted on Internet Archive
J. Collett, A guide for visitors to Kashmir. Enl., rev. and corr. up to date by A. Mitra. With a route map of Kashmir (1898), posted on Internet Archive
C.E. Tyndale Biscoe, Character Building in Kashmir (1920), posted on Internet Archive
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives
Musea Jammu Museum, from Kashmir Tourism
Monuments Alphabetical List of Monuments - Jammu & Kashmir, from Archaeological Survey of India
Ram Chandra Kak, Ancient Monuments of Kashmir, KOAUSA
Jammu & Kashmir Index, from Showcaves
Category : Forts in Jammu and Kashmir, Palaces in Jammu and Kashmir, from Wikipedia
Category : Hindu temples in Jammu and Kashmir , Mosques in Jammu and Kashmir, Buddhist Monasteries in Ladakh, from Wikipedia
Jammu & Kashmir Temples, from Indian Temples Portal
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag of (Indian) Jammu and Kashmir, from FOTW
Coins Jammu & Kashmir Coins, from Indus Numismatic Gallery
World Coin Catalogue : Kashmir, Ladakh, Jammu
Stamps Kashmir Stamps, 1886-1894, Canadian site
David Parke Masson, The Stamps of Jammu and Kashmir, online version of the 2 volume book published 1900-1901

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Kashmir from Kashmir : Hope for the Future
Books on Ladakh, from Orchid Press
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
International Boundary Studies
on Kashmir Tibetan & Himalayan Digital Library
Pakistan Research Repository
Fouq Library, articles on the Kashmir Issue
Indcat, Online Uinion Catalogue of Indian Universities, from INFLIBNET, click Union Database
Digital Library of India
History of India Digital Library
Online Journals Central Eurasian Studies Review (CESR) 2002-
Online Yearbooks
General Accounts
Specific Topics
Yearbooks Article Kashmir, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1913 p. 619 (on events of 1912) [G]
Article : India and Dependencies : Jammu & Kashmir, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1928 pp.167-168, 1937 pp.184-185 [G]

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