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Sri Lanka V.O.C.
First posted on August 8th 2005, last revised on May 12th 2010

The (Singhalese Buddhist) Kingdom of Kandy was established in the 15th century. While the Portuguese, and in their succession the V.O.C., took control of Ceylon's major ports and of the coast, Kandy held on to the' island's interior. Relations between Kandy and the V.O.C. were mostly hostile. During the Napoleonic wars the British occupied the Dutch positions on Ceylon. A first campaign against Kandy in 1803 failed to subdue the kingdom; this object was achieved by a second expedition in 1815. After the suppression of the Uva Rebellion 1817, the autonomy Kandy had been assured in the Kandyan Convention of 1815 was cancelled, and Kandy was fully integrated into the British crown colony of Ceylon.

Alternative spellings : Kandy, Candy, Candi, Udarata

Timeline : Kingdom of Kandy

Students' Paper : Son, Bo Kyung, The History of Persecution of the Buddhist Faith (2011)

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Country Profiles Current Article : Kingdom of Kandy, from Wikipedia
The Kandyan Kingdom, from www.edupub.gov.lk
Historical R. Percival, An Account of the island of Ceylon, Containing its History, Geography, Natural History, with the Manners and Customs of its Various Inhabitants, to which is added the Journal of an Embassy to the Court of Candy, 1803, GB
J. Cordiner, A Description of Ceylon, Containing an Account of the Country, Inhabitants and Natural Productions .., 1807, GB
L. de Busche, Letters on Ceylon: particularly relative to the Kingdom of Kandy , 1817, GB
Links on History Category : Kingdom of Kandy, from Wikipedia
Timelines Timeline Sri Lanka, from BBC News, from Tikalanka
Accounts of History on Ceylon / Sri Lanka A Short History of Lanka, by Humphry William Codrington (1926), posted by Rhajiv Ratnatunga (xcovers period until 1833)
Dutch Portuguese Colonial History, by Marco Ramerini, scroll down for Ceylon
De Fonseka Family Website, on the history of Ceylon / Sri Lanka
News from Sri Lanka, from SPUR, a lot political-historical (pro-Sinhalese)
on Kandy Article : Kingdom of Kandy, from Wikipedia
Kandyan Era, from Sri Lanka Reference
The Kandyan Kingdom, from www.edupub.gov.lk
Specific Periods
Military Wars of Sri Lanka, from ACED
A. Johnston, Narrative of the operations of a detachment in an expedition to Candy, in the Island of Ceylon, in the Year 1804, 1810, GB
Major Johnston, Journal of an Expedition to Candy, and Retreat Thence, pp.98-116 in vol.3 of The Royal Military CVhronicle : or, British Officers Monthly, 1811, GB
Article : Uva Rebellion, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances
Religion Sacred Tooth Relic in Senkadagala, from Sridaladamaligawa
W.M. Harvard, A narrative of the establishment and progress of the missions to Ceylon and India, 1823, GB; reference to Kandy (Kingdom)
History of Regions
Local History History, from Kandy City

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Sri Lanka; scroll down for Udarata (Kandy)
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers]
Search Digitaal Krantenarchief at Regionaal Archief Leiden
Historical Newspaper Articles H. Boyd, A Journal of an Embassy from the Government of Madras to the King of Candy in Ceylon in the Year 1782, pp.1-50 in The Asiatic Annual Register or a View of the History of Hindustan for 1798-1799, 1800, GB
H. Boyd, An Historical Account of the Island of Ceylon, pp.98-123 in in The Asiatic Annual Register or a View of the History of Hindustan for 1798-1799, 1800, GB
War in Ceylon, pp.84-87 in vol.5 of The Asiatic Annual Register or a View of the History of Hindustan for 1803, 1804, GB
Extract of a Letter from Candy Feb. 23 1803, pp.191-192 in The Asiatic Annual Register or a View of the History of Hindustan for 1803, 1804, GB
Extract from a Dispatch, Colombo, 8 July 1803, pp.549-551 in The Annual Register for the year 1803, 1805, GB
The Conquest of the Kingdom of Kandy, August 2 1815, pp.L-LI in The Edinburgh Annual Register for 1815, 1817, GB
[Kandy, Feb. 25 1815] pp.262- in vol.85 of The Gentleman's Magazine, 1815, 1815, GB
[Candy, Feb. 25 1815] pp.194-201 in Annual Register 1815 Obituary Sir J. d'Oyly, 1825, pp.83-84 in : The Gentleman's Magazine, 1825, 1825, GB
Image Databanks Search Geheugen van Nederland ; Search Tropenmuseum; site in Dutch

Category : Sri Lanka, from Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits Search ARCHIEVEN.NL
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
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Treaties J.E. Heeres (ed.), Corpus Diplomaticum Neerlando-Indicum, Verzameling van politieke contracten en verdere Verdragen door de Nederlanders in het Oosten gesloten, van Privilegiebrieven aan hen verleend, enz., vol.1 1907, covering 1596-1650, posted on Internet Archive; here English-language ToC
Article : Kandyan Convention, 1815
Biker, J.F.J., Collecçao de tratados e concertos de pazes que o estado da India Portugueza fez com os reis e senhores com quem teve relaçoes nas partes da Asia e Africa Oriental desde o principio da conquista ate ao fim do secolo XVIII. Lisboa, Imprensa Nacional, vol.1 1881, covering 1507-1643, posted on Internet Archive; vol.2 1882, covering 1604-1719, posted on Internet Archive; vol.3 1883, covering 1661-1739, posted on Internet Archive; vol.4 1884, covering 1510-1699, posted on Internet Archive; Vol.5 1885, covering 1606-1717, posted on Internet Archive; vol.6 1885, covering 1708-1750, posted on Internet Archive; vol.7 1885, covering 1753-1762, posted on Internet Archive; vol.8 1885. covering 1762-1794, posted by Internet Archive; vol.9 1885, covering 1790-1798, posted on Internet Archive; vol.10 1885, covering 1725-1840, posted on Internet Archive; vol.11 1886, covering 1799-1839, posted on Internet Archive; vol.12 1886, covering 1746-1851, posted on Internet Archive; vol.13 1887, covering 1719-1885, posted on Internet Archive; search for Candea
Document Collections Notification of the Establishment of the British Dominion, Kandy, March 2nd 1815, p.839- in vol.2 of British and Foreign State Papers, 1839, GB
Historical Maps Kandy, from Atlas of Mutual Heritage
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article : Ceylan, pp.479-481 in vol.29 of Encyclopedie m?thodique , 1784, in French, GB
Religious Article : Kandy, pp.177 in W. Chapin, The Missionary Gazetteer, 1825, GB
Article : Kandy, pp.234-236 in B.B. Edwards, The Missionary Gazetteer , 1832, GB
Geographical Isle de Ceylan, pp.726-734 in P. d'Avity, Le Monde, ou la Description generale de ses quatre parties, 1643, in French, GB
XXX. Das Königreich oder Kaiserthum Kandy, pp.1023-1027 in vol.2 of S.F.G. Wahl, Erdbeschreibung von Ostindien, nemlich Hindostan und Dekan , 1807, in German, GB
Article : Candy, pp.468-470 in vol.2 of Dictionnaire geographique universel, 1825, in French, GB
S.C. Chitty, The Ceylon Gazetteer, 1834, GB
Island of Ceylon, pp.208-228 in vol.2 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography: or A Description of All Parts of the World, 1827, GB; much reference to Kandy
Historical Ceilan, pp.225-230 in vol.14 of J.A. de Thou, Histoire universelle depuis 1543 a jusqu'en 1607, 1734, in French, GB
Of the Island of Ceylone, pp.287-302, in vol.1 of Th. Salmon, Modern History or the Present State of All Nations, 1744, GB
Die Gründung der Holländischen Kolonialmacht in Indien (Beschluss), pp.97-140 in vol.1 of Europäische Annalen, 1812, in German, GB, much reference on Kandy
Ceylon, pp.1-122 in R.M. Martin, History of the British possessions in the Indian & Atlantic Oceans, 1837, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Historical Travelogues W, Schouten, Reistogt naar en door Oostindiën, vol.1, 1780, in Dutch, GB ; pp.303-315 on Kandy
R. Percival, Voyage a l'ile de Ceylan, fait dans les ann?es 1797 a 1800, vol.1, vol.2, Fr. trsl. 1803, GB
J. Davy, An account of the interior of Ceylon, and of its inhabitants, 1821, GB
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