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History of Kerala until the end of Company Rule (1858)

First posted on December 13th 2011

Terminology : European sources from 1498 into the 20th century refer to Kerala as "the Malabar Coast". Only after independence were the Indian states reorganized based on the regionally spoken languages; Kerala is the state where Malayalam is the dominant language. The terms "Malabar Coast" and "Kerala" roughly coincide.


Cananor (city)
Cananor (kgd.)
Coulão (city)
Coulão (kgd.)

Cannanore (city)
Cannanore (kgd.)
Quilon (city)
Quilon (kgd.)

Cannanore (city)
Cannanore (kgd.)
Quilon (city)
Quilon (kgd.)


Transcription used in Rep. of India


Political History : Until c.300 CE, Kerala was divided by Puzhinadu (north), the Cheras (center) and Ay (the south). By c.700 CE, northern Kerala was held by Alupa, central and southern Kerala by the Chera Dynasty. The Chera Dynasty ended in 1102. After that, Kerala fragmented further politically. In 1498, when Vasco da Gama arrived, the most prominent states in Kerala were Kolathiri (capital Cannanore), Samoothiri (the land of the Zamorin, capital Calicut) and Venad.
The Portuguese attempt to conquer the regional trade center of Calicut failed. So instead, they supported a smaller rival, Cochin (Kochi).
In the 17th century, the Dutch (the V.O.C.) replaced the Portuguese as the leading European trading nation on the Malabar coast. Denmark and France (Mahe) also established trading factories. Cochin, from having been a Portuguese satellite, had changed into a V.O.C. satellite (although relations between the V.O.C. and Cochin were uneasy).
During the 18th century the V.O.C. declined; in 1763 Samoothiri (Calicut) was conquered and annexed by Mysore. In 1792 Mysore ceded Malabar District (with Calicut) to the East India Company, in 1799 South Kannara District (with Cannanore); both areas came under direct rule (Madras Presidency). Cochin and Travancore (an enlarged Venad) after some resistance accepted indirect rule.
Following independence (Republic of India) 1947, Kerala State was formed in 1956 by merging Malabar District (with Mahe, annexed 1954), Cochin and Travancore with parts of South Kannada District.

Students' Papers : Cho, Hwi Gue, Methods and Results of Communication in First Time Encounters : the Cases of da Gama, Columbus, Magellan, Cortes, and Pizarro (2012)
Students' Papers : Myeong Do Hyeong, The Clash of Cultures in Malabar : Encounters, Conflict and Interaction with European Culture, 1498-1947 (2012)

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Country Profiles Current Article : History of Kerala, from Wikipedia
Historical D. Barbosa, A description of the coasts of East Africa and Malabar : in the beginning of the sixteenth century, trsl. and ed. by H.E.J. Stanley, 1866, GB
J.C. Visscher, Letters from Malabar, tr.: to which is added an account of Travancore, and fra Bartolomeo's travels in that country, trsl. by H. Drury, 1862, GB
Links Category : History of Kerala
Organizations Database of Organizations Libraries and Archives in South Asia Wiki
on Asia or India Asiatic Society Mumbai; Asiatic Society Kolkata; Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland
Archaeological Survey of India
Numismatic Society of India; Oriental Numismatic Society
International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
on Kerala Kerala Council for Historical Research
Kerala Department of Archaeology
Historical Dictionaries Digital South Asia Library : Imperial Gazetteer of India 1909-1931
Accounts of History Current Article History of Kozhicode, from Wikipedia
History and Culture, from Government of Kerala
Historical G.P. Maffei, Le istorie dell' Indie Orientali, edition of 1589, edition of 1749, in Italian, GB; numerous Calecutr references
Keralolpatti (The Origin of Malabar), 1868, in Malayalam, GB
Specific Periods Portuguese Discovery of the Passage to India, pp.71-, Portuguese Conquest of India in vol.1 of H. Murray, Historical and descriptive account of British India, 1832, GB
An Account of the Franks in Malabar, and of their villainous Proceedings in that country, pp.74- in Zayn al-Din Abd al-Aziz al-Malibari, Tohfut-ul-mujahideen, Oriental Translation Fund 1833, GB; trsl. by D. Lopez : Historia dos Portugueses no Malabar, in Portuguese, 1898, IA
Calicut, pp.55- in L.V. de Camoes, The Lusiad, trsl. by W.J. Mickle, 1773, GB
G.T.F. Raynal, A philosophical and political history of the settlements and trade of the Europeans in the East and West Indies, vol.1 1804, vol.2 1804, vol.3 1804, vol.4 1804, vol.5 1804, vol.6 1804, GB
Ram Chandra Rao Punganuri, Memoirs of Hyder and Tippoo: rulers of Seringapatam, written in the Mahratta language, trsl. by C.P. Brown, 1849, GB
List of feudal states in Kerala, from Wikipedia
J. Biddulph, The Pirates of Malabar, 1907, GB
Maddy's Ramblings, Malabar Hill and the Pirates of Malabar [16th to 19th Century]
The First Indian Mutiny against the British - 1800 Mutiny - and Massacre of 150 British at Attingal Palace in Travancore, [actually a well-illustrated history of Kerala until 1850, covers Cochin, Calicut as well]
M. Ramerini, The Portuguese in Cochin [title should read : the Portuguese in Kerala]
M. Ramerini, The Dutch in Kerala (Malabar)
Administration H. Wigram, A Commentary on Malabar Law and Custom, 1882, IA
L. Moore, Malabar Law and Custom, 1905, IA
Military Wars Article : Samoothiri-Polarthiri war, from Wikipedia
The Shade of Swords : Inhuman Acts by Portugues Agressors in India, excerpts from M.J. Akbar's book 'The Shade of Swords'
Article : Mysore Invasion of Kerala (1763-1792), from Wikipedia
Article : Travancore-Dutch War 1741, from Wikipedia
Quilon and Cochin : a punitive expedition and a failed siege 1661-1662, The second siege of Cochin 1662, from T. Mostert, Chain of Command : The military system of the Dutch East India Company 1655-1663, thesis 2009
Revolts Historic Alleys : Manjeri Moplahs Revolt against Tipu
Article : Malabar Rebellion (Moplah Rebellion 1921), from Wikipedia
The Malabar Campaign (1921), from The Keep Military Museum
Forts Malabar Days : Cannanore Fort
Article : Cranganore Fort, from Wikipedia
Units British Empire Armed Forces : Units : 77th Moplah Rifles, 78th Moplah Rifles
Economy & Finances Currency & Finances
Trade Arab Trade S. Tripati et al., An Indo-Arabian Type of Stone Anchor from Kannur, Kerala, West coast of India, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, vol.34 (1) 2005, pp.131-137; [on Malabar-Arab Trade]
Historic Alleys : Chau ju-kua's Chu fan Chi and Malabar
H.K. Randathani, Makhdums of Ponnani
M.H. Ilias, Narrating the History of Malabar's Omani Connection with Special Reference to the Life Histories of Cheraman Perumal and Saiyyid Fadl Moplah, 2011
Historic Alleys : The Zainuddin Makhdum's of Malabar
Ibn Khoury, The Stars of Arab Navigation in Ibn Magid's Works, 1990, GB; Ibn Magid lived in the 15th century, sailed the Indian Ocean
China Trade Historic Alleys : Chau ju-kua's Chu fan Chi and Malabar
Portuguese Trade P.M.C. Malekandathil, Portuguese Cochin and the maritime Trade of India, 1500-1663, thesis 2010
Dutch Trade (V.O.C.) India. Shores without end, from Tanap; scroll down for Malabar, Coromandel
The Dutch in Kerala (Malabar), from Colonial Voyage (Marco Ramerini)
S. Anjana, From Merchant-Warriors to Landlords : the Changing Appearances of the V.O.C. in Cochin 1663-1795, 2007
Gewesten : Malabar, from V.O.C. Kenniscentrum, in Dutch
Malabar, from De V.O.C. site, in Dutch
Lijst van commandeurs van Malabar, from Wikipedia Dutch Edition
Colonial Imprints in India : the Dutch, from IHR Blog
Ramachandran Vaidyanadhan, Communication history of the Dutch in India (review)
Danish Trade (Danish India) Nick Balmer, Murdoch Brown, Malabar Days 2007
M. Ramerini, Chronology of Danish Colonial Settlements, [lists Calicut factory 1752-1791]
French Trade (French India) A. Martineau, Les origines de Mahe de Malabar, 1917, in French, IA
N. Balmer, Mahe, its establishment & its role under the EIC. Part 1, Malabar Days 2008
Navigation Sultan Qaboos Cultural Center : The Indian Ocean in World History
S. Tripati et al., An Indo-Arabian Type of Stone Anchor from Kannur, Kerala, West coast of India, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, vol.34 (1) 2005, pp.131-137; [on Malabar-Arab Trade]
J. Edye, Description of the various Classes of Vessels constructed and employed by the Natives of the Coasts of Coromandel, Malabar, and the Island of Ceylon, pp.1-15 in vol.1 of Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland , 1834, GB
Shipbuilding Article : The Kadakkarapally Boat, from Wikipedia
R. Nath, Shipbuilding in India, Indian Defence Review 2007, [historical overview; chapter "The Medieval Period 1378-1797" on Malabar]
The Shipbuilding Industry of Beypore, from kozhicode.com
Manufacture Article : Black Pepper, from Wikipedia
Agriculture Article : Calico (textile), from Wikipedia
Calico Entries, in N. Cox, K. Dannehl, Dictionary of Traded Goods and Commodities, 1550-1820 2007, posted by British History Online
Social History General G. Panikkar, Malabar and its folk, 1900, IA
Class Society Article : Caste System in Kerala, from Wikipedia
Articles : Nair, Tharavad, from Wikipedia
Historic Alleys : Thomas Baber and the Nairs of Malabar
F. Fawcett, Nayars of Malabar, vol.III, 1915, IA
Article : Malayala Kshatriya, from Wikipedia
Countries and their Culture : South Asia : Nayar
Article : Caste system among Indian Christians, from Wikipedia
R. Prakash, Dalit Consciousness and its perspective on the basis of PRDS History in Kerala 2003
An Evaluation of the History of Pentecostal Dalits in Kerala
Slavery Historic Alleys : Damon, the Malabar Slave
N.P. Chekkutty, Malabar, 1811: The long road to freedom from slavery , 2011
Social Unrest, Change Article : Mappila Riots 1836-1921, from Wikipedia
Indian Saga : Congress : Moplah Rebellion
Correspondence on Moplah outrages in Malabar vol.1 1849-1853, 1863, GB vol.2 1863, IA
G. Ravilochanan, Origin of Muslim Appeasement - Mahatma Gandhi and Moplah Rebellion, 2009
J. John, The Portuguese and the socio-cultural changes In Malabar: 1498-1663, thesis 2010
Health J. Thwaites, A concise essay on the medical treatment of Malabar coolies employed on the Coffee Estates of Ceylon and India, 1865, GB
Marriage, Women P. Kodoth, Framing Custom, Directing Practices : Authority, Property and Matriliny under Colonial Law in Nineteenthy Century Malabar, 2002
Ethnography H.K. Randathani, The Arab Immigrants - a Study on the Hadrami Diaspora in Malabar
Religion General Article : Religions of Kerala, from Wikipedia
Hindu Article : Hinduism in Kerala, from Wikipedia
S.G. Grady, A treatise on the Hindoo law of inheritance 1868, GB; reference to Malabar
Introduction to Temples of Kerala
Buddhism Introduction to Temples of Kerala
Blog Entry : Buddhism and Jainism in Kerala, 2008, Malhar
Jain Article : Jainism in Kerala, from Wikipedia
Introduction to Temples of Kerala
Blog Entry : Conversion of Jains to Islam in Kerala, 2008
Blog Entry : Buddhism and Jainism in Kerala, 2008, Malhar
P. Krueger, History of Jainism in Kerala
Muslim Article : Mappila, from Wikipedia
Jewish Articles : Paradesi Jews, Cochin Jews, from Wikipedia
M.S. Sofaer, J.A. Waronka, The Synagogues of Kerala
Article : Cranganore, from Jewish Virtual Library
Syriac Christian Article : Saint Thomas Christians (Nasrani Christians), from Wikipedia
M. Geddes, The history of the Church of Malabar, 1694, GB
J. Hough, The history of Christianity in India vol.1 1839, vol.2 1839, vol.4 1845, vol.5 1860, GB
T. Yeates, Indian Church history, 1818, GB
E. Philipos, The Syrian Christians of Malabar: otherwise called the Christians of s. Thomas 1869, GB
J.C. Panjikaran, The Syrian Church in Malabar, 1912, IA
G. Menachery, W. Chakkalakkal, Kodungallur - The Cradle of Indian Christianity [Cranganore - Mizilis], 2000
Catholic Residenza di Calicut, pp.42-47 in F. Barreto O.S.J., Relatione delle missioni e christianita che appartengono alla provincia di Malavar della compagnia di Giesu, 1645, in Italian, GB
Article : Latin Catholic Diocese of Quilon, from Wikipedia
Diocese of Kannur, History
by Region Kochi (Cochin) F. Day, The land of the Permauls: or Cochin, its past and its present 1863, GB
Kolathunadu (Cannanore) Article : Kolathunadu, from Wikipedia
Article : Arakkal Kingdom, from Wikipedia
B.M. John, The Ali Rajas of Cannanore: status and identity at the interface of commercial and political expansion, 1663-1723, thesis Leiden 2007
Review of G. Bouchon, Mamale de Cananor. Un adversaire de l'Inde portugaise (1507-1528) Annales, Annee 1977 Volume 32 Numero 4 pp.711-713; from Tangentialia 2008
B.M. John, The Ali Rajas of Cannanore: status and identity at the interface of commercial and political expansion, 1663-1723, thesis Leiden 2007
Kozhikode (Calicut) Article Saamoothiri / Zamorin, from Wikipedia
An Account of the Cities of Calicut and Bijanagur in the 15th century, translated from the Persic of Khondemir, pp.226-227 in vol.2 of The Asiatic Annual Register or a View of the History of Hindustan, 1801, GB
Category : Kozhikode, from Wikipedia
Venad (Quilon) Article : Venad, from Wikipedia
Travancore The First Indian Mutiny against the British - 1800 Mutiny - and Massacre of 150 British at Attingal Palace in Travancore, [actually a well-illustrated history of Kerala until 1850, covers Cochin, Calicut as well]
M. Janerthanan, History of the Nayars of South Travancore, thesis 2010
Local History A. Martineau, Les origines de Mahe de Malabar, 1917, in French, IA
Others A.E. Freitas Cavalleiro e Sousa, De Portugal a Calecut, monographia historico-critica do descobrimento do caminho maritimo da India, 1898, in Portuguese, IA

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Calicut (Kozhikkode)
Calicut, from Indian Princely States, by H. Soszynski
Venad Monarchs, till 16th Century, from Wikipedia
Documents Historical Newspapers
Image Databanks Category : Historical Images of Kozhikode, from Wikimedia Commons
T. Cussans c.1820, Entrance to Fort Cannanore (British Library), posted by Europeana
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK); Janus
Search ARCHIEVEN.NL; Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo, Lisbon, Portugal; Vatican Secret Archives
Search Tamil Nadu Archives; Goa Departmrent of Archives and Archaeology; Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties Biker, J.F.J., Collecçao de tratados e concertos de pazes que o estado da India Portugueza fez com os reis e senhores com quem teve relaçoes nas partes da Asia e Africa Oriental desde o principio da conquista ate ao fim do secolo XVIII. Lisboa, Imprensa Nacional, vol.1 1881, covering 1507-1643, posted on Internet Archive; vol.2 1882, covering 1604-1719, posted on Internet Archive; vol.3 1883, covering 1661-1739, posted on Internet Archive; vol.4 1884, covering 1510-1699, posted on Internet Archive; Vol.5 1885, covering 1606-1717, posted on Internet Archive; vol.6 1885, covering 1708-1750, posted on Internet Archive; vol.7 1885, covering 1753-1762, posted on Internet Archive; vol.8 1885. covering 1762-1794, posted by Internet Archive; vol.9 1885, covering 1790-1798, posted on Internet Archive; vol.10 1885, covering 1725-1840, posted on Internet Archive; vol.11 1886, covering 1799-1839, posted on Internet Archive; vol.12 1886, covering 1746-1851, posted on Internet Archive; vol.13 1887, covering 1719-1885, posted on Internet Archive; search for Calecut, Calicut
W. Logan, A collection of treaties, engagements and other papers of importance relating to British affairs in Malabar, 1879, IA
Document Surveys British Library, Help for Researchers, Malayalam Language Collections
Catalogues of Oriental Manuscripts, at this site
Cartularia Bullarium patronatus Portugalliae regum in Ecclesiis Africae, Asiae atque Oceaniae, vol.1 : 1171-1600, 1868, vol.2 : 1601-1700, 1861, in Latin, GB; search for Collicuthia
Collecçao de monumentos ineditos para a historia das conquistas dos Portuguezes, em Africa, Asia e America, Seria I : Historia de Asia, vol.1, 1858, vol.1 pt.2, 1859, vol.2 pt.1, 1860, vol.3 pt.1, 1862, vol.3 pt.2, 1863, vol.4 pt.1, 1864, vol.4 pt.2, 1866, vol.5, 1868, in Portuguese, GB; search for Calecut
E. Moor (ed.), A Compilation of all the Government and General - Government - General - Brigade and Garrison Orders - Minutes of Council - Commands of the Hon. Company - or Regulations, from whatever Authority Promulgated, from the year 1750 to 31st of July 1801, that are now in force and operating on the discipline or expoenditure of the Bombay Army , 1801, GB; search for Calicut
Selection of Records of the Madras Government : The Dutch in Malabar, trsl. of selections 1 and 2, 1911, IA
J.E. Heeres (ed.), Corpus Diplomaticum Neerlando-Indicum, Verzameling van politieke contracten en verdere Verdragen door de Nederlanders in het Oosten gesloten, van Privilegiebrieven aan hen verleend, enz., vol.1 1907, covering 1596-1650, posted on Internet Archive; here English-language ToC
Chronicles Joao Baptista Lavanha, Da Asia de Joao de Barros e de Diogo de Couto, vol.1 : Nova Edicao offerecida a Sua Magestade D. Maria I. Rainha Fidelissima , 1778 ; Da Asia de Diogo de Couto. Dos Feitos, que os Portugueses Fizeram na Conquista, e Descubrimento das Terras, e Mares do Oriente. vol.2 : Decada Primeira. Parte Segunda, 1777 ; vol.3 : Decada Segunda. Parte Primeira, 1777 ; vol.4 : Decada Segunda. Parte Segunda, 1777 ; vol.5 : Decada Terceira. Parte Primeira, 1777 ; vol.6 : Decada Terceira. Parte Segunda, 1777 ; vol.7 : Decada Quarta. Parte Primeira, 1777 ; vol.8 : Decada Quarta. Parte Segunda, 1777 ; vol.9 : Vida de Joao de Barros por Manoel Severim de Faria e Indice Geral das Quatro Decadas de sua Asia, 1778 ; Da Asia de Diogo de Couto. Dos Feitos, que os Portugueses Fizeram na Conquista, e Descubrimento das Terras, e Mares do Oriente. vol.10 : Decada Quarta. Parte Primeira, 1778 ; vol.11 : Decada Quarta. Parte Segunda, 1778 ; vol.12 : Decada Quinta. Parte Primeira, 1779 ; vol.13 : Decada Quinta. Parte Segunda, 1780 ; vol.14 : Decada Sexta. Parte Primeira, 1781 ; vol.15 : Decada Sexta. Parte Secunda, 1781 ; vol.16 : Decada Setima. Parte Primeira, 1782 ; vol.17 : Decada Setima. Parte Segunda, 1783 ; vol.18 : Decada Oitava., 1786 ; vol.19 : Decada Nona., 1786 ; vol.20 : . Decada Decima. Parte Primeira., 1788 ; vol.21 : Decada Decima. Parte Segunda., 1788 ; vol.22 : Decada Undecima da Asia. Dos Feitos, que os Portugueses Fizeram no Descubrimento dos Mares, e Conquistas das Terras do Oriente, Em Quanto Governaram a India, Manoel de Sousa Coutinho e Mathias de Alboquerque, supprindo a que falta de Diogo de Couto, Chronista, e Guarda Mor da Torre do Tombo do Estado da India, 1788 ; Da Asia de Diogo de Couto. Dos Feitos, que os Portugueses Fizeram na Conquista, e Descubrimento das Terras, e Mares do Oriente. vol.23 : Decada Duodecima, 1788, in Portuguese, GB; search for Calecut
Manuel de Faria de Sousa, Asia Portuguesa, vol.1 1666, vol.2 1674, vol.3 1675, in Portuguese, GB
Commentarios do grande Afonso Dalboquerque, 1774, in Portuguese, GB
Zayn al-Din Abd al-Aziz al-Malibari, Tohfut-ul-mujahideen an historical work in the Arabic language, Engl. trsl. by M.J. Rowlandson, 1833, GB
D. de Gois, Chronica do felicissimo rey Don emanuel da gloriosa memoria, 1619, in Portuguese, GB ; D. de Goes, Chronica do serenissimo senior rei D. Emanuel, 1790, in Portuguese, GB (on the reign of Manuel I., 1495-1521)
F. Andrada, Cronica do muyto alto e muito poderoso rey destes reynos de Portugal dom Ioao III deste nome, 1613, in Portuguese, GB (Joao III. ruled from 1521 to 1557)
Document Collections H.K. s'Jacob (ed.), De Nederlanders in Kerala 1663-1701. De memories en instructies betreffende het commandement Malabar van de Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie 1976, RGP
Individual Documents
Historical Maps Map Collections DSAL, Imperial Gazetteer of India, Atlas 1909, Atlas 1931
DSAL, J.E. Schwartzberg, A Historical Atlas of South Asia
Malabar Maps, search David Rumsey Map Collection
Search CHINDEU for Malabar
Atlas of Mutual Heritage, posted by Nationaalarchief
Leen Helmink, The Secret Atlas of the Dutch East India Company
Kaarten, from V.O.C. Kenniscentrum
Overview, modern Map : Location of the Kingdom of Zamorins in India, from Wikipedia
Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 1100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1500 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Map : Kerala in the 12th Century, from Wikipedia
Map : Kerala in the Late Middle Ages, from Wikipedia
Map : Kerala in the 15th Century, from Wikipedia
Map : Kerala in the 17th Century, from B.M. John, The Ali Rajas of Cannanore: status and identity at the interface of commercial and political expansion, 1663-1723, thesis Leiden 2007
Overview, contemporary Map of the Malabar Coast, 17th c., from V.O.C. Warfare
An atlas of the southern part of India, including plans of all the principal towns & cantonments, reduced from the grand trigonometrical survey of India, shewing also the Tenasserim provinces, 1854, IA
Madras, Mysore, Goa (Constable 1893), from Historical Maps of India
Travancore, Trichinopoli and Ceylon (Constable 1893), from Historical Maps of India
Detail, modern
Detail, contemporary Calicut (Braun 1572), from Wikipedia
Atlas of Mutual Heritage, posted by Nationaalarchief; search for Calicut
Historic Cities : Asia, India : Calicut, Cannanore
Quilon 1505 (anon., 1600), from Wikipedia
Quilon 1661 (W. Schouten 1670), from Wikipedia
Mahe 1819 (CAOM), from CHINDEU
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Calicut, p.405 in vol.2 of Encyclopaedia Americana, 1835, GB
Article Calicut, Quilon, Cochin, Malabar, from EB 1911
Religious Articles : Diocese of Quilon, Archdiocese of Verapoly, from Catholic Encyclopedia
Economic Malabar, p.34 in vol.3 of C.G. Ludovici, Allgemeine Schatz-Kammer Der Kauffmannschafft , 1742, in German, GB
Calicut, p.657 in W. Beawes, Lex mercatoria rediviva : or, The merchant's directory, 1773, GB
Calicut, p.125 in vol.1 of P. Kelly, Universal Cambist, 1811, GB
Calicut, pp.325-327 in W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 1813, GB
Calicut, pp.61-62 in W. Dickinson, Universal Commerce, 1818, GB
Calicut, pp.118-119 in W. Anderson, The London commercial dictionary, and sea-port gazetteer, 1819, GB
Calicut, p.120 in G.T. Flügel, The merchant's assistant, or, Merchantile instructer, 1834, GB
Malabar, p.94 in P. Kelly, Oriental Metrology, 1834, GB
Political Discours du Roy de Calicut, pp.917-925 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde, 1613, in French, GB
Discours du Roy de Calicut, pp.915-923 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde, 1614, in French, GB
Discours du Roi de Calicut, pp.183-191 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, empires royaumes, seigneuries, duchez, et principautez du monde, 1621, in French, GB
Discours de l'estat du Roy de Calicut, pp.917-925 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde, 1628, in French, GB
Discours du Roy de Calicut, pp.653-659 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, empires et principautez du monde representez par la description des pays et moeurs des habitans, richesses des provinces, les forces, le gouvernement, la religion, et les princes qui ont gouverne chacun estat , 1630, in French, GB
Estats du Roy de Calecut, pp.589-594 in P. d'Avity, Le Monde, ou la Description generale de ses quatre parties, 1643, in French, GB
Discours du Roy de Calicut, pp.804-808 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, empires, royaumes et principautez du monde , 1659, in French, GB
Discours de l'estat du Roy de Calicut, pp.1134-1140 in P. d'Avity, Nouveau theatre du monde: contenant les estats, empires, royaumes, et principautez, representez par l'ordre et veritable description des pays, moeurs des peuples, forces, 1661, in French, GB
Discours du Roy de Calicut, pp.804-808 in P. d'Avity, Les estats, empires, royaumes et principautez du monde, 1665, in French, GB
Geographical Kingdom of Calicut, pp.152-157 in D. Barbosa, A description of the coasts of East Africa and Malabar: in the beginning of the sixteenth century, 1866, GB
Calicut, in S. Franck, Weltbuch: spiegel vnd bildtnis des gantzen Erdtbodens , 1542, in German, GB
Il regno di Calicut, p.187 in vol.2 of Claudio Tolomeo, Geografia cioe descrittione vniuersale della terra, 1598, in Italian, GB
Il Re di Calecut ou Malavar, pp.441-443 in G.P. Belli, Geografia istorico-politica , 1689, in Italian, GB
Calicut, p.47 in J.B. Bourguignon d' Anville, A geographical illustration of the map of India, 1759, GB
Calicut, p.330 in J. Payne, Universal geography formed into a new and entire system 1794, GB
Malabar, pp.459-468 in vol.5 of L.P. Anquetil, Precis de l'Histoire Universelle ou Tableau historique presentant les vicissitudes des Nations ... , 1799, in French, GB
Calicut, p.206 in J. Hudden, The Oriental Navigator, 1801, GB
Calicut, p.237 in J. Pinkerton, Modern Geography, 1804, GB
Calicoet, pp.276-277 in vol.1 of G. Bruining, Algemeen Aardrijkskundig Woordenboek, 1821, in Dutch, GB
Calicut, pp.209-210 in vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1825, GB
Calicut, pp.536- in J. Walker, A gazetteer of Southern India, 1855, GB
Calicut, pp.176-177 in E. Thornton, A Gazetteer of the territories under the government of the East India Company and of the native States on the continent of India , 1858, GB
Imperial Gazetteer of India 1909-1931, Entries Calicut vol.9 pp.289-291, Cannanore vol.9 pp.298-299, Cochin vol.10 pp.340-355, Malabar vol.17 pp.53-72, Quilon vol.21 pp.21-23, DSAL
Historical Das Königreich Malabar, pp.141-142 in G. Marcel, Conspectus historiae universalis 1696, in German, GB
Collicuthia, p.138 in P. Braccioloni Historiae de varietate fortunae libri quatuor, 1723, in Latin, GB
Calicut, p.165 in Abu Zayd Hasan ibn Yazid Sirafi, al-tajir Sulayman, Ancient accounts of India and China, ed. by E. Renaudot, 1733, GB
Malabar, pp.234-236 in vol.1 of T. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, GB
Zamorin, p.1164 in Suppl. vol.6 of J.C. Beck, Neu-vermehrtes Historisch- und Geographisches Allgemeines Lexicon, 1744, in German, GB
Calecut, pp.737-738 in vol.2 of J.P. Schmidt, Allgemeine Geschichte der Handlung und Schiffahrt, 1754, in German, GB
Book Reviews Malabar, pp.267-270 in vol.10 of The History of the works of the learned, or, An impartial account of books lately printed in all parts of Europe, 1708, GB
Malabar, p.280-286 in vol.26 of Maandelyke uittreksels, of Boekzaal der geleerde waerelt, 1728, in Dutch, GB
'Jornada of Dom Alexis de Menezes : A Portuguese account of the Sixteenth century Malabar' edited by Dr. Pius Malekandathil NSC Network
Parliamentary Debates British Parliament 1784, Debate on Tippoo Sultan, pp.105-129 in History of the proceedings and debates of the House of Lords, vol.30, 1791, GB
Travelogues pre 15th century Ibn Battuta, Descriptio terrae Malabar, trsl. into Latin by H. Apetz, 1819, GB
Abd er Razzak, Journey to Hindoostan, pp.13- in R.H. Major (ed.), India in the fifteenth Century, 1857, GB
E. Renaudot, Anciennes Relations Des Indes Et De La Chine, De deux Voyageurs Mahometans (Abu-Zaid Hasan Ibn-Yazid, Sulaiman at-Tagir), 1718, in French, GB
Journey overland to India and Abyssinia, by Covilham and de Payva, pp.288-291 in vol.2 of R. Kerr, A general history and collection of voyages and travels, 1824, GB; Pero da Covilhao, from Discoverers Web; Article : Pro de Covilha, from Wikipedia
Zheng He's Inscription, posted by M. Los
15th, 16th century L. de Varthema, The travels of Ludovico di Varthema : in Egypt, Syria, Arabia Deserta and Arabia Felix : in Persia, India, and Ethiopia, A.D. 1503 to 1508, edited by J. Winter Jones, Hakluyt Society 1863, GB; extensive coverage of Calicut
J.P. Berjeau, Le Second voyage de Vasco da Gama a Calicut : relation flamande editee vers MDIV, 1881, in Flemish/French, IA; Calcoen, a Dutch narrative of the second voyage of Vasco da Gama to Calicut, printed at Antwerp 1874, IA
17th century Voyage of Captain Walter Peyton to India : Occurrences at Calicut (1616), pp.232-239 in vol.9 of R. Kerr (ed.), A general history and collection of voyages and travels , 1813, GB
The Kingdom of Calicut, pp.119-128 in S. Purchas' narrative, in Early travels in India: being reprints of rare and curious narratives of old travellers in India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries : first series, comprising Purchas's Pilgrimage and Travels of van Linschoten, 1864, GB
Calecut, pp.265-289 in M. Schipano, Viaggi di Pietro Della Valle il pellegrino, 1663, in Italian, GB
Quanto successe in detta citta, e di la in Calecut, sin dentro la serra, pp.85-89 in Prima Speditione All'Indie Orientali del P. F. Giuseppe di Santa Maria 1666, in Italian, GB
Calecut pp.256-259 in Voyages de Mr de Thevenot contenant la relation de l'Indostan, des nouveaux Mogols et des autres peuples & pays des Indes, 1684, in French, GB
18th century Franz Pyrard's Reisen und Abenteuer : Calicut, p.123 in vol.2 of Neue Litteratur und Völkerkunde, 1787, in German, GB
19th century Calicut, pp.223-224 in A. Delano, A narrative of voyages and travels in the northern and southern hemispheres, 1817, GB
Calicut, pp.169-186 in R.F. Burton, Goa, and the Blue Mountains: or, Six months of sick leave, 1851, GB
Institutions Archives Kerala State Archives
Musea Pazhassiraja Museum and Art Gallery, Kozhikode
Libraries State Central Library, Kerala
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins Kerala Department of Archaeology, scroll down for Koyikkal Palace, Numismatic Museum
Coins of Kerala, from Karsha
CoinIndia : The Coin Galleries : Cannanore
NumisMaster Coin Price Guide : Indian Princely States, Cannanore, Cochin, Travancore, India Portuguese, Cochin, India Dutch
Oriental Coins Database : Cannanore, Cochin, Travancore

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Kerala/Malabar Kerala History Bibliography
Historia Asiae : Littus Malabaricum, pp.167-168 in vol.8 of J.D. Reuss, Repertorium commentationum a societatibus litterariis editarum, 1810, GB
Ch.11 : De Scriptoribus Rerum Orientalium atque Asiaticarum, Par.8 : Indicarum rerum scriptores, pp.248-250 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; Par.10 : Aliis certas tantum provinciae Indiae Orientalium descripserunt, pp.252-253; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Scriptores de littore Malabarico, pp.4-5 in vol.2.2 of Struve/Meusel, Bibliotheca Historica 1786, GB
J.J. Gotthold, World Bibliographical Series 85 : Indian Ocean, Oxford : Clio 1988 [G]
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Gallica; Digitale Bibliografie Nederlandse Geschiedenis; Biblioteca Nacional Digital, from Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal
Center for Research Libraries (CRL)
on India Digital Library of India
thesis servers Shodh Ganga, server of Indian theses
Leiden University Repository (NL, Open Access)
Search Narcis (server for theses from the Netherlands) for V.O.C.
Online Journals
General Accounts
Specific Topics J. Roxburgh MacClymont et al., Pedro Cabral, Viartis 2009; especially chapter 14, Whilst in India, pp.112-123 [on Cabral's visit, 1500] [G]
Historical Atlasses C. Collin Davies, An Historical Atlas of the Indian Peninsula, Oxford : UP, 2nd edition, 1959 [G]
Historical and Cultural Maps, National Atlas of India Vol.8, published by National Atlas & Thematic Mapping Organisation, Calcutta 1983, edited by G.K . Dutt, S.K. Biswas [G]
J.E. Schwartzberg, A Historical Atlas of South Asia, Chicago : UP 1978 [G]
Encyclopedia, Yearbook Entries

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