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East India Company Pakistan
First posted on November 30th 2005, last revised on December 8th 2011

Establishment, Expansion and Decline . Established by the Timurid ruler of Kabul, Babur, who in 1525 conquered the Sultanate of Delhi (Lodhi Dynasty). Upon Babur's death, the Empire was partitioned in three; son Humayun inherited Hindustan with Delhi. He was ousted in 1540; when, with the aid of Safavid Persia, in 1556 he retook Delhi, he reestablished the Mughal Empire. His son Akbar (1556-1605) introduced a policy of religious tolerance and expanded the empire by conquering Sindh, Gujarat, Bengal. Aurangzeb (1658-1707) terminated the policy of religious toleration and so caused rebellions. He pursued a policy of military expansion, attempting the conquest of the Deccan. After the death of Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire was a shadow of its former self. Hindu Maratha princes had established independent states for themselves; Muslim governors of Mughal provinces such as Awadh and Hyderabad in effect were rulers in their own right. The Mughal Empire was exposed to invasions from the west : Nadir Shah 1747, Durrani Afghans late 18th century to 1818. After the Sepoy Rebellion 1857-1858 the Mughal Empire was abolished, Delhi annexed by British India.

Narratives : Mughal Empire
Timelines : Mughal Empire

Historical Atlas, Mughal Empire , South Asia Page
Historical Atlas, Punjab , Jammu & Kashmir , Uttar Pradesh , Bihar , Assam Page

Students' Papers : Kang, Su Yeon, Mughal Historiography (2012)
Students' Papers : Na, Kunho, A World History of Synchretic Religions, 1450-1750 (2011)
Students' Paper : Son, Bo Kyung, The History of Persecution of the Buddhist Faith (2011)
Students' Paper : Lee, Dahyeon, National Historiography : Heroes and Villains in the History of India (2010)
Students' Paper : Yeon, Haram, The History of Textiles in South Asia (2009)
Students' Paper : Lee, Jin Hyuck, India in the 18th Century (2009)
Students' Paper : Lee Yeonhwa, A Social History of Hindustan (2008)

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Country Profiles Current Article : Mughal Empire, from Wikipedia
Historical Mughal Perspective Ayeen Akbery; or, the institutes of the Emperor Akber, trsl. by Francis Gladwin, vol.1, 1800, vol.2, 1800, GB
European Perspective G. Peruschi, Informatione del Regno e stato del gran Re di Mogor, 1597, in Italian, GB
G. Peruschi, Historica Relatio, De Potentissimi Regis Mogor, A Magno Tamerlane Orivndi ... 1598, in Latin, GB
J. Rennell, Memoir of a map of Hindoostan: or the Mogul empire: with an introduction, illustrative of the geography and present division of that country 1788, GB
C. de Courcy, Tableau religieux et politique de l'Indostan, ou, Precis historique des revolutiond de l'Inde, 1803, in French, GB
Gegenwärtiger Zustand von Delhi und des Hofes des Grossmoguls, pp.1-19 in vol.1 of Ethnographisches Archiv, 1814, in German, GB
J.B.J. Gentil, Memoires sur l'Indoustan ou Empire Mogol, 1822, in French, GB
Links Category : Mughal Empire, from Wikipedia
Organizations Database of Organizations Libraries and Archives in South Asia Wiki
on Asian History Asiatic Society Mumbai; Asiatic Society Kolkata; Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland
Archaeological Survey of India
National Fund for Cultural Heritage, Pakistan; National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research, Pakistan
Numismatic Society of India; Oriental Numismatic Society; Numismatic Society of Calcutta
International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
Historical Dictionaries Banglapedia
The Sikh Encyclopedia
Digital South Asia Library : Imperial Gazetteer of India 1909-1931
Portals Mughal India, from British Museum
Timelines Clickable Timeline of Indian History, from kamat.com
Accounts of History General, Modern Article : Mughal Empire, from Wikipedia
Mughal Dynasty, from India Net Zone
The Mughal Empire, from Manas
Mughal Empire 1526-1707, by Sanderson Beck
The Rise and Fall of the Mughals, from South Asian History
General, Historical Mughal Accounts Babur, Memoirs of Zehir-Ed-Din Muhammed Baber: emperor of Hindustan, trsl. by Ch. Waddington, 1826, GB
Humayun, The Tezkereh al vakiat: or, Private memoirs of the Moghul Emperor Humayun, 1832, GB
Jahangir, Memoirs of Emperor Jahangueir 1829, GB
Muammad Qasim Hindu Shah Astarabadi Firishtah, The history of Hindostan 1768 edition vol.1, GB, 1768 edition vol.2, GB; vol.1 1803, GB, vol.2 1792, GB
History of the rise of the Mahomedan power in India, till the year A.D. 1612 vol.1 1829, GB, vol.2 1829, GB, vol.3 1829, GB
History of Dekkan from the first Mahummedan conquests: with continuation 1794, GB
Ghulam Husain Khan (Tabatabai), The Siyar-ul-Mutakherin,: a history of the Mahomedan power in India during the last century, vol.1 1832, GB
Mubarakallah Wadih Iradat Han, A translation of the memoirs of Eradut Khan a nobleman of Hindostan: containing interesting anecdotes of the Emperor Aulumgeer Aurungzebe, and of his successors, Shaw Aulum and Jehaundar Shaw : in which are displayed the causes of the very precipitate decline of the Mogul Empire in India, trsl. by J. Scott, 1786, GB
Other Asian Accounts Abd-al-Karim Ibn-Aqibat al-Kashmiri, The memoirs of Khojeh Abdukurreem, a Cashmirian of distinction, who acconpanied Nadir Shah, on his return from Hindostan to Persia, from whence he travelled to Baghdad, Damascus and Alelppo, and after visiting Medina and Mecca, embarked on a ship at the port of Jeddeh and sailed to Hooghly in Bengal: including the history of Hindostan, from a.D. 1739 to 1749 : with an account of the European settlements in Bengal, an on the coast of Coromandel, trsl. by F. Gladwin, 1788, GB
S.R. Sharma, Mughal Empire In India 1526 1761 Part I 1934, IA
S.M. Jaffar, The Mughal Empire From Babar To Aurangzeb, 1936, IA
S.K. Bhuyan, Annals_Of_The_Delhi_Badshahate, 1947, IA; Assamese perspective
European Accounts F. Catrou O.S.J., Histoire generale de l'Empire du Mogol: depuis sa fondation jusqu'a present, 1715, in French, GB; the same, 1708 edition, GB
N. Manucci, History of the Mogul dynasty in India: from its foundation by Tamerlane, in the year 1399, to the accession of Aurengzebe, in the year 1657, 1826, GB
R. Orme, Historical fragments of the Mogul empire: Of the Morattoes, and of the English concerns, in Indostan, from the year MDCLIX, 1782, GB
Specific Periods Downfall of the Mughal Empire, from India Net Zone
F. Bernier, Histoire de la derniere revolution des etats du Grand Mogol, vol.1, 1671, vol.2, 1671, vol.3, 1671, in French, GB
W. Francklin, The history of the reign of Shah-Aulum: the present emperor of Hindostaun. Containing the transactions of the court of Delhi, and the neighbouring states, during a period of thirty-six years: interspersed with geographical and topographical observations on several of the principal cities of Hindostaun., 1798, GB
F. Bernier, The history of the late revolution of the empire of the Great Mogul, 1824, GB
R.M. Caldecott, The life of Baber, emperor of Hindostan, 1834, GB
Administration Mughal Emperors, Jagir System during the Mughal Empire, from India Net Zone
Observations on the Law and Constitution of India : on the Nature of Landed Tenures, and of the System of Revenue and Finance, as Established by the Moohummudum Law and Moghul Government, with an Inquiry into the Revenue and Judicial Administration and Regulations of Police as Present Existing in Bengal 1825, GB
Administration of Mughal Dynasty, from IndiaNetZone History of India
Military The Art of Mughal Warfare, from India Net Zone
Categories : Wars involving the Mughal Empire, Battles involving the Mughal Empire, from Wikipedia
Category : Sikh Struggle against the Mughal Empire 1708-1799, from The Sikh Encyclopedia
Articles Red Fort (Delhi), Agra Fort, Allahabad Fort, Lahore Fort, Salimgarh Fort, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances General Article : Economic History of India : Mughal Empire, from Wikipedia
Economy in Mughal Empire, from History Tution
Economy of Mughal Empire, from IndiaNetZone History of India
Money & Finances India, from Global History of Currencies
Om Prakash, Cashless Payment Mechanism in Mughal India : the Hundi Network, IEHC 2006
Sushil Chaudhury, No Ready Money ? No Problem. The Role of Hundis (Bills of Exchange) in Early Modern India (c.1600-1800), IEHC 2006
Revenue System of Mughal Dynasty, from IndiaNetZone History of India
L. Sundaram, The Mughal Land Revenue System, 1929, IA
India : Money, from Marteau Platform in Economic History
M. Cizakca, Tax-Farming and Resource Allocation in Past-Islamic Societies; reference to Medieval Egypt, Ottoman Empire, Mughal Empire
Trade Jagjeet Lally, The Pattern of Trade in Seventeenth Century Mughal India : towards an Economic Explanation
Article : Trade between Western Europe and the Mughal Empire in the 17th Century
Crafts Louvre, Three Empires of Islam, Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal Textile Art, Metalwork, arms and armor: regional interactions and local specificities, Hardstones, gems and ivory in Mughal India
Indian Textiles : Trade and Production, from Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
Articles : Calico : History, Chintz, Jamdani : the Mughal Era (textiles), from Wikipedia
Article : History of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent : Early Common Era-Early Modern Era, from Wikipedia
Article : History of Science and Technology in the Indian subcontinent : Late Middle Ages, from Wikipedia
Agriculture Agriculture in Mughal India, from IndiaNetZone History of India
B.D. Sharma, Origin and History of Potato in India, pp.149- in V.C. Sristava, History of agriculture in India, up to c. 1200 A.D., 2008, GB
Red Chilly Pepper History, from India Curry
On Mughal land reclamation, p.56 in J.F. Richards, The Unending Frontier: An Environmental History of the Early Modern World 2006, GB
Irrigation System in Mughal India, from IndiaNetZone History of India
Traditional Water Systems and Minor Irrigation Schemes, Kharagpur (covers regions of modern India)
Social History Article Widow Burning, from Encyclopedia of Death and Dying
Socio-Economic Conditions of Mughal India, from IndiaNetZone History of India
P. Saha, Land Tenure System in India : A Historical Perspective, 2004
Ethnography Article : History of Hindustani : Islamic Empires, from Wikipedia
M. Alam, The Pursuit of Persian: Language in Mughal Politics, Modern Asian Studies vol.32 no.2 (May 1998), pp.317-349
M.A. Ghani, A History Of Persian Language And Literature At The Mughal Court Part I, 1929, IA
Religion General
Islam The Mughal Empire, from BBC - Religion & Ethics : Islam
Jaffur Shurreeff, Qanoon-e-Islam: or, The customs of the Moosulmans of India , 1832, GB
K. Sharma, Brief notes on Sufi influence during the Mughal period
Article : Shi'a Islam in India : History, from Wikipedia
R. Upadhyay, Sufism in India : Its origin, history and politics 2004
S.M. Ikram, Muslim Civilization in India, 1964
Hinduism Article : History of Hinduism : Mughal India, from Wikipedia
Article : Persecution of Hindus in the Mughal Empire, from Wikipedia
Din-i-Ilahi Article : Din-i-Ilahi, from Wikipedia
Sikhism Article : History of Sikhism, from Wikipedia
Jainism Article : Jainism in Delhi : Mughal Period, from Wikipedia
Zoroastrianism Fezana Religious Education, History of the Parsis in India
Judaism Jews in the Mughal Empire, from indojudaic.com
Virtual Jewish History Tour : India; Article : History of the Jews in India from Wikipedia; articles contain no reference to Mughal Empire
Christianity Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : India, from Kirken i Norge
Regional History Bengal Article : History of Bengal : Medieval Bengal, from Wikipedia
J.N. Demeunier, Etat civil, politique et commerçant, du Bengale, vol.1, 1775, in French, GB
A Short History of Bengal, Bengal under the Mughals, anon.
Bangladesh Strategic and Development Forum, Mughal Rule of Bengal upto 1757
Bengal under Mughals: Consolidation of Islamic hegemony, from Bengal Genocide
The Society of Bengal in the Mughal Period, from WikiEducator
The decline of the Mughals in Bengal and the growth of the Nawabs, from Online Documentation O LKevel Bangladesh Studies
Bihar Article : History of Bihar : Medieval Period, from Wikipedia
Article Bihar, from Imperial Gazetteer of India (1909), posted by DSAL
Deccan Deccan Policy of Mughal Dynasty, from IndiaNetZone History of India
Gujarat Articles History of Gujarat : Muslim Period, from Wikipedia
A.M. Khan, The political and statistical history of Gujarat 1835, GB
Religion in the Making of a Region : Perspectives from Gujarat, Workshop 2010
Article : Gujarat, from Imperial Gazetteer of India (1909), posted by DSAL
Haryana Article : History of Haryana : Medieval Period, from Wikipedia
Himachal Pradesh Article : Mughal Rule in Himachal Pradesh, from Wikipedia
Multan Humaira Dasti, Multan during Mughal Rule, 1525-1751, diss.
Punjab Articles History of the Punjab : The Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Rule, from Wikipedia
Article : Sikh struggle against Mughal empire [1708 - 1799], from The Sikh Encyclopedia
Rajasthan Article : History of Rajasthan : Medieval Period, from Wikipedia
Sindh Article : History of Sindh : Under the Umayyads, Abbasids and later Dynasties, from Wikipedia
Khan, Ansar Zahid, Sindh under the Mughuls (A Socio-Political Study), diss. 2000
Law and Order in Mughal Sindh, posted on Chapati Mystery
Uttar Pradesh Article : History of Uttar Pradesh : Mughal Empire, from Wikipedia
Local History Agra called Akbarabad in Mughal times
Article : Agra : History, from Wikipedia
F. Pritchett, Indian Routes : Agra Fort, the Early Mughal Capital
Delhi capital of the Mughal Empire 1525-1540, 1556-1878; temporarily known as Shahjahanabad
History of Delhi, from Welcome to Delhi
Article : History of Delhi : 17th century to 19th century, from Wikipedia
F. Pritchett, Indian Routes : Shahjahanabad 1638-1648, The Red Fort in Shahjahanabad, 1638-1648
Dhaka (Bengal) capital of Mughal Bengal since 1610, then called Jahangirnagar
Article : Dhaka, from Banglapedia
Fatehpur Sikri Mughal capital 1571-1585, then called Fatehabad
Article : Fatehpur Sikri, from Wikipedia
F. Pritchett, Indian Routes : Fatehpur Sikri 1570-1581
Kabul (Afghanistan) Article : Kabul : Timurid and Mughal Period, from Wikipedia
Lahore (Punjab) Mughal Emperor Jahangir temporarily resided in Lahore
Article : Lahore : Mughal Era, from Wikipedia
F. Pritchett, Indian Routes : Lahore Fort, 1500s and on
Patna (Bihar) Article : History of Patna : The Mughals, from Wikipedia
Article Patna City, from Imperial Gazetteer of India (1909), posted by DSAL
Sonargaon (Bengal) Article : Sonargaon, from Wikipedia
Article : Sonargaon, from Banglapedia
Surat major Mughal port until 1664
Article : Surat : History, from Wikipedia
Article : Surat District, from Imperial Gazetteer of India (1909), posted by DSAL
Institutions M.G. Singh, A Fist full of Memoirs : Grand trunk road, Kabul to Bengal,Mughals, Sher Shah Sur, Chandragupta Maurya
Cultural History Articles Mughal Paintings, Mughal Architecture, Mughlai Cuisine, from Wikipedia
Online Publications on the History of Indian Architecture, posted by ArchNet
Famous India, travel agency site offering historical information & images on Indian temples, cities, shrines etc.
Introduction to the Music of the Mughal Court, from Gardens of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Contribution to Indian Literature, from Writinghood
Ayesha Majeed, Costume Designing in the Mughal Era
The Mughal Style of Architecture, from Culturopedia
Mughal Paintings, from Culturopedia
Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, Mughal Art before 1600, Art of the Mughals after 1600
Biographies Article : Abu Fazl, p.51 in vol.1 of Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 1833, GB
Article : François Bernier, from Wikipedia
N. Hanif, Biographical Encyclopedia of Sufis, 2000, GB
Others History of Indian Science and Technology, from Indian Science
Khan, Hussain, The Transition of Power from the Early Mughuls to Sher Shah Suri, diss. 1976

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : India, by Ben Cahoon; from Rulers (B. Schemmel)
I. Mladjov, Rulers of Muslim India, 1206-
Exchange Rates The Marteau Early 18th-Century Currency Converter
Documents News Pamphlets Relation aus Mogor, pp.125- in IHS, Drei neue Relationes, Japon, Mexiko, Mogor, 1611, in German, GB
Histoire de ce qui s'est pass?en Ethiopie, Malabar, Brasil et les Indes Ori?tales: Tir? des lettres escrites es ann?s 1620 iusques ?1624, in French, GB; search for Mogor
Image Databanks Search Bridgeman Art, Culture & History Images for Mughal
Archival Deposits
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties Category : Treaties of the Mughal Empire, from Wikipedia
Document Surveys Ch.11 : De Scriptoribus Rerum Orientalium atque Asiaticarum, Par.8 : Indicarum rerum scriptores, pp.248-250 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Catalogues of Oriental Manuscripts, at this site
Document Collections Indian History Sourcebook
Documents for the history of India, from Project South Asia
South Indian Inscriptions (vol.10) : Moghul Dynasty of Delhi, from What is India
Historical Maps Article : Cartography of India : Mughal Era
Map : Mughal Empire at the death of Akbar 1605, from Wikipedia
DSAL, Imperial Gazetteer of India, Atlas 1909, Atlas 1931
DSAL, J.E. Schwartzberg, A Historical Atlas of South Asia
Maps of India; Historical Maps of India, links from Rootsweb
Mughal Maps (links), by FWP
Map : Mughal Empire 1707, from India Map Atlas 2011
Maps : Mughal Empire 1525, 1605, 1707, 1761 from Majumdar Maps
Map : Mughal Empire 1530, 1605, 1707, from Wikipedia
Map : Indoaryan Language Groups (in South Asia), from Wikipedia
Encyclopedia Entries
Religious De la Religion de l'Empire du Grand Mogol, pp.483-556 in vol.4 of Jean Jovet, L' Histoire Des Religions De Tous Les Royaumes Du Monde , 1724, in French, GB
Economic Article : Mogol, pp.595-608 in vol.92 of J.G. Krünitz, Oekonomische Encyklopädie, 1803, in German
Handel in Hindostan, oder im Reiche des grosen Moguls, pp.85-98, in : Friedrich Ludwig Langstedt, Geschichte des asiatischen Handels, 1803, in German, GB
Political De l'Estat du Grand Mogor, pp.909-917 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde, 1613, in French, GB
De l'Estat du Grand Mogor, pp.907-914 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde, 1614, in French, GB
De l'Estat du Grand Mogor, pp.176-183 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, empires royaumes, seigneuries, duchez, et principautez du monde, 1621, in French, GB
De l'Estat du Grand Mogor, pp.909-917 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde, 1628, in French, GB
De l'Estat du Grand Mogor, pp.647-653 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, empires et principautez du monde representez par la description des pays et moeurs des habitans, richesses des provinces, les forces, le gouvernement, la religion, et les princes qui ont gouverne chacun estat , 1630, in French, GB
Estats du Grand Mogor, pp.501-544 in P. d'Avity, Le Monde, ou la Description generale de ses quatre parties, 1643, in French, GB
Discours du Grand Mogor, pp.801-804 in P. d'Avity, Les Estats, empires, royaumes et principautez du monde , 1659, in French, GB
Discours du Grand Mogor, pp.1128-1134 in P. d'Avity, Nouveau theatre du monde: contenant les estats, empires, royaumes, et principautez, representez par l'ordre et veritable description des pays, moeurs des peuples, forces, 1661, in French, GB
Discours du Grand Mogor, pp.801-804 in P. d'Avity, Les estats, empires, royaumes et principautez du monde, 1665, in French, GB
Historical Article : Mogol, pp.660-661 in vol.2 of L. Moreri, Le grand dictionnaire historique, 1683, in French, GB
L'Empire du Grand Mogol, pp.3-43 in J.J. Vaissette, Geographie historique, ecclesiastique et civile, 1755, in French, GB
A Description of Hindustan, or the Empire of the Great Mogol, pp.204-480 in vol.6 of The Modern Part of an Universal History, 1759, GB
Empire du Mogol, ou Indoustan, pp.87-200 in C. Dorville, Histoire des differens peuples du monde, 1770, in French, GB
Travelogues Voyages de François Bernier 1-2, [1658-1669] 1830
D. Bartoli, Missione al Gran Mogor del P. Ridolfo Aqvaviva della Compagnia di Gesu , 1714, in Italian, GB
Institutions Archives National Archives of India, of Pakistan
List of State Archives, from National Archives of India
Musea National Museum, New Delhi
Lahore Museum
Monuments Archaeological Survey of India, Taj Mahal Museum, Agra
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from Wikipedia
Coins, Banknotes The Coins and History of Asia, 1600 and before, has several subfiles on India
Coins of the Mughal Empire, from Zeno
Coins of Islamic Dynasties, from Nupam's Webpage for the Indian Coins
Mughal Emperors of Hindostan, pp.586-699 in vol.2 of W. Marsden, Numismata orientalia illustrata, 1825, GB
Coins with Couplets, Coins with Mint Epithets, Coins with Different Mints, Coins with Persian Months, Mughal Governor Issues, from P. Thakkar's Classic Gallery of Indian Numismatics

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on South Asia General Bibliography of Pre-Modern History in South Asia, D. Ludden
Bibliography on Topics Relevant to Indic Civilization, from Indic Studies
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Center for Research Libraries (CRL)
on South Asia Digital Library of India
Indcat, Online Union Catalogue of Indian Universities, from INFLIBNET, click Union Database
Digitial Library of Indian History Books, from Indic Studies
Packard Humanities Institute, Persian Literature in Translation
Thesis Servers on South Asia Pakistan Research Repository
Online Journals Guides Electronic Journals Online
on South Asia South Asia Journals, from ELIN-NIAS; India Journals, from ELIN-NIAS
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
General Accounts on India B.D. Metcalf and T.R. Metcalf, A Concise History of India, Cambridge : UP 2002, 321 pp., KMLA Lib.Sign. 954 M588c
Vincent A. Smith, The Oxford History of India, (1919) Oxford : UP 2001, 945 pp., KMLA Lib.Sign. 954 S642b
Gordon Johnson, Cultural Atlas of India, NY : Facts on File 1996, 240 pp., illustrated, KMLA Lib.Sign. 954 J66c
H.S. Bhatta, Military History of British India (1607-1947), New Delhi : Deep & Deep 1977, 256 pp. [G]
Francis Watson, India. A Concise History, London : Thames & Hudson (1974) 1996, 192 pp. [G]
on Mughal Empire John F. Richards, The Mughal Empire. The New Cambridge History of India, Cambridge : UP (1993) 2002 KMLA Lib. Call Sign 954.02 R514m
Specific Topics Muzaffar Alam, The Crisis of Empire in Mughal North India. Awadh & the Punjab, Oxford : UP (1986) 1991 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Surjit Mansingh, Historical Dictionary of India, New Delhi : Vision Books (1998) 2005 [G]
S. Bhattachariya, A Dictionary of Indian History, NY : George Braziller 1967 [G]

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