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Jammu & Kashmir Punjab
First posted on November 13th 2005, last revised on June 4th 2010

British India was involved in three wars with Afghanistan, 1839-1842, 1878-1881 and 1919. Land to the west of Punjab was under British military administration since the conquest of Punjab in 1849; a formal border line to Afghanistan was drawn in 1893 (the Durrand Line).
In 1901 the North West Frontier Province was established (detached from the Punjab). It consisted of areas under direct rule (centers Peshawar, Dera Ismail Khan) and of areas under indirect rule.
In 1947 NWFP joined Pakistan. In 1955 NWFP was annexed into West Pakistan. In 1969-1970 NWFP was recreated, with Chitral, Swat, Dir and Kohistan, but without FATA (Federally-Administered Tribal Areas).
In 2010 NWFP was renamed Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.

Much of NWFP is made up of rugged terrain, where pastoral nomadism is still of great importance. The dominant language is Pashtu. NWFP was the target of Afghan expansionist policy in the 1950es; it took in the bulk of Afghan refugees fleeing the Soviet occupation, and a supply base for the Mujahedeen fighting the latter.

Timeline : North West Frontier Province

Historical Atlas, NWFP, British India, Pakistan Page

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Country Profiles from Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, from Wikipedia
Historical North West Frontier Province, from Imperial Gazetteer of India (1909) posted by DSAL
Links Category : North-West Frontier Province, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of the North-West Frontier Province, from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionaries
Accounts of History Current Article : History of the North-West Frontier Province, from Wikipedia
Specific Periods Article : North-West Frontier Province (1901-1955), from Wikipedia
Article : North-West Frontier States Agency, from Wikipedia
Politics Article : Government of the North-West Frontier Province , from Wikipedia
Military Frontier Corps, from Pashto History
H.W. Mills, The Pathan Revolt in North-West India (1897), IA
Articles : Hunza-Naga Campaign 1891, Siege of Malakand 1897, 1924 Kohat Riots, Qissa Khwani Bazaar Massacre 1930, Babrra Massacre 1948, from Wikipedia
India Medal Clasp, Jowaki 1877-1878, pp.293-294 in in G. Tancred, Historical record of medals and honorary distinctions conferred on the British Navy, Army and Auxiliary Forces from the Earliest Period, 1891, GB
Economy & Finances
Social History
Ethnography Articles : Afridi, Bahlolzai, Dawari, Mehsud, Orakzai, Shaman Khel, Wazir (Tribe), Zazi, from Wikipedia
History of Regions Article Federally Administered Tribal Areas, from Wikipedia
Timeline Waziristan since 2002, from SATP
Local History Article Peshawar, from Wikipedia
Peshawar History, from Peshawar1.com

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Provinces of British India, scroll down for North-West Frontier Province ; Pakistan : Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon)
Population Figures Historical Population, Pakistan, by Province, from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer)
Election Results
Documents Historical Newspapers
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Image Databanks Mela Ram's Frontier, from Early Postcards of India and Ceylon
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK)
Search Janus
Constitutions, Laws J.G. Lorimer, Customary Law of the Peshawar District, vol.17 of Punjab Customary Law, 1934, GB
Treaties Treaties concerning NWFP / the Br. Indian/Afghan border, posted by Pashto History
Document Collections
Historical Maps Kashmir, from Asian Linguistic Maps
Map links, from Pashto History
Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 550 B.C., Eastern Hemisphere 527 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 500 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 400 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 335 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 323 BC, Easern Hemisphere 300 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 200 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 100 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 050 BC, Parthian Empire 001 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 050 AD, Kushan Empire, 100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 450 AD, Hephtalite Empire and Hunas, 500 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 565 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 600 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 610 AD, Asia 700 AD, Asia 800 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 900 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1000 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1025 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1500 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Encyclopedia Entries
Economic E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Punjab
Geographical Article : Peishor, or Peshawar, p.586 in R. Brookes, A New Universal Gazetteer, 1839, GB
North West Frontier Province, from Imperial Gazetteer of India (1909) posted by DSAL
Entries Bajaur, Chitral, Dir, Khyber, Kurram Agency, Peshawar Diastrict, Swat, Northern Waziristan, Southern Waziristan, from Imperial Gazetteer of India (1909) posted by DSAL
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives
Monuments Indian Cemeteries, entry for Peshawar, Khyber Pass
Libraries National Library of Pakistan
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
International Boundary Studies
Search DBNG for Bengalen etc.
on NWFP Indcat, Online Uinion Catalogue of Indian Universities, from INFLIBNET, click Union Database
Pakistan Research Repository
Digital Library of India
History of India Digital Library
Online Journals
Online Yearbooks
General Accounts
Specific Topics The Far Frontiers pp.507-523, in : John Gunther, Inside Asia, 1942 War Edition, NY : Harper & Brothers (1938) 1942
Yearbook Articles Article NWFP, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1913 p. 621 (on events of 1912) [G]
Articles : India and Dependencies : North-West Frontier Province, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1928 p.160 ; North-West Frontier Agencies and Tribal Areas, p.169 (data of 1926-1928) [G]
Article : India and Dependencies : North-West Frontier Province, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1937 pp.168-169; North West Frontier Agencies and Tribal Areas p.186 (data of 1935-1937) [G]

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