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Baluchistan Punjab
First posted on October 28th 2004, last revised on December 29th 2011







Sindh had been a Sultanate since the arrival of Islam in 712, under various dynasties, for times being subjugated by more powerful entities centered on Delhi. The Kalhora Dynasty (1701-1783) restored Sindh independence from the Mughal Empire. It was succeeded by the Talpur Dynasty 1783-1843. In the Scinde War 1843 Sindh (except for Khairpur) was conquered by the E.I.C. and, as Sind District, annexed by Bombay Presidency.
In 1936 Sindh was granted the status of a separate province. In 1947 Sindh joined Pakistan. 1947-1948 saw the exodus of a large part of Sindh's non-Muslim population and the influx of Muslim, Urdu-speaking refugees from India, the Mohajir. Many of these settled in Sindh's urban centers, Karachi and Hyderabad.

Alternative spellings : Sindh, Sind, Sinde, Scinde

Sindh 1988-1999 . Sindh 1977-1988 . Sindh 1970-1977 . Sindh 1955-1970 . Sindh 1947-1955 . Sindh 1937-1947

Timeline : Sindh

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DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current from Wikipedia
Sindh Tourism
Sindh, from Les Etats non souverains, in French
Historical
Links General Category : Sindh, from Wikipedia
on History Category History of Sindh, from Wikipedia
Organizations Institute of Sindhology, University of Sindh, by M.H. Panhwar
Article : Institute of Sindhology (Jamshoro, Pakistan), from Wikipedia
Indian Institute of Sindhology
Department of Antiquities, Government of Sindh
Sindh Historical Society - active in 1943
Historical Dictionary M.H. Panhwar, Chronological Dictionary of Sindh, (1983) 1988, IA
Timelines WHKMLA Timelines : Sindh
Accounts of History Current Historical and Cultural Background of Sindh, from Government of Sindh
from Pakistan History, from Wikipedia
Islamization and the Arab conquest of Sindh, from South Asian History
The Sindh Story, by Ram Jethmalani; History of Sindh, from Sindhi Association of New Jersey; Jeejal-i-Sindh, The Nation through Centuries, by Makhdoom
Mohan Gehani, History of Sindh
Historical
Specific Periods Articles : Ror Dynasty, 5th C. B.C., Rai Dynasty, 489-632, Habbari Dynasty, 841-1024, Soomra Dynasty, 1026-1351, Samma Dynasty, 1335-1520, Arghun Dynasty of Sindh, 16th C., Tarkhan Dynasty, 1554-1591, Kalhora Dynasty, 1701-1783, Talpur : Talpur Dynasty, 1783-1843, Sind Division 1843-1936, Sind Province, 1936-1955, from Wikipedia
Politics Article Provincial Assembly of the Sindh, from Wikipedia
Military Wars Services of the 28th Regiment in Scinde during the Operations in 1842 and 1843, posted by redcoat.info
The Conquest of Sindh 1843, from Sirgarnet
Articles : Battle of Fatehpur 1519, Battle of Kachhi, 1729, Battle of Halani 1782, Battle of Hyderabad, 1843, Operation Clean-up, 1992-1994, from Wikipedia
Regiments 59th Scinde Rifles, from British Empire
Fortresses Articles : Ranikot Fort, Qasim Fort, Kot Diji Fort, Pacco Qillo Fort, from Wikipedia
Medals War in Scinde 1843, pp.271-272 in G. Tancred, Historical Record of Medals and Honorary Distinctions Conferred on the British Navy, Army and Auxiliary Forces from the Earliest Period, 1891, GB
Economy & Finances J. Perera, Irrigation Development and Agrarian Change in Sindh, Pakistan, book review posted by EH Net
S.H. Kazmi, The Sugar Industry, from Pakistan Economist
M.H. Panhwar, History of Irrigation in Sindh,
Social History
Ethnography
Religion History of the Hindus in Sindh, by Dhiwan Bherumal Mahirchand Advani (1947)
History of Regions Talk : State of Khayrpur, from Wikipedia
History of Khairpur, from District Government Khairpur; from Columbia Encyclopedia; from Indian Princely States
Local History Hyderabad History, from Apnahyderabad, from Wikipedia
Kolachi to Karachi, from City of Karachi
Story of Karachi, from Pakistan History; from Wikipedia
Institutions History of University of Karachi, from Wikipedia
History of the High Court of Sindh, Karachi
Culture
Biographies The Talpur Family of Sindh
Others Sindh Kutch Relations, by M.H. Panhwar
The mission of Pir Sadruddin in India, from ismaili.net
Tahir, Tanvir Ahmad, Political Struggle of the Muslims of Sindh upto 1997, diss. 2006
Khan, Ansar Zahid, Sindh under the Mughuls (A Socio-Political Study), diss. 2000
Afzal, Nasreen, Role of Sir Abdullah Haroon in the Politics of Sindh (1872-1942), diss. 2006
Hafiz Mohommad Adil, Alexander Buries and the Navigation on the Indus, diss. 1957

DIRECTORY OF INTERNET SOURCES . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Pakistan Provinces : Sind, from World Statesmen
Pakistan Princely States : Sind, from World Statesmen
British India Provinces, from World Statesmen
Population Figures Historical Population Figures : Pakistan, Provinces, from Population Statistics
Current population of towns and cities in Sind, Pakistan, from World Gazetteer
Documents Historical Newspapers
Modern Newspapers
Image Databanks Photographs, Images and Pictures of Sindh
Scinde Campaign Medals 1843, from British Military Medals; from ODM; from British Empire
Conquest of Scinde, by William Montagu Scott McMurdo
Services of the 28th Regiment in Scinde during the Operations in 1842 and 1843, from redcoat.info
Historical Photographs of Sindh Dharti, from MQM
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK)
Search Janus
Constitutions, Laws
Treaties C.U. Aitchison, A Collection of treaties, engagements, and sunnuds, relating to India and neighbouring countries, vol.1 (1892), vol.2 (1892), vol.3 (1863), vol.3 (1909), vol.4 (1893), vol.5 (1876), vol.5 (1892), vol.6 (1892), vol.7 (1862), vol.7 (1892), vol.8 (1892), vol.9 (1892), vol.10 (1892), vol.11 (1892), vol.13 (1909), posted on Internet Archive
Treaties with the King of Persia, Runjeet Sing, the King of Cabool, the Ameers of Sinde and the Nawab of Bahawulpore, etc (1839), posted on Internet Archive
Treaty with Meer Roostum Khan, Chief of Khyrpoor, 4. 4. 1832, p.520, Treaty with the Government of Hyderabad in Scinde, 20./22. 4. 1832, pp.521-522 in Reports from Committees : East India Affairs, Political, 1832, GB
Treaty with Dawlut Rao Scindia, 30 Dec 1803, pp.198-200, ditto 21 Nov 1805 pp.209-220, with the Ameers of Scind 22 Aug 1809 p.234, in British and foreign state papers 1816-1817 1838, GB
Document Collections Excerpts from Tarikh-i Tahiri by Mir Tahir Muhammad Nasyani of Thatta (1621), posted by Infinity Foundation [on Portuguese sack of Thatta]
Reports and Papers, Political, Geographical, & Commercial Submitted to Government by Alexander Burnes, Lt. Leech, Dr. Lord and Lt. Wood, Employed on Missions in the Years 1835 - 1836 - 1837 in Scinde, Affghanistan and Adjacent Countries, 1839, GB
Historical Maps Maps of Pakistan, from FindPK
Rajputana, Siond & W. Gujarat (Constable 1893), from Historical Maps of India
Bombay Northern Section and Sind, from Imperial Gazetteer of India (1909-1931), posted by DSAL
Maps of Sindh, from Ajrak.Org
Sindh, Pakistan Map & Placename Index
Map of Sindh (modern, districts, in Engl.), from The Sindh
Map : Sindetic Hindoostan (Cary's New Universal Atlas 1819), posted by M. Witkam
Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 550 B.C., Eastern Hemisphere 527 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 500 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 400 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 335 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 323 BC, Easern Hemisphere 300 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 200 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 100 BC, Eastern Hemisphere 050 BC, Parthian Empire 001 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 050 AD, Kushan Empire, 100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 450 AD, Hephtalite Empire and Hunas, 500 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 565 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 600 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 610 AD, Sindh in 700 AD, Asia 700 AD, Asia 800 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 900 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1000 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1025 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1500 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Maps of Sindh (East India Company and British Officers, 1780-1964), by M.H. Panhwar; text on maps
M.H. Panhwar, Historical Maps of Sindh 1600-1843 list of 473 maps, no images
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article : Scinde, pp.597-600 in vol.17 of The Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, 1830, GB
Article Hyderabad, India, Karachi, Khairpur , Larkhana, Sind, Sukkur, Tatta, Thar and Parkar, from EB 1911
Religious
Economic E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Sindh
Geographical Sinde, pp.56-58 in vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, or, a Description of All the Parts of the World, 1816, GB
Article " Sinde, pp.419-421 in vol.5 of G.N. Wright, A New and Comprehensive Gazetteer, 1836, GB
Articles Indus eller Sind, Bombay, Kuratschi, Tatta, Sinde, from Stefan Ankjaer, Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, in Danish
Sind, Karachi District, Khairpur State, Sukkur District, Thar and Parkar, Tatta Subdivision, Upper Sind Frontier District, from Imperial Gazetteer of India (1909-1931), posted by DSAL
Ethnographical Royaume de Sindhi, pp.387-388 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues H. Pottinger, Travels in Beloochistan and Sinde, 1816, GB
J. Burns, A Narrative of a Visit to the Court of Sinde, 1831, GB
Institutions Archives Sindh Archives
Archives in Pakistan, from E-Lis
Musea Category : Museums in Sindh, from Wikipedia
Monuments Categories : Mausoleums in Sindh, Mosques in Sindh, from Wikipedia
Hindu Temples in Pakistan
Articles : Ranikot Fort, Qasim Fort, Kot Diji Fort, Pacco Qillo Fort, from Wikipedia
Lighthouses of Pakistan
Article : Mohenjo-Daro, from Wikipedia
Indian Cemeteries, entry for Karachi
Libraries
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag of Khairpur, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes World Coin Catalog : Sind, from Numismaticon
Sind Coins 870-1030, from Collection Hameed Akhtar Siddiqui

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Sindh M.H. Panhwar's Largest Library on Sindh
Publications, from Indian Institute of Sindhology
D. Ludden, Bibliography on South Asian Agrarian History (c.1990)
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
International Boundary Studies
Gallica
Search DBNG for Bengalen etc.
on Pakistan Pakistan Research Repository
Online Journals Journal of Sindh Historical Society
Sindhological Studies
Sindhology Bulletin, from Indian Institute of Sindhology, 2006-
Online Yearbooks
General Accounts
Yearbooks Article : India and Dependencies : Sind, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1937 p.173 (data of 1935-1937) [G]